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Full text of "The Granite monthly : a magazine of literature, history and state progress"

REYNOLDS HISTORICAL 

GhiMLn,... i . JLllC HON 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 




3 1833 01742 3028 



GENEALOGY 
974.2 
G7659 
1883-1884 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/granitemonthlymav7conc 



1 



* 695.278 

CONTENTS OF VOL. VII. 

Page. 

Captain John Webster . . . Elisha A. Keep ... i 

Hon. John Chandler . . . William PL Smith ... 5 

The Wife of Daniel Webster . . James Parton . . 12 

Correction .... 15 

The Edelweiss .... C. Jennie Swaine . . . 16 

In the Footprints of the Pioneers . . Levi W. Dodge . . . 17 

Liberty ..... George Willis Patterson , . 22 

Decree of LL.D. of George Washington Hon. G. W. Nesmifh, LL. D. . 23 

Delayed Mails. .... Adelaide C. Waldron . . 24 

An ancient Necropolis . . . C. C. Lord .... 25 

Bethleham, N. H. ... ..... 29 

New Hampshire Men in Michigan . Hon. Alfred Russell . . 30 

Earthquakes in New England . . Josiah Emery ... 31 

New Hampshire Legislature, 1 883-5. • ..... 32 

Cornelius Van Ness Dearborn . . John H. Goodale ... 33 

Portraits for Posterity ... ..... 37 

The Old North Church, Boston . . Frank G. Harriman . . 46 

A Curiosity in Literature . . . J. A. Stickney ... 49 

Sketches of Wentworth, N. H. . Hon. J. E. Sargent, LL. D. . . 52 

Earthquakes in New England . . Josiah. Emery ... 57 

Littleton ..... it . 60 

Hon I^onard Richardson Cutter . . 65 
Days with the Brook . . . Annie Wentworth Baer . ." 67 
A Night Ride (Lake Baikal, Eastern Siberia) Col. Thomas W. Knox . . 75 
May-Flowers — A Chapter from the His- 
tory of Concord . . . Anon • 76 
The Dream of a Rhymer — To M. L., a 

Poetess .... G. W. Patterson . . 87 

Men in Michigan— Hon. C. C. Comstock . Mary M. Culver , 88 

Councilor Paul Wentworth . . Hon. John Wentworth, LL.D, . 88 

My Mother's "Good Night" . . Mrs. Ellen M.. Mason . . 89 

Life's Day .... Anna L. Lear ... 89 

Hon. David Atwood . - . Rev. C. W. Wallace, D.D., . 90 

My Lesson .... Laura Garland Carr . 93 

Earthquakes in New England . . Josiah Emery ... 94 

Hymn — to the Seamen's Friend Society . George Kent . . . 96 

P °en» ..... G. W. Patterson ... 96 

C orrection . . . . . G. W. Balloch . . 96 

Asa McFarland . . . George E. Jenks 97 

The Dow Blocks .... . , . 102 

The Philosophy of Expression . . Prof. E D. Sanborn, LL.D. . 103 

Who are the Dead . . . W. C. Sturoc . . • . 112 

A as of the Apostles of Anti-Slavery . Henry P. Rolf e ... 113 

l"he Boston Tea Party . . . C.L.Morrison . . . 115 

Piscataquog River . . . James M. Adams . . . 116 

In New Quarters .... 117 

Windham, N. H. .... Leonard A. Morrison . . 118 

I lencalogy of Henry Dearborn, of Pittston, 

Mail »e . . . Wm. H. Smith , . . 124 

Twu but the Rain . . . Anna L, Lear ... 127 



I 

i 



iv. 


Contents. 




Earthquakes in New England 


Josiah Emery 


128 


Professor Lucian Hunt, A. M. 




1 20 


The Philosophy of Expression 


Professor E. D. Sanborn, LL.D 


I36 


A Working Man — Sketch of John Farmer 


Parker Pillsbury 


I46 


Earthquakes in New England 


Josiah Emery t . 


I^I 


Augustine R. Avers 




1 1;2 


The Jaffrey Mansion 


Fred Myron Colby . 




Humphrey, Dodge, and Smith 




158 


Honorable James E. Lothrop 


Rev. Alonzo H. Quint, D.D. 


161 


The Warner Home at Portsmouth 


Fred Myron Colby 


168 


John Harris .... 


C. C. Lord . . 


i7<; 


Coo-ash-auk .... 


Levi W. Dodge 


iSi 


Earthquakes in New England 


Josiah Emery 


1 88 


E W. Willard and Company 




191 


Captain George Hamilton Perkins, U. S.N. 


Captain Geo. E. Belknap, U. S. N. . 


201 


From the While, xiorse to Little Rhody 


Charles M. Barrows 


210 


Dungeon Pock, Lynn 


Frank P. Harriman 


235 


I^ancaster in Acadie, and the Acadiens in 




Lancaster .... 


Henry S. Nourse 


239 


Gifts to Colleges and Universities . 


Charles F. Thwing 


243 


Song of the Winds 


Henry B. Carrington 


246 


British Losses in the Revolution . 




248 


The Boston Young Men's Christian Asso- 






ciation .... 


Russell Sturgis, Jr. . 


249 


The Ohio Floods .... 


Honorable George E. Jenks . 


258 


The Boston Tea Party 




261 


Daniel Webster's Fourth of July Oration, 






delivered in 1800 . . 


Reprint 




Chester Alan Arthur 


Ben: Perley Poore . 


265 


Yesterday ..... 


Kate L. Brown 


277 


The Boundary Lines of Old Groton — I 






(with map) , 


Honorable Samuel Abbott Green, M. D, 


278 


The New England Town-House 


J. B. Sewall . 


284 


Bunker Hill (with map) 


General Henry B. Carrington, U. S. A., 




The Young Men's Christian Associations of 


LL. D 


290 


Massachusetts .... 


Russell Sturgis, Jr. . 


302 


Town and City Histories , 


Robert Luce .... 


306 


Thomas Perkins Cheney 




329 


Inventors or Martyrs to Science . 


Kate Sanborn 


335 


The Wilsons of Keene . , 


Rev. J. L. Seward 


339 


Josiah Bartlett .... 


Daniel Rollins . . , 


353 


Editor's Table .... 


... 


357 


Currier and Sleeper . 


. 


360 


Daniel Lothrop .... 




361 


New England Conservatory of Music 


Mrs. M. J. Davis ... 


37 2 


Lovewell's War .... 




380 


John M. Hill .... 


Henry H. Metcalf , 


384 


Poet of the Bells .... 


E. H. Goss . . . 


387 


His Greatest Triumph , 


Henrietta E. Page . 


389 


L. Prang and Company 


Editorial .... 


390 


Editor's Table .... 




393 



! 



THE 

GRANITE MONTHLY, 

A NEW HAMPSHIRE MAGAZINE 
Devoted to Literature, Biography, History, and State Progress. 

Vol. TIL OCTOBEE, 1883. No. 1. 

CAPT. JOHN WEBSTER. 

BY ELISHA A. KEEP. 



The most important and valuable 
element in the composition of a pros- 
perous community is that which de- 
velops and supports its common labor 
interests, and provides the great masses 
■with the means of life. 

The cultured and educated classes 
are in a measure independent, and 
able to secure for themselves living 
success and its opportunities. 

But a large part of our population 
are not only dependent upon their 
daily labor for the means of subsist- 
ence, but upon others to give them 
opportunities. They have no power or 
faculty of organization. There are 
thousands in every department of life 
who can work faithfully and well for 
others, but are wholly incapable of 
independent action, lacking ability to 
plan and execute for themselves. They 
are often at the mercy of unscru- 
pulous leaders, who use them as blind 
tools for the acquirement of selfish 
ends, letting them wear out their lives 
without reward. 

Hence, among those who do the 
most good in the world are surely 
the men who seek to provide oppor- 
tunity for work, and justly reward hon- 
est toil. A life spent in the interests 
of the poorer classes, and in enlarging 
the field of industry, and in raising 
the day-laborer to a position of inde- 
pendence, is one most worthily spent, 
vii— 1 



and deserving of far greater reward 
than the career of a successful pro- 
fessional, or politician, gained by the 
" tricks of the trade," and for no one's 
good. 

Among these who have developed 
the manufacturing interests of our 
state, and sought to raise the standard 
and condition of that vast class in our 
New England populace — mill opera- 
tives — to comfortable and independ- 
ent relations, may be placed the name 
of Capt. John Webster, the subject 
of this sketch. 

In a small manufacturing place the 
" corporation " is foremost of the 
powers that shape the history of the 
town, and give it identity and charac- 
ter, and whether for good or ill, de- 
pends much upon the character and 
influence of those who direct its affairs. 

To give any correct account of the 
life of Capt. John Webster, necessarily 
involves much of the history of the 
Newmarket Manufacturing Company, 
as he was associated with its manage- 
ment for so many years, and became 
so identified with its fortunes as to 
render the two almost inseparable. 

The subject of this sketch was born 
in Salem, Mass., Sept. 10, 1804. He 
was the son of Elijah C. and Sallie 
(Dole) Webster, who removed to 
Salem from Kingston in this state not 
long before his birth. The family de- 



1 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



scended from Thomas Webster, an 
Englishman who settled in Hampton, 
N. H., in the latter part of the seven- 
teenth century, — Elijah C. being of the 
fifth generation. They trace connec- 
tion with others of the same name 
who were early settled in Kingston 
and other New Hampshire towns. 
John was the eldest of six children, 
of whom but one other is now living — 
a sister, residing in Cambridge, Mass. 
John received the best education 
afforded by the common schools of 
that time, with a few terms at Brad- 
ford academy, under the instruction 
of the famous mathematician Benja- 
min Greenleaf; and also a term at 
the private mathematical school of 
Gabriel Thompson. But early in life, 
with this only as his capital, beside 
the open hand and heart of an honest, 
industrious and faithful young man, 
he began to work out his fortunes for 
himself. Most of his boyhood was 
spent in working in a grocery store, 
and an auction-room in Salem, until 
when, at an early age, he manifested 
a strong desire to follow the sea. An 
opportunity soon presented itself, and, 
at the age of twenty-one he embarked 
as captain's clerk on a vessel bound 
for the Red sea. He served on watch, 
and did all he could of seaman's duty, 
that he might acquire all the knowl- 
edge possible of nautical life. On his 
second voyage he shipped in the same 
capacity, but on the homeward pass- 
age the vessel was partially wrecked 
by a violent storm off the Bermudas. 
By the efforts of Mr. Webster much 
of the cargo and property was saved, 
and, fifty-one days after the disaster, 
what was left of the vessel was brought 
into port. 

For this faithful service Mr. Web- 
ster was presented with an elegant 
.service of solid silver, and an elabo- 
rately chased ice-pitcher to match, by 
the insurance companies interested. 
On his third voyage he was mate and 
assistant supercargo, entrusted with 
half the responsibility of all the mer- 
cantile transactions of the voyage. 
On his fourth and last voyage he was 
master of the vessel. 



The ships upon all these voyages 
were chartered by Salem merchants — 
Messrs. Pickman, Silsbee & Stone — 
to whom we shall have further occa- 
sion to refer in connection with the 
life of Mr. Webster. 

In his voyages, Mr. Webster visited 
all the ports on the east coast of Afri- 
ca, from Madagascar northward, and 
upon the Red sea. He became much 
acquainted with the habits, customs, 
and languages of the people, and ' 
deeply interested in them, receiving 
from both dignitaries and peasants 
many tokens of their fond regard and 
esteem, which he prizes, with their 
tales of association, among the relics 
and pleasant recollections of that ad- 
venturous life, though abandoned yet 
never to be forgotten. 

The writer will not attempt to give 
any account in detail of his most, in- 
teresting experience as a sailor. The 
many romantic incidents of peril, ad- 
venture, and good fortune, connected 
therewith, and which he relates in a 
most fascinating manner, would be 
sufficient material for more than one 
attractive story, if handled by a pen 
gifted with the ability to do them 
justice. 

Closing his life as a sailor, soon 
after his return from his last voyage, 
Mr. Webster became connected with 
the Newmarket Manufacturing Com- 
pany, and it is chiefly of his life as 
identified with that institution, and the 
town of Newmarket, that I wish to 
write. 

Every man has some main cause at 
the heart of his life's labors, and for 
which he spends the force of his best 
years. Around that center, whatever 
it may be, cluster his strong thoughts, 
hopes, and actions ; and it was this 
work that occupied that place in Mr. 
Webster's history and experience. 

As many of the important papers 
and early records of the company 
were destroyed by the great fire in 
Boston, in 1873, much of its early 
history could be traced only with diffi- 
culty, but for the comprehensive re- 
ports and most accurate memory of 
Mr. Webster. 



\ 



I 



CAPT. JOHN CHANDLER. 



3 



The company received its charter 
from the New Hampshire legislature 
in 1S23. and erected its first two mills 
in the two years following, built of 
stone, and run entirely by water. 
When Mr. Webster became connected 
with the management, there were in 
operation about 14,000 spindles, in 
three small mills, and the company 
was considerably embarrassed finan- 
cially. For many years it struggled 
under the weight of these difficulties 
and the pressure of the hard times, 
but the perseverance of its founders 
kept its affairs active till better days 
should come. A very large portion 
of its original stock was owned by 
merchants and lawyers of Salem, 
prominent in the early days of that 
•city's commercial importance. It is 
an interesting incident in the historv 
of the company that out of the origi- 
nal number of twenty-eight stock- 
holders, twenty-one now hold, with 
their families and descendants, over 
two thirds of its capital stock. Many 
of these men made in this their first 
investment in manufacturing enter- 
prise, and carrying it through hard 
circumstances to success, have come 
to look upon it as upon some old 
Iceepsake, grown dear to them by long 
association and companionship, and 
perhaps for the share it has played in 
the fortunes of their lives and experi- 
ences. 

Prominent among these Salem mer- 
chants were the firm of Pickman, 
Silsbee <\: Stone, already referred to. 
These experienced and far-seeing busi- 
ness men realized in Capt. Webster a 
coming man, fitted by his large expe- 
rience, pushing energy, and faithful 
integrity, to do a work fur this com- 
pany that few could do : to give its 
affairs the forcible direction needed, 
place it upon sound financial footing, 
and insure it complete success. Hence, 
in 1834, Mr. Webster was chosen clerk 
•and paymaster, and also what was then 
termed "outside agent." It will be 
remembered that in those days a very 
large part of the shipping business was 
<lone by boats upon the river, and the 



entire charge of this department was 
his special business, while the agent 
proper gave his attention to the affairs 
of the office and yard. Mr. Webster 
served in this capacity until 1846, when 
he was chosen agent. He served as 
agent until 1855, when he succeeded 
Benjamin Wheatland as treasurer, in 
which capacity he served actively until 
declining health made his resignation 
seem necessary, which he tendered in 
1882, and was succeeded by J. H. 
Sawyer, of Providence — his entire 
service with the company covering a 
period of nearly a half century. 

During this time two large mills 
were built, and the whole property 
greatly improved and enlarged ; new 
machinery put in, propelled by steam 
power, large reservoirs built to pro- 
vide a better supply of water in 
times of drought, and every facility 
adopted that could enhance its value 
or increase its progress. From the 
time of Mr. Webster's first coming, it 
was his resolute purpose to place the 
affairs of the company upon solid 
ground, and make it a success from 
every stand-point. That he attained this 
end, one has only to examine its pres- 
ent capacity and standing to be as- 
sured. Upon as sound a financial 
basis as any corporation in the state, it 
is profitable to its owners and an in- 
estimable benefit to the community 
around it. Its property adorns the 
place, and its management has always 
favored and supported all matters tend- 
ing to the good of the town. It was 
Mr. Webster's constant care and en- 
deavor to direct its affairs, not only 
toward financial prosperity, but for the 
best good of the community, seeking 
to produce harmony and good feeling 
between all, and encourage liberality, 
good order, and particularly the cause 
of education. Prominent in all that 
tended to the public welfare in what- 
ever direction, he was not partisan or 
sectarian, but always actuated by the 
highest motives. 

In matters of religion Mr. Webster 
is a devoted Unitarian, but of suffi- 
cient liberality to see good in all peo- 



\ 



4 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



pie and organizations, and ever ready 
to give assistance to all classes. In 
his early life in Newmarket Mr. Web- 
ster attended the Methodist church, 
there being none of his own faith in 
town. In this society he was actively 
engaged as a teacher of a class of 
young men in the Sabbath school for 
several years, and he has the pleasure 
of meeting now and then a member 
of that class, who has never for- 
gotten the lessons of life, integrity, 
and manhood which he there learned, 
and which at all times and by all peo- 
ple of good sense are acknowledged 
to be the great problems of life, tow- 
ering infinitely above doctrinal and 
theoretical teachings. It is with this 
class of men that religious liberty 
means -something more than liberty of 
my conscience and no others, which 
is the general spirit of the puritan 
world. 

In politics Mr. Webster is and ever 
has been a firm but conservative Re- 
publican. He was never an office- 
seeker, nor would he accept such, 
though he could doubtless have called 
forth as large a vote as any man in 
his locality. 

There is an infinite distance between 
the men of his class and those who 
are always hanging about the doors of 
political head-quarters, with open 
mouths and empty heads. Such men 
are far above the vicious impurities of 
popular public life. They live out the 
measure of their enjoyment in the 
more sacred shelters of personality, 
and grander conceptions of life and 
its possibilities. They breathe an at- 
mosphere and enjoy a confidence en- 
tirely unknown to the popular public 
man. 

Since acting as treasurer Mr. Web- 
ster has made his native city, Salem, 
his home, where he now resides, and 
where he has received many honors 
and marks of high respect. He was 
elected to the common council of 
that city, and chosen its president, the 
year of his return, and has served 
upon its board of aldermen two years, 
lie has also been one of the directors 



of the Exchange National Bank of 
Salem, from 1S5S to the present, and 
its president from i860 to 1S7S. 

His dignified bearing, integrity of 
character, and congenial manners, have 
won for him hosts of devoted friends 
and a position well to be envied in. 
the business and social circles of that 
grand old city. , 

His house, on Lafayette street, bears 
the impress of its owner, in the many 
evidences of his culture and taste 
within and about it. His garden con- 
tains many rare and beautiful plants, 
and flowers, which he delights to study 
and cultivate, and among them he 
spends much of his time. A great 
lover of every thing that is beautiful, he 
is particularly fond of these most sug- 
gestive emblems of pure thoughts and. 
feelings, finding in them sweet compan- 
ionship in his quiet hours. Surround- 
ed by every thing that can give material 
comfort and luxury, he enjoys a rich- 
ness of life that only such a man can 
know — a man whose true and stainless, 
life holds up before him no pages but. 
those that speak of peace with God 
and man. 

But there is never a life without 
some shadow to overcast its bright 
skies. One cloud hangs on his, but 
not a cloud of his own making, as with 
most men. 

Capt. Webster was married in 1832- 
to Martha A. Buffington, a daughter 
of a Salem sea-captain and ship-owner, 
who died at Salem, April, 1880. They 
had but one child — a son, John Buf- 
fington — born in Newmarket. April it, 
1855. He was a most promising lad, 
respected and beloved by all ; but at. 
the age of sixteen he met with a very 
sad end. While away at school he 
was accidentally killed by the discharge 
of a gun in the hands of a playmate. 
This sad event cast a gloom over the 
community, school, and home, never 
to be forgotten. A beautiful oil por- 
trait, of life-size, taken as he was 
brought in from the fatal scene, hangs 
upon the wall of Mr. Webster's pri- 
vate room, ever to remind him of the 
broken link in life's happy chain. 



HON. JOHN CHANDFER. 



5 



This and kindred scenes of his life's 
•experience have united to make sa- 
cred and hallowed to his memory the 
rocks and hills of New Hampshire, 
and especially endear to him the peo- 
ple of Newmarket, with whom no 
name is more honored, and no per- 
son more deeply respected and beloved. 
He visits the town frequently, and 
loves to look upon the scenes where 
he passed the best years of his life, 
and knew its highest success, and 
buried its fondest hopes. 

His whole life was one unbroken 
effort to reach the grandest height for 
which a man ever strives — pure, exalted 



manhood. Happy is the man whose 
years are passed as were his — without 
a blemish : but they are few. 

About him every where, are remind- 
ers of strong friendships and stronger 
deeds, whose associated persons and 
forms are in the dim far-away. Their 
vistas hang about his memory's hiding- 
places, and shed sweet fragrance 
around his lonely heart and home, as 
he reviews, in the silvery evening, the 
story of a life well spent, nearing that 
golden land where all good deeds are 
treasured up, in a chaplet of eternal 
flowers. 



HON. JOHN CHANDLER. 



BY WILLIAM H. SMITH. 



Two hundred and forty-six years ago 
William Chandler immigrated from 
England to America, with his family, 
and settled in Roxbury, Mass. Eliot, 
the Apostle to the Indians, who was 
his pastor, speaks of this family in his 
record as follows : 

*• William Chandler came to New 
England about K'/M. Jle brought four 
small children, Thomas, Hanna. John, 
and William. Sarah was born here. 
He lived a very religious and godly life 
among us. and fell into a consumption 
to which he had been long inclined. He 
lay nea re a yeare sick, in all which time 
his faith, patience, godliness and conten- 
tion so shined that God was much 
glorified in him. He was a man of 
weak parts, but excellent faith and holy- 
ness; he was poore, but God so opened 
the hearts of his naybors to him yt he 
never wanted yt which was (at least to 
his esteem) very plentiful and comforta- 
ble, to him. He dyed Jan. 26, 1G41-2 and 
left a sweet memory arid savor behind 
him."' 

His widow married John Dane of 
Roxbury. He was the ancestor of 
the famous Nathan Dane, of Beverly, 
Mass., Nathan Dane, of Alfred, Me., 
■and Joseph Dane, of Kennebunk, Me. 



The Chandler estate in Roxbury 
consisted of ten acres ; it was located 
on what is now the southerly corner of 
Bartlett and Washington streets. The 
brick stable of the Metropolitan rail- 
road company stands on a part of this 
estate. Thomas, the oldest son, mar- 
ried Hannah Brewer. He was one of 
the proprietors of Andover, Mass. 
His name is twenty-third of the house- 
holders in order as they came to town. 
He died in 1703; his wife in 1717, 
aged eighty-seven. He became a 
rich man before his death. He was a 
blacksmith by trade, and carried on a 
considerable iron business. 

His son, Joseph Chandler, born 
August 3, 1669, married, in 169 1, Sarah 
Abbot. He was a blacksmith of 
Andover and Salisbury, Mass. 

His son, Joseph Chandler, born 
1694, married Mary Tucker. He 
worked at biacksmithing and iron work- 
ing, and while straightening a bar of 
iron under the tilt hammer it flew up 
and knocked all his front teeth out ; 
but he was a sweet singer afterward. 

His son, Capt. Joseph Chandler, 
born in Salisbury, Mass., in 1725, 



6 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



married, January i, 1746, Lydia East- 
sran, who was born in Kensington, N. 
H., in 1726. He was a blacksmith, 
and settled in Epping, N. H. They 
lived a few years on the northern side 
of Red Oak hill. He purchased later 
a small farm on the southern side of 
the hill, about a mile north of the 
center of the town, near Gov. Plund- 
er's estate. The house now occu- 
pied by Mrs. Annie, widow of Martin 
V. Fogg, stands on the site of the one 
occupied by Capt. Chandler. He 
served in the French war, was highway 
surveyor in Epping in 1763. and at the 
annual parish meeting, held March 14, 
1774, he was chosen " parish clerk." 
On January 2, 1775, Capt. Joseph 
Chandler was chosen one of the com- 
mittee of "Inspection and Correspond- 
ence for the Parish of Epping." He 
was a captain in the Revolutionary 
war; and at a meeting July 22, 1776, 
of the New Hampshire Committee of 
Safety, they '-gave South Hampton 
soldiers leave to go and join Capt. 
Chandler's company." He died in 
the service of his country September 
17, 1776, at Mount Independence, 
near Fort George, in Rutland county, 
Vermont, leaving a widow and ten 
children in straitened circumstances, 
of whom the subject of this sketch was 
the seventh. 

Hon. John Chandler was born on 
Red Oak hill, in Epping, February r, 
1762, and was nearly fifteen years old 
at the time of his father's death. He 
received such education as the district 
school afforded him. He learned the 
trade of his father, and assisted his 
mother to keep the wolf of poverty 
from the door. In the year 1777. 
being fifteen years old, he enlisted for 
three months, served out his time, and 
was honorably discharged. He was 
in Stark's famous brigade, which was 
under Gates at the last action before 
Burgoyne surrendered, October 17, 
1777. On his return to Red Oak 
hill he worked for his mother, pro- 
bably on the farm and at the forge, 
until January, 1779, when he secretly 
left home, walked to Newburyport, and 



shipped on board a privateer, ther 
" Arnold." commanded by Capt.. 
Moses Brown, who afterward com- 
manded the frigate Essex. 

Being captured by the British he 
suffered terribly in one of their prison 
ships. He, with a few others, planned 
and carried into execution an escape. 
Twenty-tour in ail, they reached the 
land near Savannah, Georgia. Chand- 
ler and two others, at his instigation,, 
started to walk to New Hampshire. 
His companions died on the way;, 
but Chandler walked to his home in 
Epping, reaching there in February, 
1 7S0. There was joy at that humble 
hearth, for his mother had mourned 
him as dead. 

The following June he enlisted again 
for the period of six months. At the 
expiration of that term he returned 
home and worked at his father's forge 
for two years. 

He had now attained his majority 
and cast his eves eastward for a new 
home. One hundred years ago this 
blacksmith came to the district of 
Maine. He came by public convey- 
ance to New Gloucester, thence by 
spotted trees to Winthrop, from which 
place he proceeded to that part of 
Wales plantation that was incorporated 
as the town of Monmouth, January 
20, 1792. Here he took up two 
hundred acres of land, for which he 
paid four hundred dollars. Fie re- 
turned to New Flampshire and mar- 
ried Mary Whittier of Nottingham. 
She was the daughter of Benjamirv 
Whittier, who lived on what was known 
as ''The Ledge Farm." With his 
young bride Chandler came to his new 
home and began carrying on his farm, 
and keeping a country tavern. A few 
years after he took his aged mother 
and his sister Hannah to his home in 
Monmouth. His mother had mar- 
ried for a second husband John Bart- 
lett, of Epping, who died a short time 
previous to her removal. She resided 
with her son from this time until hei 
death, March 9, 1820, when she was 
ninety-four years old. To show the 
hardships endured by our early settlers,. 



HON. JOHN CHANDLER. 



it is related that this aged lady crossed 
the Androscoggin river, using a log for 
a bridge, she crawling on her hands 
and knees. 

In 1796 the Rev. Paul Coffin, in 
his Journal of a Missionary Tour 
through Maine, speaks of visiting Col. 
Chandler at his noble house in Mon- 
mouth, calls him a handsome man, and 
tells of his interesting family. He 
had risen rapidly in military rank, hav- 
ing begun as an ensign. He had also 
commenced that career in civil life 
which so distinguished him afterward. 
He began with the honors conferred 
upon him in the town -meeting, which 
is not only the corner stone of our 
Democracy, but its glory. He was 
plantation assessor and clerk in 
Wales, and Deputy United States 
Marshal under the famous Henry 
Dearborn, who was his life-lung friend. 
When Monmouth was incorporated 
he was its town-clerk, first selectman 
and assessor for nine years in suc- 
cession, and held the position of first 
selectman twelve years. 

He was appointed postmaster of 
the town in 1794., by George Washing- 
ton. His commission was signed by 
the famous Timothy Pickering, who 
was postmaster-general, and he con- 
tinued in the office twenty-four years. 
He was appointed surveyor of revenue 
in 1797. He was elected to the 
Massachusetts General Court in 1799, 
1800, 1801, and 1802, and to the 
senate of Massachusetts for the years 
1803, 1804, and 1 8 19. 

During his service in the latter body, 
in 1803, he procured the passage of 
the act to incorporate the famous 
Monmouth Academy, and for nearly 
thirty years was president of its board 
of trustees. 

Elected to congress in 1804, he 
took his seat the year Jefferson's se- 
cond term commenced, and with 
Jefferson's administration he was in 
full accord. He was re-elected in 
1S06. He was appointed by that 
noble patriot, James Sullivan, who was 
governor in 1807 and 1S0S, Chief 
Justice of the Court of Sessions. In 



1S08 Gov. Sullivan appointed him 
sheriff of Kennebec county. He re- 
signed his seat in congress after a ser- 
vice of three years. 

During his term as sheriff he was 
called upon to take part in one of the 
most important criminal trials known 
to our history. No event, save a war, 
ever created such an excitement in our 
commonwealth. I allude to the trial 
of the Malta Indians for the murder 
of Paul Chadwick, the land surveyor, 
in what is now the town of Windsor, 
Kennebec county. When I was a 
young lad I listened to old people 
with great interest as they rehearsed 
the tragedy. The magnitude of the 
trial may be inferred when it is-* known 
that the famous Daniel Davis was pros- 
ecuting attorney, while the prisoners 
were defended by Prentiss Mellen, 
Samuel S. Wilde, Thomas Rine, and 
Philip Leach. Williamson gives a 
good account of the matter in his 
History of Maine, vol. 2, pages 613-616. 
Any one acquainted with the section 
of country in which this homicide 
occurred, and with the traditions con- 
cerning the feeling of the people at 
that time, can not doubt the courage 
of an officer of the law who could 
enforce a process upon them, even 
with a regiment of soldiers at his back. 
Their descendants are the hardiest 
men in Maine, and never used gloves 
when developing their muscle. 

March 30, 181 2, Governor El- 
bridge Gerry com missioned him major- 
general of the 14th division of the 
militia. William Donir'son was adju- 
tant-general of the commonwealth. 
June 17, 181 2. war was declared 
against Great Britain by President 
Madison. General Chandler was an 
ardent advocate of this policy. He 
was appointed by the president a 
brigadier general, Nov. 8, 181 2, 
and assigned to the division com- 
manded by Major General Henry 
Dearborn, with whom he had served 
in the Revolution. He joined his 
brigade at Greenbush, New York, was 
at the surrender of Fort George by 
the British, May 27, 18 13. June 6, 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



1813, the British attacked the Amer- 
ican camp at Stony Creek, Canada 
West, in the night, and were repulsed. 
It was very dark, and in the confusion 
Gen. Chandler mistook one of their 
regiments for his own, and giving an 
order to its colonel, he, with Gen. 
Winder, were made prisoners. His 
horse was shot under him and 
he was severely wounded. When 
peace was declared, February 18, 
1815, he returned to his home in 
Monmouth and attended to his farm, 
which is said to have been one of the 
best in the county. He was by no 
means indifferent to what was agitat- 
ing the public mind. The question 
of separating the district of Maine 
had engaged the minds of the people 
as early as 17S5, when a convention 
was held at Falmouth to consider the 
matter. Another was held in 1 786 at 
the same place. The movement failed 
there ; but the discussion was contin- 
ued in the papers of that day. The 
agitation of the questions, out of 
which grew the war of 1812. caused 
this matter to be in abeyance, until 
the close of the contest. The course 
of Governor Strong and the Federal 
party toward Madison's administra- 
tion during the war, had roused the 
Democrats of the district, who were 
in the majority, to great activity to 
procure a separation and establish a 
state government. 

The papers of that time were full of 
the discussion. William King, John 
Holmes, John Chandler, Mark Lang- 
don Hill, and James Bridge, were the 
conspicuous leaders. Gen. Chandler 
was one of the committee that called 
the convention in 1816. In the Ar- 
gus of Nov. 25, that year, may be 
found an address to the people of 
Maine, signed by a committee, of 
whom he was one, urging the impor- 
tance of separation. In that conven- 
tion he was on the committee to frame 
a constitution for the new state, and 
with William King and John Holmes 
on the committee to make applica- 
tion to congress. He was also one 
of the committee to address the leg- 



islature of Massachusetts on the sub- 
ject. 

The movement failed again, but he 
with his party continued the agitation 
of the matter. In the meantime he 
was actively engaged in politics. A 
convention of his party in his section 
would have been tame without his 
presence. In 18 16 the Federal party 
made their last national nomination. 
Their candidate for president was the 
greatest statesman ever born on the 
soil of Maine. To my mind he ranks 
in ability next to Hamilton among the 
men of that day. When his history is 
written, as I trust it will be, our peo- 
ple will know that Rufus King, in 
point of ability, public service, and 
far-seeing statesmanship, was the peer 
of any of our public men. 

In no part of the country did party 
politics of that time run so high as in 
Massachusetts. Our fathers, judged 
by the civil service reform standards, 
were a hard lot of political impeni- 
tents ; they " cried aloud and spared 
not " their enemies, in a way that 
would shock some of their descend- 
ants. A man of the political fame 
and activity of General Chandler 
came in for a double portion of abuse 
from his opponents. His conduct in 
the affair at Stony Creek was over- 
hauled, and an attempt to belittle him, 
based upon a report of the engage- 
ment made to Hon. John Armstrong, 
secretary of war, by General Morgan 
Lewis, of New York. It was pub- 
lished in the Eastern Argus of July 
15, 1813. The Republican papers 
replied. In the Argus of Sept. 25, 
1 816, may be found an able defence 
of General Chandler, which was con- 
cluded in the issue of a week later. 
The discussion was continued until 
January ir. 181 7. Hon. Joseph F. 
Wingate, of Bath, who afterward was 
in congress from the Lincoln district, 
wrote a letter of inquiry to that noble 
old Roman, Major-General Henry 
Dearborn, who was General Chan- 
dler's superior officer in the engage- 
ment at Stony Creek. Here is the 
reply : 



HON. JOHN CHANDLER. 



9 



Boston, Jan. 17. 1817. 

Dear Sir: Your letter of the 11th 
was received yesterday. I think that 
General Lewis'ought not to be allowed 
to pass unnoticed. His general charac- 
ter affords him very little shelter, and 
his military fame is too notorious to re- 
quire any specification, it would be. 
quite sufficient to allude generally to 
his total inefficiency in eveiy situation 
he held during the war. notwithstand- 
ing his show and pagentry on all occa- 
sions; in short, his conduct at Fort 
George. Niagara, * * was so conspicu- 
ous and so well known to every one as 
to render him absolutely ridiculous, 
and he, above all men, should have been 
very cautious how he gave any occasion 
to others for attacking his military glass 
house. His pompous parade on setting 
out from Albany for Niagara, and while 
on the journey (when besought to have 
set off many days earlier and have 
made as rapid progress as possible), 
and his total inattention to the impor- 
tant duties confided to him after his ar- 
rival, were suffieent to damn any officer. 
1 find 1 have been unintentionally run- 
ning into details, to which there "would 
be no end. Especially if 1 were to enu- 
merate his unmilitary delays and mis- 
conduct — particularly in the attack on 
Fort George, where the whole British 
force might have been captured, but for 
his total negligence and inefficiency, my 
state of health being such as rendered 
my persona] exertions on shore imprac- 
ticable, and I must acknowledge that I 
was extremely unwilling to believe him 
incapable of any useful service until I 
was again and again disappointed in my 
hopes and expectations, ami ultimately 
compelled, against my inclinations, to 
give up all hopes of his ever making an 
officer of any worth or use to the ar^y. 
1 believe that almost every officer of the 
army who became acquainted with him 
held him in lower estimation than I did. 
For some time I thought it impossible 
for a man of his pride, ambition and 
information to be so totally destitute of 
••my practical qualifications necessary 
for an officer of his rank. Gen. Chan- 
dler was as much his superior in every 
practical quality as an efficient man is 
to an inefficient one; and, from the best 
information, 1 am fully satisfied that 
any misfortune which occurred at Stony 
Greek, where Chandler was captured, 
were the effects of unavoidable accident, 
and in no degree chargeable to his want 
Of judgment in the disposition of the 
troops, or to any neglect of duty on his 
part. J am, dear sir, 

Henry Dearborn. 

Joseph F. Wingate. Esq. 



The opinion of such a man as Gen- 
eral Dearborn, given nearly four years- 
after the affair occurred, supporting 
the record of General Chandler's 
whole life, is sufficient evidence to 
settle any question as to his ability or 
courage as a military man. 

The question of separation contin- 
ued to be discussed during the year 
1817, and many of the Federal party- 
supported the movement. General 
Chandler continued as active as be- 
fore to promote the movement. He 
was chairman of a committee in 18 18 
which issued a circular to the voters 
of Kennebec county. The commit- 
tee consisted of the following gentle- 
men : John Chandler, James Bridge, 
Ebenezer T. Warren, Timothy Bou- 
telle, Nathan Cutler, and Reuel Wil- 
liams. No better proof is needed to 
establish his high standing in society, 
and his ability as a civilian, than the 
fact that he was at the head of a com- 
mittee of men of their character and 
position in the district. When the 
convention met in Portland, Oct. 11, 
1819, he was one of the committee 
of thirty-three to whom was assigned 
the duty of preparing a constitution. 
The document this committee pre- 
sented is a model for any common- 
wealth. In the debates in that con- 
vention he took a prominent part. 
When Maine was admitted as a state, 
in 1820, he was chosen to the state 
senate from Kennebec county. The 
questions that had divided parties had 
passed away. Monroe was re-elected 
that year, receiving every electoral 
vote save one. William King was 
elected governor by nearly a unani- 
mous vote. The legislature was chos- 
en without regard to former party 
divisions. It was a body of able men. 
Both branches had on their rolls men 
that had served in the Revolution, and 
in what was then known as " the last 
war." Benjamin Ames v/as chosen 
speaker of the house, and John Chan- 
dler president of the senate. In a 
few weeks after he and Hon. John 
Holmes were chosen our first senators 
in congress. Resigning the position 



IO 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



of president of the senate, he was 
succeeded by Hon. William Moody, 
who, a few weeks later, resigned to 
accept the position of sheriff of York 
county, when the Hon. William D. 
Williamson was chosen president. 
His " History of Maine " is a monu- 
ment to his memory more enduring 
than granite or iron. 

May 8, 1S21, Gov. King, in ac- 
cordance with an act of the legisla- 
ture, appointed twelve additional 
trustees of Bowdoin college. As 
this action caused some sharp discus- 
sion at the time, I will give their 
names : John Holmes, John Chandler, 
William Pitt Preble, Nathan Weston, 
jr., Albion K. Parris, James Bridge, 
Benjamin J. Porter, Mark Langdon 
Hill, Joshua Wingate, jr., Erastus 
Foote, Ashur Ware, and Judah Dana. 
All must admit that if the governor 
was, as alleged, hostile to that institu- 
tion, his selection conferred honor 
upon it. Gen. Chandler served as 
trustee for seventeen years, resign- 
ing in 183S. May 29, 1821, Gov. 
King resigned his office to become a 
commissioner to settle the Florida 
claims. He had in the March previ- 
ous been renominated for governor. 
He declined the nomination the day 
before he resigned. 

The two prominent candidates men- 
tioned in the papers for the governor- 
ship were Gen. Chandler and the 
Hon. Albion K. Parris. A careful 
perusal of the journals of the day 
will convince any one that Gen. Chan- 
dler could have been nominated. He 
declined to have his name used, in the 
following letter to the editor of the 
Argus : 

Monmouth, June 15, 1821. 
Mr. Todd: I observe in the Ameri- 
can Advocate of the 9th. and in the 
Eastern Arffit* of the 12th instant, that 
my name is mentioned with that of 
Judge Parris as having been thought of 
asa candidate for governor at the next 
election. 1 am aware that a public man 
is not to deride in what capacity he can 
best serve the public, but that the peo- 
ple are the judges, and have a light to 
demand his services as they think prop- 
er. Anxious to promote the public 



good, and desirous that as much unanim- 
ity as possible should prevail at the 
next election. 1 wish, through the me- 
dium of your paper, to request my 
friends not to consider me a candidate, 
believing that the public weal will be 
promoted by such a course. 

John Chandler. 

During his nine years' service in the 
senate he was on a state commission 
to locate a site for a state prison, and 
stoutly opposed the location adopted. 
He was also on a commission to lo- 
cate the seat of government of our 
state. In 1S2S-9 he was a director 
of the branch bank of the United 
States. He served on the committee 
on military affairs in the senate, and 
procured the establishing of a military 
road from Bangor to Mars Hill. He 
also urged the establishing of a road 
of the same kind from North Anson, 
via Dead River valley, to the Lower 
Canada line. At the expiration of 
his service in the senate, March 4, 
1827, he was appointed by President 
Jackson collector of the port of Port- 
land. Pie had been offered and had 
declined the collectorship of Boston 
previous to this. 

He shortly after removed to Port- 
land and lived in the Thompson 
house, Xo. 85 Spring street. He held 
the position of collector eight years. 
During this time the late Francis O. 
J. Smith was in congress from the 
Cumberland district. He procured 
the removal of the post-master of 
Portland, and tried to oust Gen. Chan- 
dler. He waited upon " Old Hicko- 
ry " and stated that the paity needed 
a younger man, and urged the 
veteran's removal. The sturdy hero 
of New Orleans listened to Mr. 
Smith's request, and, looking at him, 
slowly said, "An honest man is the 
noblest work of God ! General Chan- 
dler is an honest man. Good morn- 
ing, Mr. Smith." Smith left, but it is 
doubted if he ever understood jack- 
son's meaning, but lie understood his 
manner. With the close of President 
Jackson's second term, Gen. Chan- 
dler's commission as collector expired. 
President Van Buren offered him a re- 



HON. JOHN CHANDLER. 



1 1 



appointment. He was then seventy-five 
years of age, and feeling that his pub- 
lic life should end, he declined it, and 
recommended his warm personai and 
political friend, Hon. John Anderson, 
to be his successor, and he was ap- 
pointed. 

Thus closed a public life covering a 
period of forty-seven years. In the 
following July he removed to Augusta, 
where four years later, Sept. 26. 1841, 
he entered the other life. His wife 
survived him nearly five years. She 
was born in Nottingham. N. H., Feb- 
ruary 16, 1766, married the general 
August 27, 17S3, and died in Bath, 
Sept. 16, 1846. One who knew her 
well, says " she was a noble specimen 
of a New England woman, one of 
many who have sent out from our 
country firesides men and women who 
have made our land bloom with 
piety, intelligence and patriotism." 

Gen. Chandler was a man of com- 
manding presence and uncommon 
manly beauty. His courage, like that 
of all his race, was undaunted. When 
on his way to enter the senate of the 
United States, a rhymster said of him : 

44 John Chandler will be here 
Tough as steel and bold as Hector."' 

He was a member of the Masonic 
fraternity, and was present in the 
Grand Lodge June 2, 1820, when 
Gov. William Kim: was installed its 
first Grand Master. He was a Unita- 
rian in his religious views, and wor- 
shiped, when in Portland, at the First 
Parish church. He left four children 
at his death, two sons and two daugh- 
ters. His sons were John Alfonzo 
a»d Anson Gonsalo Chandler. His 
daughters were Caroline and Clarissa 
Augusta. John A. married Delia 
West, of Hallowell Maine. He was 
for several years clerk of the courts in 
Kennebec county. Anson G. settled 
in Calais, Maine, and served in both 
branches of the legislature. He was 
for some years a judge of the court 
of common pleas, being an active 
Democrat and a leader of his party 
in Washington county. Prior to his 



death, in 1S62. he was United States 
consul to Lahaina, Sandwich Islands. 
His firs: wife was Elizabeth Pike, of 
Calais, a h ilf sister to Hon. Frederick 

A. , and to the late Hon. James S. 
Pike of that place. After her decease 
he married Annie Eliza, daughter of 
the late Hon. Jeremiah Bradbury, of 
Calais, who formerly resided in York 
county, and was clerk of its courts for 
several years. She was sister of Hon. 
Bion Bradbury, of Portland, and Em- 
ily, the deceased wife of Francis K. 
Swan, Esq., of the same place. Car- 
oline married Dr. Benjamin Prescott. 
of Dresden, Maine. Clarissa Augusta 
married Dr. Amos Nourse, ot Hal- 
lowell, who moved to Bath, where he 
died a few years since. He was an 
eminent physician and was prominent 
in our politics. 

The children of General Chandler, 
together with those they married, have 
been gathered to their fathers. Mrs. 
Stratton and Mrs. Ladd, of Augusta, 
Maine, daughters of Hon. John A. 
Chandler, are living. Of the Epping 
branch of the family the only one in 
Maine bearing the name is the ven- 
erable Marcellus A. Chandler, of Au- 
gusta, lie was a son of the late Gen. 
Joseph Chandler, of that city, who 
was a nephew of the general. To 
him, together with the Hon. George 

B. Chandler, of Manchester, N. H., 
and Dr. George Chandler, of Worces- 
ter, Mass., I am under great obligations 
for many of the facts contained in 
this sketch. 

In conclusion, I will say that a care- 
ful perusal of the papers in the early 
part of this century discloses the fact 
that no man held a warmer place in 
the people's heart than Gen. Chandler. 
He came from their ranks and never 
forgot it. He wasted no time in 
hunting up titled ancestry, or money 
to hire some skillful engraver to in- 
vent a fictitious coat of arms. To 
him his honest, patriotic ancestry was 
a patent of nobility enough. For more 
than forty years he was to our politics 
what Hannibal Hamlin has been to 
the politics of a later generation. lie 



i2 THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



endured privations which caused him 
to love liberty. To him it was a 
precious jewel because of the hard- 
ships he underwent to obtain it. 
When the political history of our 
state shall be written by a pen in the 
hand of a worthy successor of Wil- 



liamson, it will be demonstrated be- 
yond dispute that among the many 
able men noted for their devotion to 
her welfare, none has left a better 
record than John Chandler, the black- 
smith, farmer, soldier, and statesman. 
— Portland Press. 



THE WIFE OF DANIEL WEBSTER. 



BY JAMES 

Daniel Webster was twice married. 
It is of his first wife, who was the 
mother of all his children, that I write 
to-day. 

In colonial times the clergy were 
the aristocracy of New England. 
Their incomes were indeed exceed- 
ingly small, compared with those of 
our day ; but as they were generally 
men of learning, virtue, and politeness, 
and as all the people were religiously 
disposed, they were held in the high- 
est respect, and exercised great influ- 
ence. Small as their revenues were 
(seldom more than five hundred dol- 
lars a year), they generally lived in 
very good style, and, in many instances, 
accumulated property. Their salaries 
were increased by the bountiful gifts 
of the people, and they usually had a 
piece of land sufficient for the keeping 
of a cow and a horse, and for the rais- 
ing of their vegetables. Beside this, 
all the minister's family assisted in its 
support j the sons tilled the garden 
and took care of the animal ; the 
daughters assisted their mothers in spin- 
ning the wool for the clothing of the 
household. Peter Parley, whose father 
was a New England clergyman of the 
olden times, mentions in his " Recol- 
lections " that for fifty years the salary 
of his father averaged three hundred 
dollars a year, upon which, with the 
assistance of a few acres of land, he 
reared a family of eight children, sent 
two sons to college, and left at his 
death two thousand dollars in money. 



PARTON. 

The family of the clergyman was 
expected to be, and usually was, the 
model family of the parish. The chil- 
dren generally had the benefit of their 
father's instructions, as well as access 
to his little library ; and, if his daugh- 
ters did not learn French nor play the 
piano, they had the benefit of hearing 
intelligent conversation and of associ- 
ating with the best minds of their na- 
tive village. 

Grace Fletcher, the wife of Daniel 
Webster, was the daughter of Elijah 
Fletcher, a clergyman of New Hamp- 
shire, where she was born in the year 
17S1. Though her father died at the 
early age of thirty-nine, when Grace 
was but five years of age, he is still 
remembered in New Hampshire for 
his zeal and generosity. He was par- 
ticularly noted for his patronage of 
young students, many of whom he 
prepared for college. After his death 
his widow married the minister of Salis- 
bury, New Hampshire, the town in 
which Daniel Webster was born, in 
which he grew up to manhood, and in 
which he first established himself in 
the practice of the law. Thus it was 
that she became acquainted with her 
future husband. Daniel Webster was 
only one year older than herself. They 
attended the same church ; they went 
to school together ; they met one an- 
other at their neighbors' houses ; and 
this early intimacy ripened at length 
into a warmer and deeper attachment. 

Notwithstanding his extraordinary 



THE WIFE OF DANIEL WEBSTER. 



*3 



talents, and the warmth of his temper- 
ament, Daniel Webster did not marry 
until he was twenty-six years of age. 
Few "young men had a harder struggle 
with poverty, and no one ever bore 
poverty more cheerfully. After prac- 
ticing law awhile near his father's house 
in Salisbury, he removed in 180S to 
Portsmouth, which was the largest and 
wealthiest town in New Hampshire, as 
well as its only seaport. A lady who 
lived then in the town has recorded, 
in the most agreeable manner, her 
recollections of the great orator at that 
period. She was the minister's daugh- 
ter. It was a custom in those days to 
show a stranger into the minister's pew. 
One Sunday her sister returned from 
church, and said that there had been 
a remarkable person in the pew with 
her, who had riveted her attention, and 
that she was sure he had a most 
marked character for good or for evil. 
At that time Webster was exceedingly 
slender, and his face was very sallow, 
but his noble and spacious forehead, 
his bright eyes, deep set in his head, 
and the luxuriant locks of his black 
hair, together with the intelligent and 
amiable expression of his countenance, 
rendered his appearance striking in the 
extreme. In a few days the stranger 
was at home in the minister's family, 
and there soon formed a circle round 
him of which he was the life and soul. 

"I well remember," says this lady, 
" one afternoon he came in when the 
elders of the family were absent. He 
sat down by the window, and as now 
and then, an inhabitant of the town 
passed through the street, his fancy 
was caught by their appearance, and 
his imagination excited, and he impro- 
vised the most humorous imaginary 
histories about them, which would have 
furnished a rich treasure for Dickens, 
could he have been the delighted lis- 
tener, instead of the young girl for 
whose amusement this wealth of inven- 
tion was expended." 

Another of his Portsmouth friends 
used to say there never was such an 
actor lost to the stage as he would 
have made, had he chosen to turn his 



talents in that direction. The young 
lawyer prospered well in this New 
Hampshire town, and he was soon 
in receipt of an income which 
for that day was considerable. In 
June, 1809, about a year after his ar- 
rival, he suddenly left Portsmouth, 
without having said a word to his 
friends of his destination. They con- 
jectured, however, that he had gone 
home to Salisbury to visit his family. 
He returned in a week or two, but did 
not return alone. In truth, he had 
gone home to be married, and he 
brought back his wife with him. She 
was a lady most gentle in her manners, 
and of a winning, unobtrusive charac- 
ter, who immediately made all her 
husband's friends her own. The lady 
quoted above gives so pleasant a de- 
scription of their home and character, 
that I will quote a few sentences from 
it : 

'• Mrs. Webster's mind was naturally 
of a high order, and whatever was the 
degree of culture she received, it fitted 
her to be the chosen companion and 
the trusted friend of her gifted hus- 
band. She was never elated, never 
thrown off the balance of her habitual 
composure by the singular early suc- 
cess of her husband, and the applause 
constantly following him. It was her 
striking peculiarity that she was 
equal to all occasions — that she ap- 
peared with the same quiet dignity and 
composed self-possession in the draw- 
ing-room in Washington, as in her own 
quiet parlor. It was only when an un- 
expected burst of applause followed 
some noble effort of her husband, that 
the tears started to her eyes. Uniting 
with great sweetness of disposition, 
unaffected, frank and winning man- 
ners, no one could approach her without 
wishing to know her, and no one could 
know her well, without loving her. 
When Mr. Webster brought this inter- 
esting companion to Portsmouth, the 
circle that gathered around them be- 
came more intimate and was held by 
more powerful attractions. There cer- 
tainly never was a more charming room 
than the low-roofed, simple parlor, 



14 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



where, relieved from the cares of busi- 
ness, in the full gayety of his disposi- 
tion, he gave himself up to relaxation." 

In due time a daughter was born to 
• them, the little Grace Webster, who 
was so wonderfully precocious and 
agreeable. Unhappily, she inherited 
her mother's delicate constitution, and 
she died in childhood. Three times 
in his life, it is said, Daniel Webster 
wept convulsively. One of these oc- 
casions was when he laid upon the bed 
this darling girl, who had died in his 
arms, and turned away from the sight 
of her lifeless body. All the four 
children of Mrs. Webster, except her 
son Fletcher, appear to have inherited 
their mother's weakness. 

Charles, a lovely child, both in mind 
and person, died in infancy. Her 
daughter Julia, who lived to marry the 
son of a distinguished family in Bos- 
ton, died in her thirtieth year. Ed- 
ward, her third son, served as a major 
in the Mexican war, and died in Mex- 
ico, aged twenty-eight. Fletcher, the 
most robust of her children, com- 
manded a regiment of the army of the 
Potomac, and died in one of its disas- 
trous conflicts. 

Beyond the general impressions of her 
friends, we know little of the life of this 
estimable woman. She lived retired 
from the public gaze, and the incidents 
of her life were of that domestic and 
ordinary nature which are seldom re- 
corded. In this dearth of information, 
the reader will certainly be interested 
in reading one of her letters to her 
husband, written soon after the death 
of their little son Charles. It shows 
her affectionate nature, and is ex- 
pressed with all the tender eloquence 
of a bereaved but resigned mother. 
The following is the letter : 

" I have a great desire to write to 
you, my beloved husband, but I doubt 
if I can write legibly. I have received 
your letter in answer to William, which 
told you dear little Charley was no 
more. I have dreaded the hour which 
should destroy hopes, but trust you 
will not let this event afflict you too 
much, and that we both shall be able 



to resign him without a murmur, happy 
in the reflection that he has returned 
to his Heavenly Father, pure as I re- 
ceived him. It was an inexpressible 
consolation to me, when I contem- 
plated him in his sickness, that he had 
not one regret for the past, nor one 
dread for the future : he was patient 
as a lamb during all his sufferings, and 
they were at last so great I was happy 
when they were ended. I shall always 
reflect on his brief life with mournful 
pleasure, and, I hope, remember with 
gratitude all the joy he gave me — and 
it has been great. And oh ! how 
fondly did I flatter myself it would be 
lasting. 

'It was but yesterday, my child, thy 

little heart beat high : 
And I had scorned the warning voice 

that told me thou must die.' 

"Dear little Charles! He sleeps ' 
alone under St. Paul's. Oh ! do not, 
my dear husband, talk of your own 
final abode ; that is a subject I never 
can dwell on for a moment. With you 
here, my dear, I can never be deso- 
late ! O, may Heaven in its mercy 
long preserve you ! And that we may 
ever wisely improve every event, and 
yet rejoice together in this life, prays 
vour ever affectionate 

G. W." 

Mrs. Webster lived but forty-six 
years. In December, 1S27, Mr. Web- 
ster being then a member of Congress, 
he started with his wife for the city of 
Washington. She had been suffering 
for some time from a tumor of a some- 
what unusual character, which had 
much lowered the tone of her system. 
On reaching. New York she was so 
sick that her husband left her there 
and proceeded to Washington alone. 
Having little hope of her recovery, he 
.had serious thoughts of resigning his 
seat, in order to devote himself exclu- 
sively to the care of his wife, espe- 
cially as he thought it probable that she 
would linger for many months : but he 
had scarcely reached Washington when 
he was summoned back to New York 
by the intelligence that her disease 
had taken a dangerous turn. He 



CORRECTION. 



15 



watched at her bedside for three weeks, 
during which her strength insensibly 
lessened, and her flesh wasted away, 
though she suffered little pain. I have 
before me four little notes which the 
afflicted husband wrote on the day of 
her death, which tell the story of her 
departure in an affecting manner. 

Monday Morning, January 21st. 

" Dear Brother : Mrs. Webster 
still lives, but is evidently near her end. 
We did not expect her continuance 
yesterday from hour to hour. 

Yours, affectionately, D. W." 

This was written at daylight, in the 
morning. At nine o'clock he wrote 
to an old friend : 

"Mrs. Webster still lives, but can not 
possibly remain long with us. We ex- 
pected her decease yesterday from 
hour to hour." 

At half past two that afternoon he 
wrote : 

" Dear Brother : Poor Grace has 
gone to Heaven. She has just now 
breathed her last breath. I shall go 
with her forthwith to Boston, and, on 
receipt of this, I hope you will come 
there if you can. I shall stay there 
some days. May God bless you and 
yours." 

At the same hour he wrote the fol- 
lowing to the lady ({noted above : 

"My dear Eliza: The scene is 
ended, and Mrs. Webster has gone to 



God. She has just breathed her last 
breath. How she died — with what 
cheerfulness and submission, with what 
hopes and what happiness, how kindly 
she remembered her friends, and how 
often and affectionately she spoke of 
you, I hope soon to be able to tell 
you ; till then, adieu." 

Her husband mourned her depart- 
ure sincerely and long. And well he 
might, for she was his guardian angel. 
After her death he was drawn more 
and more into politics, and gave way 
at length into an ambition for political 
place and distinction, which lessened 
his usefulness, impaired his dignity, 
and embittered his closing years. 

Upon the summit of a commanding 
hill, in Marshneld, which overlooks 
the ocean, is the spot prepared by 
Daniel Webster for the burial place of 
his family. There his own remains 
repose, and there, also, those of his 
three children. There, too, he erected 
a marble column to the memory of 
their mother, which bears the follow- 
ing inscription : 

Grace Webster, 
Wife of Daniel Webster, 
Born January the 16th, 7/82 ; 
Died January the 21st, 1828. 

" Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall 
see God." 

— Concord Paper. 



CORRECTION. 



On page 112, Granite Monthly 
for April, 1S83, " Methodism in Ports- 
mouth," read " Samuel Hutchings, the 
grandfather of the late Dr. Brackett 
Hutchings," not great grandfather. 

Hr. Brackett Hutchings was a well- 
known apothecary and pharmacist of 



Portsmouth. His father, Capt. Sam- 
uel Hutchings, jr., after retiring from 
the sea, pursued the same business ; 
and his father Samuel Hutchings, who 
resided on Washington street, was 
also a compounder of medicines. 



1 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



THE EDELWEISS. 



BY C. JENNIE SWAINE. 

Have you hoard the golden legend 

Of the edelweiss' floweret fair. 
Whose fragrance, like an incense, 

Fills the chilly, winter air; 
Close to the snow it blossoms, 

Star-like, and pure and white, 
As the snow-stars adrift in the north wind 

On the mountain's dizzy height. 

This is the quaint, old legend. 

Grown sacred and sweet by time. 
Which the simple bards of the mountains 

Have inwoven with song and rhyme: 
u An angel wandered from heaven, 

All spotless and undefiled, 
And dwelt in the heart of a maiden 

In the mountain passes wild. 

4 * Her lips were rosebuds of ruby, 

Kissed by the fragrant dew. 
Her eyes were of summer azure. 

With the sunlight shining through; 
Pure and sweet as the lilies 

With a heart that was tender and true. 
Yet no kingly knight or lover, 

Might the beautiful maiden woo. 

" So her lovers grown mad with their pleadin 

Prayed the gods in their wild dispair. 
Away from tlTe vision of mortals. 

The angel maiden to bear: 
And so. up the purple mountains. 

When the sunset lires burned low. 
They bore her away in the gloaming. 

And laid her beside the snow. 

k " Then under the cover of shadows 

In the magical midnight hour. 
The goddess of love transformed her 

Into a snow-white flower; 
And close by the crystal glaciers. 

In a cradle of mosses warm. 
It grew into fadeless beauty. 

Kocked by the mountain storm. 

* ; Since then, doth the doubting lover 

Scale the perilous solitude. 
And finding the edelweiss blossom. 

He counts an omen for good; 
And he lays it away in his bosom, 

A talisman sacred and sweet. 
Making two hearts one in their beating 

When laid at a fair maiden's feet." 

This is the golden legend * 

Of the edelweiss blossom fair. * 
Whose fragrance, like an incense, 

Fills the chilly winter air; 
The flower which the peasant ever 

Holds tenderly sacred to love, 
And a type of womanhood holy, 

As akin to the angels above. 



/ 



IN THE FOOTPRINTS OF THE PIONEERS. 
IN THE FOOTPRINTS OF THE PIONEERS. ^ 

BY LEVI W. DODGE. ■ * v 



It is a fact noticeable by those inter- 
ested in the local histories of the state, 
that many of the grantees of town- 
ships conveyed during the last years 
of the administration of New Hamp- 
shire's last royal governor, John Went- 
worth, Esq., were of those holding 
commissions, civil or military, under 
the royal seal. There were many, also, 
connected with the governor's family, 
either by marriage or the strong ties 
of friendship. 

During the early years of his 
appointment he was a favorite of the 
people, and had he adhered to their 
cause instead of that of the home 
government, it is not assuming too 
much to suppose he might have con- 
tinued a popular leader. 

Striving to uphold the cause of the 
king, it was but natural he should 
wish for the influence of his principal 
friends, and to retain the support of 
the leaders or more active minds in 
the different parts of the province. 
Nor is it to be wondered at that he 
should use all legitimate means, if 
sometimes questionable, to retain those 
influences. It was reported by the 
" Sons of Liberty" that " we can not de- 
pend on the countenance of many per- 
sons of the first rank here, for royal 
commissions and famly connections in- 
fluence the principal gentlemen among 
us at least to keep silence in these evil 
times." 

It was in reward for this keeping 
silence or for open support of the 
governor in those trying days, that we 
find many of their names among the 
grantees of new townships chartered 
at that time. It is thought, too, that 
Gov. Wentworth, not foreseeing the 
downfall of British authority in New 
England, and looking perhaps to family 
aggrandizement and the building up of 
a provincial aristocracy, sought to have 
mi— 2 



created here an order of baronets, to 
be conferred upon the purchasers of 
large tracts, who would build up their 
baronial estates, governed by the laws 
of English rank and honor, with heredi- 
tary titles, similar to those instituted by 
James I in England, and by Charles 
1 in Nova Scotia, for the benefit of the 
first Earl of Stirling. 

What other idea could have influ- 
enced the petitioning for and the 
granting of the territory embraced in 
the present town of Carroll to Sir 
Thomas Wentworth, Bart., except the 
transfer of his English title, or the 
building up of our American barony ! 
Sir Thomas's English estates, said to 
have been worth an income of 5 200,000 
per year, were at Bretton, in the 
County of York, and the ancient coun- 
try seat was known as "Bretton Hall," 
and this wild Coos acquisition, in 
memory of this British title, was grant- 
ed as "Bretton Woods." This was the 
fifth baronet of that name and line, 
and with the death of Sir Thomas, in 
1 792, the title became extinct, as he 
died unmarried. His vast estate he 
left by will to his natural daughter, who 
became the wife of Thomas Richard 
Beaumont, Esq. The ancient seat of 
the family is still known a " Bretton 
Hall," and is still occupied by the 
descendants of the grantee of " Bretton 
Woods" in New Hampshire. 

Perhaps the above grant to the title 
of Thomas Wentworth was one of 
that class of cases which in 1772 
called forth the fierce opposition of 
Peter Li vi us to the governor and his 
council, and sent him to England with 
a lengthy protest to be laid before the 
Lords of Trade. One of his alleged 
causes for complaint was " that the 
Governor had moved in council that 
the lands reserved to the late govern- 
or (Benning Wentworth), in the char- 
ter of townships, should be re-granted 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



lo himself, through the medium of 
another person.'' 

This Peter Livius was the only mem- 
ber of the governor's council, consist- 
* ing of eight members, who was not 
connected, either by marriage or 
natural tics of blood, to the governor's 
family, and it is more than probable 
that special distinctions and official 
perquisites were not distributed to his 
especial favor ; hence the envious dis- 
sent.; 

This allegation of Mr. Livius was 
not sustained before the King and his 
council, and the complaint was dis- 
missed. 

It if; a well known fact that Gov. 
John Wentworth was an extensive 
land owner. As early as 1767, in the 
township of Wolfeborough, on Lake 
Winnipiseogee, he had begun for him- 
self an extensive plantation, upon 
which he expended large sums. Here 
he built an elegant hou^e for those 
times, where he entertained sumptu- 
ously. But for the political changes 
which soon followed, this would no 
doubt have been made as famous a 
country-seat as that of many an 
ancient English baronial establishment. 
It was one of Gov. Wentworth's brilliant 
schemes for internal improvement, to 
connect the lake at this point with 
tide water, by means of a canal, and 
thus make this the head of navigation 
in New Hampshire ; and the author of 
the "Wentworth Genealogy" informs us 
that there is on file, among the gov- 
ernor's official correspondence, at Hali- 
fax, a letter dated April 5, 175S, 
which says : " a road may be easily 
made from Quebec to Winnipiseogee, 
on the northern parts of this province, 
which would immediately communi- 
cate with all the populous and most 
fertile parts of New England at one 
third of the distance, trouble, time 
and expense of any other route. You 
will readily see the matter on any map. 
If it should take place, as I have sug- 
gested, into New Hampshire, I will 
endeavor to clear as much of the 
road as this province can be prevailed 
upon to provide for." 



But all these enterprising plans of 
Gov. Wentworth for his own aggrandize- 
ment and for the improvement and 
building up of his native state, failed 
with the failure of his efforts to recon- 
cile the conflicting elements which 
severed the provinces from the mother 
country, and he was forced to retire 
from the situation, followed by the con- 
fiscation of his estates, proscription of 
person and loss of home and friends. 
But he never lost his interest in the 
land of his birth, for in a letter to Rev. 
Jeremy Belknap, from Nova Scotia, 
dated May, 1791, he says, " if there is 
any thing partial in my heart in this 
case, it is that New Hampshire, my 
native country, may arise to be one of 
the most brilliant members of the 
confederation, as it was my zealous 
wish, ambition and unremitted endeavor 
to have led her to, among the provin- 
ces, while under my administration. 
My whole heart and fortune were de- 
voted to it, and I do flatter myself not 
without some prospect of success." 

In 1795 Jo nn Wentworth was 
created a baronet, and resided in a 
palatial residence known as the 
Prince's Lodge," a gift of the Duke of 
Kent, located at Halifax, N. S. He 
administered the government of that 
province from 1792 to 1808, and died 
there in 1820. 

After leaving New Hampshire, in 
1775, his feet never trod upon Repub- 
lican soil. He lived and died a mon- 
archist, although always sincerely lov- 
ing his native land. 

There were probably few towns 
granted by the Wentworths in New 
Hampshire where the '-'reserve me and 
1 '11 reward you " policy was more dis- 
tinctly marked than in the lists of the 
original grantees of Whitefield and some 
of the neighboring towns. Among 
those of the former which was the last 
township granted in New Hampshire 
under monarchical rule, were two of 
the surname of Wentworth, Penning 
and Paul, both said to be of Ports- 
mouth. 

This Benning was a cousin to the 
then ruling governor, and a relative of 



IN THE FOOTPRINTS OF THE PIONEERS. 



19 



his wife Frances. He was among the 
list of proscribed sympathizers with 
the royal cause, and left the country 
.about the time that political affairs 
were assuming a revolutionary aspect. 

He afterward was appointed to 
•office in Nova Scotia, while his cousin 
and brother-in-law, Sir John, was gov- 
ernor of that province, and at his death, 
in 1S08, was secretary there by royal 
favor. He was born in Boston in 1757. 

The portion of the town of White- 
field drawn to this title was number 
eleven, being the present numbers six- 
teen and seventeen in the twenty-fifth 
range, containingone hundred and fifty- 
two acres, located in the extreme north 
easterly part of the town next the line 
of ancient Dartmouth, now Jefferson. 
An additional forty-eight acres was 
added to it in a subsequent division of 
lands in 1 809, from lot number six in the 
fifth range, near the old town-farm, that 
being then undivided territory, to make 
up the two hundred acres to which the 
name was entitled in the original grant 
of 1774. 

Division number eighty-seven in 
Whitefield's first allotment, was drawn to 
the title of Paul Went worth, a name best 
remembered in New Hampshire, per- 
haps, in connection with the produc- 
tion of Holland's map. under whose 
direction, and at whose expense it was 
•engraved and published, in London, in 
1 784, in accordance with surveys by 
Capt. Samuel Holland, who was the 
surveyor-general of the northern colo- 
nies previous to the revolution. The 
survey was made at the expense of the 
province of New Hampshire in the 
years 1773 and 1 774- 

This Paul Wentworth at that time 
was engaged in the formation of com- 
panies for the "purchase, improvement 
and sale of lands in New Hampshire." 
Hence his interest in the publication of 
the map, a copy of which may now be 
seen at the Atheneum in Portsmouth, 
and the writer has been informed there 
is also one in possession of P. C. 
Wilkins, of "Mann's hill," in Little- 
ton. Holland fled to Canada at the 
outbreak of the revolution, where he 



died in 1801, a member of the execu- 
tive council of that province. He was 
one of the proscribed ones of New 
Hampshire, by the act of 1788, but 
held no property to be confiscated. 

L T pon the death of Theodore Atkin- 
son, Jr., in 1769, a vacancy existed in 
the board of council, and the governor 
urged upon the secretary of the state the 
name of Paul Wentworth to fill the 
vacancy. He called him " of Ports- 
mouth in this province, now in London, 
a gentleman of large property, ability, 
influence and loyalty." He received 
the appointment, as afterward appears, 
for in a list made by Gov. John Went- 
worth, in 1775, this Paul was reckoned 
as one of the councillors, but append- 
ed to his name was "resident in Lon- 
don, — not sworn in." Belknap gives 
the name of Paul Wentworth, Esq., of 
London, as one of the benefactors to 
Dartmouth College. 

He was an intimate and trusted 
friend of the governor, and doubtless 
shared his political fortunes when he 
fled the country. The name of Paul 
Wentworth not appearing in the 
list of proscribed persons, he may 
have still been in London at the date 
of the record. 

The Hon. John Wentworth, of Chi- 
cago, author of the Wentworth Gene- 
alogy, tells us that " there are preserved 
familiar letters written by the governor 
immediately after entering upon his 
official duties, signifying his desire to 
have Paul with him in New Hamp- 
shire, and at the time of the breaking 
up of the provincial government he 
was trying to bring about his appoint- 
ment as lieutenant-governor of the 
province." 

The strong ties of friendship and 
interest existing between those two 
worthies, grew from no natural bond, 
for they were unrelated, unless, as the 
above authority adds, " Paul was a 
natural son of some near relation of 
Gov. John's, of which there is not the 
least tradition." He died at Surinam, 
where he owned large estates, in 
December, 1793. 

At a public land sale held at old 



20 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



Dunstable, in 1 793, Samuel Minot pur- 
chased the Paul VV entworth title. A 
part of the " Jewell hill " and vicinity 
are included in this division, and it 
was some years occupied by the town 
as a poor-farm. Among the pioneers 
who picked their way into this part of 
Whitefield's solitudes, was one Silas 
Borden, and in those early years the 
blazed pathway through the wilds led 
by Jeremy Cogswell's and Jacob 
Jewell's to "Borden's Corners," a 
name now almost unremembered save 
among the musty records of the town. 
A portion of this Paul YYentworth title 
is now owned and occupied by Mr. 
Charles Colby. 

Number eleven in the conscription list 
of 1 7S8, was Thomas McDonough. 
He was represented as being the private 
secretary of Gov. Wentworth, and he 
cast his future with that gentleman 
when he fled before the rising storm of 
liberty and democracy. There is said 
to have been the most intimate rela- 
tionship existing between them, and 
that the secretary " adhered to the gov- 
ernor's person as well as to his cause 
when he left Portsmouth. 

That these friendly relations con- 
tinued, and that McDonough stood 
well with the government at home, is 
evident from the fact that after the 
acknowledgment of the independence 
of the colonies and the return of peace, 
he was appointed to the British con- 
sulship at Boston, which office he held 
until his death in 1805. 

In 1774 he received a grant of 
one ninety-fourth part of the township 
of Whitefield, perhaps as a reward for 
faithful service to his master in those 
days, or what was considered as meri- 
torious, for "faithful silence." Little ben- 
efit he received from this royal gift, how- 
ever, for he was among those of whom 
it was written " certain persons who 
have left the state and joined with the 
enemies thereof." Samuel Minot, of 
Concord, Mass., purchased the title in 
1 793, and in 18 1 2 Paul Bus well founded 
a house on one division of it, located 
in what is locally known as the "knot- 
hole." This Paul was a pioneer and 



an active man in Whitefield's early 
days. He was born in Methuen, Mass., 
in 1773, and his wife was a native of 
Warner, N. H., where they were mar- 
ried in 1S18, and immediately settled 
down to the stern realities of life in 
this Whitefield house in the wilderness, 
and here their years on earth ended, — 
the wife Polly, in 1829, in the midst of 
life ; Paul in the full measure of his 
years, in 1845. 

There was a John Cochran, of Ports- 
mouth, among the petitioners for White- 
field's ungranted lands. He was in 
command of Fort William and 
Mary, in the harbor of Portsmouth, 
when in 1774 Paul Revere came up 
post haste from Boston, bringing to 
the "committee of safety" a copy of 
a recent act of the king and council 
prohibiting the exportation of gun-pow- 
der and military stores to America. 
The result of this post haste ride of 
Paul Revere may best be told by an 
extract from a letter written by Gov. 
Wentworth to Gov. Gage, and dated 
Portsmouth, N. H., the 14th day of 
December, 1 774 : 

"Sir: I have the honor to write it 
is with the utmost concern I am called 
upon by my duty to the king to com- 
municate to your excellency a most 
unhappy affair perpetrated here this 
day. 

"Yesterday, in the afternoon, Paul 
Revere arrived in this town, express, 
from the committee in Boston to 
another committee in this town, and 
delivered his dispatch to Mr. Samuel 
Cults, merchant of this place, who 
immediately convened the committee, 
of which he is one, and as I learn laid 
it before them. This day, before noon, 
before any suspicions could be had of 
their intentions, about four hundred 
were collected together andiinmediate- 
ly proceeded to his Majesty's castle, 
William and Mary, at the entrance, to. 
this harbor, and forcibly took posses- 
sion thereof (notwithstanding the best 
defence that could be made by Capt. 
Cochran), and by violence carried away 
one hundred barrels of powder, belong- 
ing to the king, deposited in the castle. 



IN THE FOOTPRINTS OF THE PIONEERS. 



2 I 



I am informed that expresses have been 
circulated through the neighboring 
towns to collect a number of people 
to-morrow, or as soon as possible, to 
earn" away all the cannon and arms 
belonging to the castle, which they will 
undoubtedly effect unless some assist- 
ance should arrive from Boston in 
time to prevent it. 

J. WENTWORTH." 

But as is well known the " timely 
assistance " did not arrive, and the 
cannon and about sixty muskets were 
taken awav by the determined " sons 
of liberty.'" 

This was the first open revolt of the 
people against the British government, 
and it took place, as will be seen, full 
four months before the battle of Lex- 
ington, and the same arms and ammu- 
nition, so opportunely seized by the 
sturdy yeomanry of New Hampshire, 
did effective service at the battle of 
Bunker Hill in the same brawny hands 
that borrowed them from the king's 
castle. 

Capt. Cochran, the commander of 
the fortress, was like most or many of 
those who held royal commissions, a 
true servitor of the king, and we may 
■suppose that this partial grant of a 
wild township was, in some degree, a 
recognition of loyalty ; but the gift 
like the service proved of little value 
to him, for he became obnoxious to the 
"'sons of liberty" and was forced to flee 
the country. His name is seventh 
from the governor on the proscribed 
list, and he was one of the twenty-two 
from this state whose estates were con- 
fiscated. His title in Whitefield lands 
passed by public sale into the posses- 
sion of Samuel Minot, and now num- 
bers two and three in the twenty-second 
range, form the wild eastern boundary 
of the Col. Colby farm, a part of the 
confiscated estate of John Cochran. 

One of the ninety petitioners for a 
grant of the original township of White- 
field, in 1774, was one Peter Green, 
Esq. He was number sixteen in the 
list, and drew share seventy-three in the 
first allotment by the Gerrish plan. 

This Peter was originally from Lan- 



caster, Mass., where he was born. 
He removed to the newly or- 
ganized town of Concord, N. H., 
during the stirring times just previous 
to the declaration of independence of 
the colonies. He was an ardent sup- 
porter of the cause of the king, and 
never yielded allegiance thereto until 
forced by the tide of public sentiment 
to adapt himself, apparently, at least, 
to the growing change in the political 
world around him. 

It was a recorded fact of those 
times that those holding commissions 
under the king, either civil or military, 
were generally the last to come to the 
open support of the colonists ; and of 
Peter Green, Esq., it is recorded, that 
although having subscribed to the 
"test oath" in 1776, before the com- 
mittee of safety of Concord, he made 
himself so openly obnoxious to the 
friends of liberty that the parish voted 
to " break off all dealings with him, 
and that he be advertized in the public 
prints as an enemy to the United States 
of America, and that lie be disarmed 
by the committee of safety, and that the 
court of judicature be applied to to dis- 
miss Peter Green, Esq., from all business 
henceforth and forever. Also, that if 
any persons have any dealings with the 
same he shall be looked upon as an 
enemy to his country. All this unless 
the said Peter Green. Esq., give satis- 
faction to this parish within thirty days." 

BuUwe may conclude that the re- 
quired satisfaction was not made, for 
soon thereafter a party of zealous lib- 
erty men assembled in high excite- 
ment for the purpose of pulling down 
the house of this royalist, and they 
only desisted from their purpose by 
the advice of some of the cooler order 
loving and influential men of the town. 

Green's outspoken sentiments and 
royalist sympathies at last caused his 
arrest, and along with Capt. Jeremiah 
Clough, also one of Whitefield's grant- 
ees, he was taken to Exeter and there 
confined in jail. They were afterward 
released, upon taking the oath of alle- 
giance and agreeing to comply with 
the regulations of the committee o( 



2 2 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



safety. Esq. Green subsequently be- 
came one of Concord's most loyal and 
influential citizens, and. previous to 
1 790, several times represented that 
town at the General Court. 

The second division and numbering 
of lots gave to the Peter Green title 
numbers eleven and sixteen in the twen- 
tieth range of lots, the former of which is 
now owned and occupied by Wm. F. 
Dodge, Esq., and upon the summit of 
which is located the wide!}' known 
" Mountain View House." 

Col. Joseph Kimball secured the title 
to this division at a land sale held at 
old Dunstable, in 1795. for Mr. Green, 
seeing, we may conclude, no prospect 
of a speedy return for his tax invest- 
ments, had let his title lapse. 

Not until 1820 did this north hill 
find a settler. Then William Eastman, 
one of a trio of stalwart brothers whose 
sturdy axe strokes opened this forest- 
crowned elevation to the sunlight of 
the long ago, selected here a home site. 



You may see if you will, as you pass 
along the pleasant drive just west of 
the Mountain View House, a pile of 
"stones, a tangled hollow and a bed of 
tansy. They mark the spot of the ancient 
hearth-stone, and here brought William 
his Rebecca, for he had made peace 
with the Gales, and here they dwelt 
for many a long year while the forests 
were pushed back and "coming events 
cast their shadows before." But he 
has long since joined those down by 
the church side who have lain aside 
life's armor, having t; fought the good 
fight." She still remains, and the 
great house, builded near the site of 
the ancient log cabin is lively with three 
generations of children and grand- 
children, and a benignant old-fashioned 
grandmother, whose fading eyes grow 
bright with the light of other days. 

William Eastman was born in ancient 
Gunthwaite, now Lisbon, in 1 795. He 
was a resident of Whitefield from 1820^ 
until the day of his death, in 1872. 



LIBERTY. 



GEORGE WILLIS PATTERSON. 



By the patriot's faith and pride. 
By his heart which bled and died. 
Liberty was sanctified. 

P>y the death-griefs hourly felt.' 
By the prayers when mothers knelt. 
Prayers of love s-> oft denied. 
Liberty was sanctified. 

By the ties of marriage torn. 
By the brow with sorrow worn 
Of the, swift deserted bride. 
Liberty was sanctified. 



By the camp-fire's midnight prayer.. 
As "neath tattered banners there 
Winds of loyal heaven sighed, 
Liberty was sanctified. 

By the soldier's " Take me, God."* 
As upon the sweet, cool sod. 
Flowed the hot blood from his side,. 
Libert}- was sanctified. 

By the flag in precious yore 
Writ with freedom " o'er and o'er,. 
By the blood which none denied. 
Liberty was sanctified. 



By the patriot's faitli and pride. 
By his heart which bled and died. 
Liberty was sanctified. 



DEGREE OF LL. D. OF GEORGE WASHINGTON. 



DEGREE OF LL. D. CONFERRED UPON GEORGE WASH- 
INGTON BY HARVARD GOLLEGE IN 1876. . .. 



Senatus Academic Cantabrigiensis 
in 

Novanglta 
Omnibus in Christo Fidelibus, ad quos 
hae Liters presentcs pervenerint, 
Salutem in Domino Sempiternam. 

Cum eum in fmem Gradus Aca- 
demici instituti fuerint, ut vivi scientia 
sapientia et virtu te insignes, qui de 
literaria, et de Republica optime 
meruerint, Honoribus hisce laureatis 
remunerarentur. 

Maxime decet, ut honore tali afficiatur 
vir illustrissimus,Georgius Washington, 
Armiger, Exercitus Coloniarum in 
America fsederatarum Imperator prae- 
clarus. Cujus scientia et amor Patriae 
undique patent. Qui propter eximias 
virtutes tarn civiles, (mam militares, 
primum a civibus suis Legatus electus, 
in consessu celeberrimo Americano, de 
libertate, ad extremum periclitata, et 
de salute publica fideliter, et peritissime 
consuluit, deinde postulante patria, 
sedem in Virginia amcenissimam, et 
res proprias perlubenter reliquit, ut 
per omnes labores castrorum et 
pericula, nulla mercede accepta, Nov- 
angliam ab armis iniquis et crudelibus 
Britannorum liberaret et colonias 
caeteras tueretur, et qui sub auspiciis 
Divinis maxime spectandis, ab urbe 
Bostonia per undecim menses clausa, 
munita, et plusquam septem millium 
militum praesidio firmata, naves et 
copias hostium in fugam praecipitem 
probrosam deturbavit adeo ut cives 
plurimis duritiis et saevitiis oppressi, 
tandem salvificentur, ( ?) villae vices- 
sirnae( ?) quiescant, atque sedibus suis 
Academia nostra restituatur. 

Sciatis, igitur, quod nos, Praeses, et 
socii Collegii Harvidini in Cantabrigia 
Novanglorum (consentibus honor- 
andis admodum, et Reverendis Aca- 
demic nostras Inspectoribus), Dom- 
inum supra dictum summa honore 
dignum Georgium Washington Docto- 



rem utriusque juris turn naturae',, et 
gentium, turn civilis, statuimus ' et 
creavimus eique simul dedimus con- 
cessimus omnia jura, privilegia eL 
honores ad istum Gradum pertinentia. 

In cujus rei testimonium, nos, com- 
muni sigillo Universitatis hisce literis 
affixo, Chirographa apposuimus die 
tertio Aprilis Anno Salutis milesimo. 
septingentesimo septuagesimo sexto. 
*/~~- J — a* Sam'l Laxgdon, Praeses. 
( Locus ) Nath. Appleton, s. t. d. 
I sigilli. ) Johannes Winthrop, 

— /* Math. 
Andrew Elliott, s. t. d. 
Sam'l Cooper, s. t. d. 
Johannes Wadsworth, 
Logic et Prof. Eth., Thesaur. ' 

English Translation of the Degree of 
ll. d., conferred upon Gen. Wash- 
ington by Harvard College in a. d. 
1776. 

Whereas Academical Degrees were 
instituted for this purpose, that men 
eminent for knowledge, wisdom and 
virtue, who have merited of the Re- 
public of Letters and the Common- 
wealth, should be rewarded with the 
honor of these laurels ; there is the 
greatest propriety in conferring such 
honor on that very illustrious Gentle- 
man, George Washington, Esquire, the 
accomplished General of the United 
Colonies of America, whose knowl- 
edge and patriotic ardor are manifest 
to all. Who for his distinguished 
virtue, both civil and military, in the 
first place being elected by the suf- 
frages of the Virginians one of their 
Delegates, exerted himself with fidelity 
and singular wisdom in the celebrated. 
Congress of America for the defence 
cf liberty, when in the utmost danger 
of being forever lost, and for the sal- 
vation of his country, and at the earn- 
est request of that Grand Council of 
Patriots, without hesitation left all the 



THE GRANITE MON THLY. 



pleasures of his delightful seat in Vir- 
ginia and the affairs of his own Estate, 
that through all the fatigues and dan- 
gers of a Camp, without accepting any 
reward, he might deliver New England 
from the unjust and cruel arms of Bri- 
tain, and defend the other Colonies, 
and who by the most signal smiles of 
Divine Providence on his military op- 
erations, drove the Fleet and troops 
of the enemy with disgraceful precipi- 
tation from the Town of Boston, which 
for eleven months had been shut up, 
fortified by a Garrison of above 7,000 
Regulars, so that the inhabitants, who 
suffered a great variety of hardships 
and cruelties while under the power 
of their oppressors, now rejoice in 
their deliverance, the neighboring 
towns are freed from the tumults of 
arms, and our University has the agree- 
able prospect of being restored to its 
ancient seat : 

Knozv Ye, therefore, that we, the 
President and Fellows of Harvard 
College, in Cambridge (with the con- 
sent of the Honored and Reverend 



Overseers of our Academy), have con- 
stituted and created the aforesaid 
Gentleman, George Washington, who 
merits the honor of Doctor of Laws 
— the law of Nature and Nations and 
the Civil Law — and have given and 
granted him at the same time all the 
privileges and Honors to the said 
Degree pertaining. 

In testimony whereof we have 
affixed the common seal of our Uni- 
versity to these Letters, and subscribed 
them with our names this third day of 
April, in the Year of our Lord 1776. 

Samuel Langdon, s. t. d., President. 
Nathaniel Appleton, s. t. d. 
John Winthrop, Math.& Philos.Prof. 
Andrew Elliott, s, t. d. \ „ .. 
Samuel Cooper, s. t. d. j 001 L 
John Wadsworth, 
Logic and Ethics Prof., and Treasurer. 

*<■ — > * 
\ Locus ) 
1 sigilli. j 



DELAYED MAILS. 



ADELAIDE C. WALDRON. 



I stand impatient at the gate. 

"Waiting for the mail. 
Delight, or sorrow insensate, 
I long for either while, .so lute, 

Wearily I wait. 

Will gladness crown me with a song, 

Joy her face unveil? 
Or pain's sharp stings, in endless throng, 
My fevered dragging days prolong — 

Days already long 'r 

Grown reckless with suspense I wait, 

Careless at the gate ; 
My hope of joy I abrogate, 
Nor fear of sorrow arbitrate 

.Will I tolerate. 



Around me flowers with sweets innate 

Rest inviolate ; 
Their odors deep and passionate 
My shallow calmness penetrate 

And commiserate: 

I thrill with hope still animate! 

Time may dissipate 
My doubts, and life illuminate; 
Love may return and, though so late, 

Plead importunate. 

The roses droop; sweet mignonette 

Sways disconsolate, 
While heliotrope and violet. 
And lilies, white and delicate. 

Sigh compassionate. 



AN ANCIENT NF.CROPOLIS. 



AN ANCIENT NECROPOLIS. 



BY C. C 

THE STTE. 

In the town of Hopkinton, N. H., 
is a ridge of land running northeasterly 
and southwesterly for the distance of 
about three miles, passing, at about half 
its distance, very nearly through the 
center of the town. Near the middle 
of this ridge is a depression of the 
surface, through which passes the 
highway leading from Hopkinton vil- 
lage on the southeast to the village of 
Contoocook on the northwest, the de- 
pression of the ridgy summit being 
about one mile from the former and 
two miles from the latter village. 

This ridge of land has long been 
known as Putney's hill, doubtless from 
the historic prominence of the family 
of Putneys in this locality. The 
northeastern brow of this prolonged 
elevation is sometimes called Gould's 
hill, in deference to the prominent 
nomenclatural claim of the Gould 
family. The admission of this local 
appellation leaves "Putney's hill" to 
designate the southwesterly brow of 
the ridge. 

All along the above described ele- 
vation of land, the eye finds abundant 
opportunities to enjoy its fill of nature's 
beauty expressed in extended land- 
scapes. We prefer, in this connection, 
to use the term beauty in a strict, 
technical sense. The more immediate 
undulations of the earth's contour are 
so moderate, and the greater terrestrial 
ruggednesses are so far away, the 
whole scene is so softened in visual 
aspect that all conceptions of the sub- 
lime and grand succumb to sensations 
of the picturesque and beautiful. 

Putney's hill, or that portion of 
elevated land now more commonly so 
called, is a frequent resort of pleasure- 
seekers and tourists. The preference 
of this brow of the hill for landscape gaz- 
ing is no doubt due to the absence of 
surrounding forest and the consequent 



. LORD. 

almost unobstructed view in every di- 
rection. The wooded brow of Gould's 
hill alone prevents the range of the 
eye around the entire circuit of the 
horizon. 

Along the ridge of Putney's hill, 
and for the distance of nearly a mile 
without passing but one habitation, runs 
an ancient highway. Twenty-five or 
thirty years ago the grass crept across 
this highway from wall to wall, but now 
a fixed carriage path is maintained 
throughout the traveling season. Very 
much of this change is due to the 
travel of pleasure-seekers, who not 
only come from near and far, but 
also, sometimes, make favorable com- 
parisons of the scene from this eleva- 
tion with others of much wider public 
renown. 

In respect of inhabitants, a walk or 
ride over the summit of Putney's hill 
suggests a feeling of comparative des- 
olation. On either hand, for much 
the greater part of the way, are naked 
fields and pastures. Uninformed in 
the history of this locality, one would 
hardly anticipate that here is the site 
of a former civilized center — the head- 
quarters of a township's population — 
the field of many an adventure that 
quickened the heart-throbs of an ex- 
tended circle of society. 

A small plot of ground on the east 
side, where a few monumental slabs 
attest the devotion of the soil to sepul- 
chral purposes, and the presence of an 
ancient, uncouth dwelling a little far- 
ther north on the opposite hand, barely 
suggest that human society lays claim 
to the more special economic uses of 
this spot, where death, more than life, 
seems to be the lord and master. 

THE TITLE. 

The original grant of the township 
of Hopkinton, N. H., was made by 
the authority of the Massachusetts 
Bay Colony to John Jones and others, 



26 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



of Hopkinton, Mass., in 1 736, and 
settlements began as early as 1 73S. 
By a concourse of facts, Putney's hill 
became the social center of the new- 
civilized locality. Here were the meet- 
ing-house spot, the parsonage, the 
training-field, and the burying-place. 
A cemetery is an inevitable adjunct of 
society. Physically speaking, it is 
appointed unto all men once to die, 
and after death the burying. In the 
earliest career of this township, a 
burying-ground seems to have been 
selected by general consent. W hen, 
in 1765, the town of Hopkinton be- 
came incorporate, the ownership of 
lands devoted to public uses became 
very properly of important moment. 
In the following year, as attests the 
record of the town-clerk, the following 
act was passed : 

Voted that Half a Nacre of Land 
Be Procured for a Buring Place where 
they have Be gun to Bury on the top 
of the Hill. 

The ownership of the above plot of 
land immediately vested, by virtue of 
an act proceeding apparently from a 
disinterested public spirit. On the 
same page recording the formal de- 
termination of the town to purchase 
the burying-iot the following gratuity 
is expressed : 

The half acre of Land which is voted 
to be procured for a Burying Plac on 
the top of the Hill I give and Be 
stow on the Town John Putney. 

John Putney, the donor of this bury- 
ing-lot, was an early settler in Hop- 
kinton, and came from the vicinity of 
Amesbury, Mass., in company with 
Samuel Putney. He built what was 
known as Putney's fort, a place of de- 
fence against hostile Indians, which 
stood a few rods from the burying-lot, 
in a northerly direction, though the 
exact location is not fully settled in the 
writer's mind. Both these Putneys 
were prominent men in local public 
matters, a military precedence probably 
allowing the mention of " Lieut. John 
Putney" in the earl^ records of the 
township. 



A FORGOTTEN GRAVE. 

The early histories of many New 
England towns exhibit the first clergy- 
men, or ministers, as they were called, 
in degrees of prominence not to be 
mistaken. The history of Hopkinton 
presents no exception to the general 
rule. In this town the first minister 
figured prominently in all the aflairs of 
the local public. A summary sketch 
of the first clergyman settled in Hop- 
kinton is found in volume v, page 222, 
of the New Hampshire Provincial Pa- 
pers, as follows : 

James Scales was a graduate of Har- 
vaid College in 1733. He came from 
Boxford, Mass., with a recommenda- 
tion from the church in that place, 
dated July 3, 1737, and was received 
into the church in Rumford. July 17, 
1 737. He became a resident of Can- 
terbury, was town-clerk, and in the 
records is called esquire. He is also 
spoken of as a physician. He was 
licensed to preach, and in 1743 re- 
ceived ^20 for preaching to the peo- 
ple in Canterbury. He was ordained 
the first minister in Hopkinton, N. H., 
November 23, 1757; was dismissed 
July 4, 1770, and died July 26, 1776. 

There is a further account of James 
Scales that asserts that he eventually 
laid aside his clerical gown and adopt- 
ed the practice of the law. He was 
without doubt a person of unusual 
versatility of genius, though the cir- 
cumstances of his time gave freer 
course to faculties of lesser training 
than do conditions of society in the 
same locality to-day. 

James Scales was a champion of 
the public interests of Hopkinton, and, 
like most men of his class, was doubt- 
less the agent of many unpaid labors. 
He barely escaped the neglect which 
is more humiliating than silent un- 
thankfulness. When the town of Hop- 
kinton had secured her charter of 
incorporation, she deliberately decided, 
in open town meeting, that she would 
pay the Rev. James Scales nothing for 
the public service he had rendered in 
obtaining the legal instrument. Let 
it be set down to the credit of the 



AN ANCIENT NECROPOLIS. 



2 7 



town, however, that, before adjourning, 
the meeting rescinded the first vote 
and made the return of a pittance to 
the minister who had served his fellow 
townsmen to a good purpose. 

James Scales had a wife, Susanna, 
and a family of children. The old 
homestead, of which we have already 
spoken, and which stands but a few 
rods away northerly, was the first par- 
sonage, built for Mr. Scales by the 
town, and now owned by the descend- 
ants of the late Moses Rowell. 

Beside being of versatile talents, 
James Scales was of unpretending 
mien, attached to a plain garb, and 
offended the fastidious by his general 
homeliness of manner. Buried in the 
old cemetery on Putney's hill, his 
body lies in a forgotten grave, of no 
other than a traditional location some- 
where in the southwest corner of the 
yard. 

THE FIRST DOCTOR. 

Entering this ancient graveyard by 
the rude front gate which opens direct 
from the highway, and turning a few 
steps to the left, we come upon a 
cluster of mounds of the Clement 
family. Reading the inscriptions on 
the several slabs, we take particular 
notice of the following : 

1 )r. John* Clement, 
died 
Nov. 20, 1S04, 
JR. 61. 



Molly. 
his wife, died 
Feb. 12, 181 7, 

1 iiis is the simple record of the first 
physician in Hopkinton, together with 
that of his defunct spouse. Dr. Clem- 
ent was a resident, and perhaps a 
native, of Haverhill, Mass., before 
coming to this town, where he settled 
on Putney's hill, on a site a short dis- 
tance south of the burying-yard, on the 
other side of the road. A semblance 
of a foundation, almost obliterated by 
time and a collection of stones, alone 
remains of what was at first Dr. Clem- 
ent's abiding place in Hopkinton. He 



afterward, with a son, built a house a 
short distance west, on the road lead- 
ing from Hopkinton village to West 
Hopkinton. His wife was probably 
from Salisbury, Mass. They had nine 
children : John, Timothy. Phineas, 
Benjamin, and James ; Ruth, Polly, 
Sally, and Betsey. 

Of the personal history of Dr. John 
Clement we know little. His practice 
was extensive, extending to no less 
than fourteen towns. His nature par- 
took of a genial and mirthful spirit. 

TWO PIONEERS. 

Moving onward directly from the 
gate toward the opposite side of this 
oblong field, which lies with its longest 
sides parallel to the highway, bearing 
slightly to the right, till we nearly cross 
the inclosure, we come to an ancient 
slab, with "shapeless sculpture decked," 
on which we slowly trace the following 
inscription : 

here lies buried 
the tody of 
Lieut. Aaron Kimball, 
who died july 
the 3oth, a. d. 

I 760, AND IN 
THE 5 1ST YEAR 
OF HIS AGE. 

Proceeding a few steps further in 
the same direction, we reach a second 
and similar monument, inscribed thus : 
here lies buried 
the body of mr. 
Jeremiah Kimball, 
who died may 

THE 1 8TH, 1764, 
IN THE 5 7TH YEAR 
OF HIS AGE. 

These slabs are notable as being the 
oldest obituary monuments in town, as 
well as for memorizing two represent- 
atives of one of the oldest Hopkinton 
families. The Kimballs were soon 
numerous among the early settlers. 
Of Jeremiah Kimball we know very 
little. Aaron Kimball built one of the 
three forts that afforded protection and 
shelter to the people. Kimball's fort 
was about two miles east of the burying 
ground, on the road to Rumford (now 
Concord), being near the present 



28 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



home of Mr. James K. Story, at or 
near a point where Aaron Kimball 
also constructed the first framed house 
ever built within the limits of the town- 
ship. Jeremiah Kimball also sustains a 
prominence in the history of the town 
by having been the father of Abraham 
Kimball, the first male child born in 
the town, who died in Peacham, Vt., 
in the 87th year of his age, while with 
his son Isaac. 

TWO VETERANS. 

Continuing our walk, bearing a little 
further to the right, till we cross the 
graveyard entirely, we see a plain white 
slab, upon which we read the following 
double inscription : 

Joseph Putney 

died 
Sept. 20, 1846, 
JE, 93. 



Mary, 
His wife, died 
March, 1805, 
JE. 50. 

Joseph Putney was a soldier of the 
Revolution. At Bunker Hill *he was 
enrolled in the company of Captain 
Isaac Baldwin, of Hillsborough. Capt. 
Baldwin fell during the fight, and the 
command devolved upon Lieut. John 
Hale, of Hopkinton. Joseph Putney 
is reported to have done other military 
service in the defence of the northern 
frontier, but we have no record of it. 
Subsequently to his career as a soldier, 
Mr. Putney kept for many years one 
of the most famous country taverns in 
all this region, occupying a stand now 
owned by Mr. Charles Putnam, at the 
highest point of the highway between 
the villages of Hopkinton and Con- 
toocook, on the easterly side. Joseph 
Putney was of an honest, religious 
temperament, that warmed to the fer- 
vor of prophetic zeal. Trotting his 
young son, Joseph, jr., on his knee, he 
spoke of the painful struggles of the 
patriots of the Revolution, and said 
that the time would come when the 
people of this country would become 
selfish and wicked, and fight and kill 
each other. This fact was related to 



the writer by Joseph Putney, jr., in the 
dark days of the war of the Rebellion. 
44 Elder Putney," as he was familiarly 
called, had a second wife, Mary, who 
died April 12, 1S44, aged 82. Her 
body rests at the left of her husband's, 
where, upon a plain slab erected in her 
memory, is this touching but somewhat 
quaint epitaph : 

" Farewell, ray friends, 1 must be gone. 
My body is at rest ; 
I am gone my Savior for to see, 
To be forever blest." 

Not far from the northeast angle of 
this burying-ground is another plain 
siab, upon which we read that 
Mr. Thomas 

BURNHAM 

died 
June 12, 1823, 
JE. 68. 

Mr. Burnham was one of those who 
are so unfortunate as to leave no spe- 
cial record of their meritorious deeds. 
The ensign of our republic that floats 
above his grave attests the public 
recognition of his services as a soldier. 
Thomas Burnham is reported to have 
done defensive work, in the days of the 
Revolution, upon the great watery main, 
before the United States had an ex- 
istence, to say nothing of a navy. He 
was connected with a privateering 
adventure, under the command of 
a Captain Leach. He and his 
wife Ruth, whose body rests by his, 
came, we think, from some place in 
the vicinity of Newburyport, Mass., 
when they settled in Hopkinton, on 
the hillside, a few rods east of the 
burying-lot, on the ancient road lead- 
ing from the top of Putney's hill to 
the center village of the town. A 
story runs that when Ruth Burnham, 
presumably a young wife, left her 
Massachusetts home to settle in the 
comparative wilderness of Hopkinton, 
N. H., she took along a syringa, or lilac 
bush, to plant by her new dwelling. 
The shrub flourished, and of it she 
gave slips to her neighbors, and thus 
for the first time introduced the floral 
specimen into this vicinity. Some 



BETHLEHEM, N. H. 



29 



have it that from Mrs. Burnham's bush 
sprang al! the common red syringas in 
the town ; but the statement may be 
doubtful. Her original bush is now 
living, having spread for some distance 
by the roadside, at the site of her old 
home. 

THREE SMALL GRAVES. 

If we return to the gate of this an- 
cient cemetery, a touch of sympathy, 
which makes the whole world kin. nat- 
urally prompts us to look down at the 
right of one's entering feet, where three 
small mounds lie side by side. These 
three uninscribed graves hold three 
bodies of children of the late Icha- 
bod Eaton, whose family was be- 
reaved of three of its young members 
in three weeks. On three Sundays in 
succession there were funeral services 
at the Eaton house, and on each day 
a child was mourned, while its body 
was conveyed to the silent grave. This 
affliction was the result of the great 
epidemic, known as the " throat dis- 
temper," which, not far from the year 
1820, attacked the children of this 
town, of whom seventy-two are said 
to have died by its fell stroke. Of such 
an extended public affliction the pres- 
ent local population can have no pos- 
sible conception, and we hope its 
practical ignorance of the fact may 
long continue. 

IN FINE. 

The scenery of Xew Hampshire 
abounds with sublime and picturesque 



views, which always excite the admira- 
tion of the transient tourist, while they 
furnish a perpetual fund of delight to 
the appreciative local resident. The 
prospect from Putney's hill, in the 
town of Hopkinton, is of a peculiar 
character, since it is not only extended 
and beautiful, but also singularly varied 
in the character of its visible objects. On 
a clear day. standing at the northeast 
corner of the old burying-ground, one 
can see the tip of Mount Washington, 
appearing like a speck of cloud in the 
extreme northern horizon. Nearly 
every important eminence south of 
the latitude of the above mountain, 
within the limits of the state, is also 
visible. Within the circling sweep of 
the eye can be seen numerous villages. 
At the east, under one's feet, lies the 
village of Hopkinton. On the west 
the eye overlooks the great valley of 
the Contoocook river, where the mean- 
dering, silvery stream enhances the 
beauty of the view in a manner stimu- 
lating our sense of praise, but also ex- 
ceeding our powers of description. 
Drawing this effort to a close, we invite 
the reader to this ancient necropolis. 
Let him select a bright and quiet sum- 
mer day. With the dead sleeping si- 
lently at his feet, and the Uulscape 
stretching softly in the wide distance, 
he may realize subdued reflections 
that mantle the life- worried spirit with 
a feeling of inexpressible sweetness 
and calm. 



BETHLEHEM, N. H. 



" The early history of the town of 
Bethlehem, New Hampshire," is the 
title of a little volume written by Rev. 
Simeon Bolles, and published by the 
Enterprise Printing House, of Woods- 
ville. We hope this venture will lead 
to the issuing of a more d .-tailed ac- 
count of this famous summer resort. 

From its pages one learns that the 
town was first settled about 1787 or 
1 788, by Benjamin Brown and Joseph 



W'arren, who migrated from Massa- 
chusetts. James Turner settled on 
Lloyd's hill in 1790; Lot Woodbury 
came from Roylston, Mass., in March, 
1794 ; Isaac Newton Gay in 1800. 

The town was surveyed into lots by 
Nathaniel Snow. It was originally 
called Lloyd's hill. It was incorpo- 
rated as Bethlehem Dec. 27, 1799. 
Moses Eastman was the first modera- 
tor, town- clerk and selectman; Na- 



1 



30 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



thaniel Snow and Amos Wheeler, his 
colleagues ; Edward Oaks, constable 
and collector ; Simeon Burt and John 
Gile, highway surveyors ; James Noyes, 
tythingman ; John Russell, hogreeve ; 
and Isaac Batchellor, one of a com- 
mittee to build a bridge over the Ara- 
monoosuc river. 

Abigail, daughter of Benjamin 
Brown, was the first white child born 
in town. 

Otis, son of Jonas Warren, was the 
first son. 

The first death in town was that of 
Mrs. Lydia Whipple, who died March 
r 7> 1 795 • ^ rs - Elizabeth Warren 
died March 6, 1797. 



The nearest grist-mill was in Bath, 
and the early settlers had to journey 
fifty miles, to and from, to secure a 
bag of meal. Benjamin Brown would 
make this journey on foot. 

The town was very slowly settled, 
and remained for many years an out- 
post. 

There are several interesting and 
well told anecdotes in the book of 
the perils and adventures of the early 
residents. 

It will be highly prized by the anti- 
quarian and bibliophile, and adds a 
chapter to New Hampshire local his- 
tory. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE MEN IN MICHIGAN— No. 5. 



HON. ALFRED RUSSELL. 



Alfred Russell, one of the most dis- 
tinguished members of the bar in De- 
troit, was born at Plymouth, Grafton 
County, New Hampshire, March 18, 
1830. He graduated at Dartmouth 
College in the class of 1S50, and at 
the Dane Law School in 1852. He 
was admitted to the bar at Meredith 
Bridge, New Hampshire, November, 
1S52, emigrated to Michigan the same 
month, and settled in Detroit. Soon 
after his arrival in that city he entered 
the ofrice of Hon. James F. Joy — 
studying law with that gentleman for a 
brief period. He was admitted to the 
bar of Michigan in 1853, and in 1854 
formed a partnership with the Messrs. 
Walker, which lasted till 1861. Dur- 
ing that year he was appointed United 
States District Attorney for Michigan, 
by President Lincoln, and was re-ap- 
pointed by President Johnson in 1865. 
Mr. Russell was originally a Whig of 
the New England Federal party school, 
and acted with the Free Soilers during 



the existence of that party. Upon 
the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska 
bill, he took a prominent part in the 
organization of the Republican party 
in Michigan, and has since been more 
or less closely identified with that 
party. Mr. Russell is, however, a free 
thinker and an independent actor in 
politics. His personal appearance is 
remarkably fine, his brow is lofty, open 
and commanding, and with his abun- 
dant and beautiful waving auburn hair, 
his dark, piercing eyes, which seem 
" to look quite through the deeds of 
men," and his complexion, as fair and 
delicate as a girl's, all combine to ren- 
der his presence very striking and im- 
pressive. As a lawyer, he stands in 
the front rank of his profession, and is 
known throughout the state as an em- 
inently useful citizen, and in his social 
relations, as a polished gentleman. 

Mary M. Culver. 

Vassar, Michigan. 



EARTHQUAKES IN NEW ENGLAND. 31 

EARTHQUAKES FROM 1638 TO iSSj, IN THE NEW ENGLAND 
STATES AND IN THE BRITISH POSSESSIONS NORTH OF 
THE UNITED STATES AND EAST OF THE ROCKY MOUN- 
TAINS. 



BY JOSIAH EMERY. 



The following Earthquake Notes were 
begun several years ago, as one branch 
of a stud}' of the interior of the earth; 
or rather, perhaps, to confirm or refute 
an hypothesis relating to it? constitu- 
tion. * They were not intended for publi- 
cation as :i whole, but only in part, as 
they tended to confirm or refute that 
hypothesis. These notes are but a small 
portion of what I have in manuscript, 
relating, however, to other districts of 
the earth. 

I hand these notes to the Granite 
Monthly, hoping that they may be of 
interest to the readers of that magazine, 
many of whom are, with me, natives of 
the Granite State, which is my home 
still, even after an absence of more than 
half a century. 

In the compilation I have drawn 
largely from Mr. BrighanVs Historical 
Notes; from the Note Additionelle of 
Mr.^ Lancaster, Secretary of the Royal 
Society of Belgium ; from Joshua Cof- 
fin's History of Newbury, the town 
records of Newbury, and especially 
from tlie record of earthquakes kept by 
Rev. Matthias riant, minister of New- 
bury; from Annals of Salem; from the 
proceedings of various scientific socie- 
ties; from old almanacs: from Sillinian's 
Journal, and its successor, the Journal 
of Science and Arts ; from the newspa- 
per press; and. latterly, in addition, 
from the general press dispatches; from 
(London) Nature, since its establish- 
ment in 1SG9; from the United States 
N\ eather Review, since it began ( wisely) 
to notice earthquakes; and from other 
sources. 

I notice nrr sources of information 
thus in the beginning, as I do not refer 
to my authority or authorities in each 
individual case." 

For copying and arranging these 
notes, etc., I am much indebted to mv 
daughter. Mrs. C. S. Bundy, of Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Williamsport, Pa., Jan. 1, 1883. 



Earthquake of Junk i, 163S. 

The first earthquake that occurred 
in New England, after the landing of 
the Pilgrims in 1620, or on the eastern 
coast of North America, of which we 
have any account, was that of June 
1, 163S. The following account is 
copied from the town records of New- 
bury, Mass. (now Newbury, Newbury- 
port, and West Newbury), changed, 
however, to the modern orthography : 

" June 1 st, 163S. Being this day 
assembled to consult about the well 
ordering of the affairs of the town, 
about one of the clock in the after- 
noon, the sun shining fair, it pleased 
God suddenly to raise a vehement 
earthquake coming with a shrill clap 
of thunder, coming, as is supposed, 
out of the east, which shook the earth 
and the foundations of the house in a 
very violent manner, to our great 
amazement and wonder : wherefore, 
taking notice of so great and strange 
a hand of God's providence, we were 
desirous of leaving it on record to 
the view of after ages to the intent 
that all might take notice of Almighty 
God and fear his name." 

Gov. Winthrop, in his History, says : 
" It came with a noise like continuous 
thunder, or the rattling of coaches in 
London. The noise and shakings con- 
tinued about four minutes." 

Thomas Hutchinson, in his History 
of Massachusetts, says : " The course 
of this earthquake was from west to 
east. It shook the ships, threw down 
the tops of chimneys, and rattled the 
pewter from the shelves. This was a 
very great earthquake, and shook the 
whole country." 



{To be continued.) 



3 2 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE LEGISLATURE— 1883-5. 



HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 

Charles F. Stone, born May 21, 
1843. in Cabot. Vt. : graduated at Middle- 
bury (Vt.) College-; read law with Hon. 
E. A. IJibbard; was admitted in April. 
1872; settled in Laconia. He is presi- 
dent of board of education, chairman 
Democratic state central committe, wid- 
ower, Mason, and a Unitarian. 

Horatio Frank Moi ltox. born Jan. 
24, 1848. in Laconia. then Meredith 
Bridge; entered Dartmouth College; 
midshipman three years; since 1871 a 
manufacturer of stockings; married. 
Unitarian, a Mason, an Odd Fellow. 
K. of P., K. of H.. and G. A. JR. At 
present he is a manufacturer in Columbia. 
S. C. 

George II. Adams, lawyer, of Ply- 
mouth, was born May 18. ISol. in 
Campton; graduated at Dartmouth Col- 
lege in 1873; studied law and settled in 
Plymouth in 1870. in which year he was 
a delegate to the Constitutional Conven- 
tion. He is a member of the law firm 
of Burleigh & Adams, is married, a 
Mason, and a Methodist. 

Orville L. Brock, of Fitzwilliam. 
was born in Bucklield, Maine: received 
a common school education in Auburn ; 
removed to Xatiek. Mass.. in 1858; 
learned the shoe trade lie enlisted in 
April. 1801. under the President's first 
call for volunteers, in Co. II. 13th Keg. 
M. V. M. ; was encamped at Fort Inde- 
pendence, Boston Harbor, from dune 29 
to July 21), when, with his regiment, he 
left for the front; was in the army of 
the Potomac on the extreme right, where, 
from exposure, while on picket, he con- 
tracted a lung - fever from which he has 
never fully recovered. lb' crossed the 
Potomac with the advance of McClellan. 
in the spring of r G2, at Williamsport, 
under command of General Banks: 
marched to Martin-burg, thence to Win- 
chester: the regiment was then ordered 
to join MeDowel on the Rappahannock; 
marched as far as Warren ton Junction, 
when he was ordered to Washington. D. 
C, and was discharged by order of Gen. 
Wadsworth, when he returned to his 
former home. Natick. Mass. He 
married, April 20. 1SG3, Miss Abbie L. 
Hill, of Fitzwilliain; he has two sons. 
He is a Congregationalist. 



John 11. Fox. of Jaffrey, was born at 
Jaffrey June 14, 1S56. and has always 
lived there. He is a farmer; graduated 
at Dartmouth, class 78. and also at the 
Albany Law School, class of '80: has 
•been chairman of the board of super- 
visors in Jalirey for the past two years. 
He is married, and is a member of Char- 
ity Lodge F. and A. Masons. 

Hon. William H. Clmmings. of Lis- 
bon, was born in Xew Hampton, Jan. 
10.1817; lived there until he was about 
rive years old. when his parents moved 
to Wentworth and lived there until he 
was sixteen years old. then he went to 
New Chester and commenced the mer- 
cantile business under Maj. Ebenezer 
Kimball; went into trade there in 1837, 
and remained until fall of 1839; went 
into trade in spring of 1841. at Haverhill, 
in company with John L. Bix. Esq.. and 
remained there until the fall of 1840. lie 
then moved to Lisbon and engaged in 
trade and lumber business in company 
with his brother. Greenleaf Cummings. 
and James Allen. Esq. Mr. Allen dying. 
In 1S53 the company was changed, and 
he continued in same, business until 1861. 
Since 18(51 he has been engaged in man- 
ufacturing and farming, a portion of the 
time. His education was mainly at the 
••common district school." with a few 
terms at a high school or academy. Be- 
ing on the --oil' side" in politic-, he has 
never held many public oiliees : was 
elected representative from Lisbon in 
ISoG; was elected senator for District 
Xo. 12. in 1877 and 1878; and again 
elected representative for the next legis- 
lature; served in the commission to in- 
vestigate the X. II. Asylum for the Insane 
in 1877. and on the taxcommissioninl878 ; 
has been president of the National Bank 
of Newbury, at Wells Biver. Vt.. for the 
past ten years; lias been town treas- 
urer for many years. He has belonged 
to the Masonic fraternity for about 
twenty-five year-, and has taken all the 
degrees to and including the Knights 
Templar: has held all posi' ions in Lodge 
and Chapter offices; also that of Grand 
High King in the Grand Chapter of X. 
H. Was married in 1843, and has a wife 
and two daughters living; belongs to 
no religious denomination, 'out contrib- 
utes to the support of ail societies that 
he believes are doing good. 




wit 





THE 

GRANITE MONTHLY, 

A NEW HAMPSHIRE MAGAZINE 

Devoted to Literature, Biography, History, and State Progress. 

Vol. VII. NOVEMBER, 1883. No. 2. 

V 

CORXELIUS VAN NESS DEARBORN. 

BY JOHN H. GOO DALE. 



Early as 1639, an( ^ on - v nineteen 
years after the landing of the Pilgrims, 
John Wheelwright, a dissenting minis- 
ter from England, was banished from 
Massachusetts Bay colony. It is an 
evidence of the stern intolerance of that 
day that the only error with which he 
was charged was " inveighing against 
all that walked in a covenant of works, 
and maintained sanctification as an 
evidence of justification " — a charge 
not readily comprehended at the pres- 
ent day. There was a minority, in- 
cluding Gov. Winthrop, who protested 
against the sentence, but without 
avail. Mr. Wheelwright, therefore, 
gathering a company of friends, re- 
moved from Massachusetts to Exeter, 
in the province of Xew Hampshire. 
Among the thirty-five persons who 
signed the compact to form a stable 
and orderly colony, is found the name 
of Godfrey Dearborn, the patriarch 
of the entire Dearborn family in this 
country. 

Forty years before he was born in 
F^xeter, England, and in 1637 landed 
at Massachusetts bay. He lived at 
Exeter ten years, and in 1649 moved 
to Hampton, built a framed house, 
which is still standing, became a large 
land-holder and town official, and died 
February 4, 16S6. Few men of the 
early settlers have left a family name 
so widely represented as Godfrey 
vii— 3 



Dearborn. His descendant^ are nu- 
merous in every county of New 
Hampshire, and are to be found in 
every part of Xew England. 

It is worthy of note that among 
the descendants of Godfrey Dearborn 
the practice of medicine has been a 
favorite occupation. Benjamin Dear- 
born, of the fifth generation, gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1746. and entering 
upon a successful practice at Ports- 
mouth, died in his thirtieth year. 
Levi Dearborn had for forty years an 
extensive practice at North Hamp- 
ton, and died in 1792 Edward 
Dearborn, born in 1776, was for half 
a century the medical adviser of the 
people of Seabrook, and acquired a 
handsome estate. Gen. Henry Dear- 
born, who gained a national reputa- 
tion by his brilliant services in the 
Revolutionary war, and as the senior 
major-general of the United States 
army, in the war of 181 2, was a prac- 
ticing physician in Nottingham when 
summoned to join the first New Hamp- 
shire regiment raised in 1775. To- 
day several of the ablest physicians 
of the state bear the name. 

Toward the middle of the last cen- 
tury the Dearborn family had been 
quite generally distributed through 
Rockingham county. Peter Dear- 
born, the great-grandfather of the 
subject of this sketch, was born in 



34 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



Chester in 1710. Of his children, 
Josiah, born in 1751, married Susan- 
nah Emerson, the daughter of Samuel 
Emerson, Esq.. a substantial Chester 
farmer, who was a man of such judg- 
ment and integrity that he was chosen 
to fill the various town offices of Ches- 
ter, and to decide nearly all local 
controversies beyond review or appeal. 
Young Dearborn learned the trade 
of a shoemaker, but, on the breaking 
out of the Revolutionary war, entered 
the army as a private, and was sta- 
tioned at Portsmouth under Col. Jo- 
seph Cilley. Afterward he did hon- 
orable service, first as a private, and 
then as a lieutenant in northern New 
York, and finally closed his enlistment 
by an expedition to Newport, R. I., 
in 177S. 

Returning from the war, he and 
his family found a new home thirty 
miles westward in Weare. It was not 
an unfitting location. With its sixty 
square miles still mostly covered with 
a dense forest of oak, maple, and 
beech, with its uneven surface no 
where rising into high hills, it had a 
strong soil, which, when cultivated, 
yielded large crops of hay and grain. 
It was already a growing township, 
and thirty years later became one of 
the four leading farming towns of the 
state. Here Josiah Dearborn passed 
his life, raising a family of twelve 
children, ten of whom were sons. 
Samuel, the fifth son, and father of 
the subject of this sketch, was born 
in 1792. The district-school system 
was not organized in New Hampshire 
until 1S06, and the children of that 
time had scanty opportunities for in- 
struction. Samuel Dearborn and his 
brothers were reaching manhood, 
when farming in the eastern states 
was depressed by the recent war with 
England and the occurrence of sev- 
eral cold summers. Migration west- 
ward had commenced, and the Dear- 
borns for a time debated the expedi- 
ency of a removal to the Western 
Reserve. They at length decided 
to locate in Vermont, and, from 18 14 
to 1820, five of the brothers and a 



sister removed to Corinth, a town in 
the eastern part of Orange county. 
Here Samuel Dearborn settled upon 
a farm, soon after married Miss Fanny 
Brown, of Yershire, whose parents 
were natives of Chester, N. H., and 
here he passed a long and useful life. 
He died December 12, 1S71, in the 
eightieth year of his age. His wife 
had died in 1S36. Of scholarly tastes, 
he was for many years a teacher of 
winter schools. An active member of 
the Free-will Baptist denomination, 
his religion was a life rather than a 
creed. 

Cornelius Van Ness Dearborn, 
the son of Samuel and Fanny Dear- 
born, was born in Corinth, Vt., May 
14, 1S32. His name was in compli- 
ment to the then ablest statesman of 
the state, who had filled the offices of 
governor and minister to Spain. Cor- 
nelius was the youngest but one of 
seven children. His childhood was 
passed in a strictly agricultural com- 
munity. Corinth, lying among the 
foot-hills of the Green Mountains, is 
one of the best farming towns in east- 
ern Vermont. Without railway fa- 
cilities, with scanty water-power, its 
inhabitants depend for a livelihood 
upon the products of the soil, from 
which by industry they gain a sub- 
stantial income. Few in Corinth have 
ever accumulated more than what is 
now regarded as a fair competency, 
and very few have encountered ex- 
treme poverty. A more industrious, 
law-abiding, practically sensible peo- 
ple would be difficult to find. 

When four years old young Dear- 
born met with the saddest loss of 
childhood — a mother, whose intelli- 
gence, forethought, and womanly vir- 
tues had been the life and light of 
the household. He early joined his 
older brothers in the labors of the 
farm, attending the district school for 
a few weeks in summer and ten or 
twelve weeks each winter. When fif- 
teen years old he attended the spring 
term of the Corinth Academy, and 
continued at intervals for several terms 
later. In the winter of 1848-49, his 



CORNELIUS VAN NESS DEARBORN. 



seventeenth year not yet completed, 
he taught the school of a neighboring 
district. His success warranted his 
-continuance as teacher in the vicinity 
for the five following winters. Con- 
tinuing his farm labors in summer, he 
in the meantime developed a mechan- 
ical -capacity in the making of farm 
implements and the erection of 
buildings, — a natural aptitude which 
has been of great service in maturer 
years. 

Soon after attaining the age of 
eighteen, Mr. Dearborn determined 
to enter upon a course of study pre- 
paratory to a professional life. Before 
leaving Corinth he commenced the 
study of law with Rodney Lund, a 
young man who had commenced 
practice in the vicinity. In March, 
1854, at the suggestion of his mater- 
nal uncle, Dr. \V. \V. Brown, he came 
to Manchester, and renewed his law 
studies in the office of Hon. Isaac 
W. Smith, with whom he remained 
till his admission to the bar in the fall 
of 1S55. 

In December, 1S55, he opened an 
office at Francestown. The town 
afforded a safe opening for a young 
practitioner, but not one for large 
profits. There was a time, after the 
close of the war of 1S12, when the 
trade of Francestown village exceeded 
that of any other locality in Hills- 
borough county. But the opening of 
the railroad to Nashua, and soon after 
to Manchester, entirely changed the 
centers of trade and business, and 
left Francestown to become a respect- 
able and very quiet village. 

Hitherto Mr. Dearborn, while en- 
tertaining positive views, had not 
actively participated in political dis- 
cussion. But the year 1856 witnessed 
the consolidation of the anti-slavery 
sentiment of the country. It had 
already so far concentrated its strength 
in New Hampshire as to have secured 
the state government and a unani- 
mous representation in congress.' The 
nomination of John C. Fremont for 
president, in the summer of that year, 
hastened the organization of the anti- 



slavery elements of the entire north 
under the name of the Republican 
party. In common with a majority 
of the intelligent young men of the 
state, Mr. Dearborn entered into this 
contest with all the zeal, vigor, and 
enthusiasm of one whose action is 
untrammeled by personal or partisan 
ends. The campaign which followed 
was the most brilliant and far-reaching 
in its results of any in the political 
history of the nation. No idea ever 
agitated the American mind to which 
calculating selfishness was more foreign. 
Even the great uprising which brought 
about the War of Independence was 
less free from selfish motives. And, 
though the general result in the presi- 
dential election of that year was ad- 
verse, yet in New Hampshire, as in 
every state north of Pennsylvania, the 
returns clearly showed that the cause 
of freedom had acquired an over- 
ruling strength. 

In lil ne, 1 S5 7 ? Mr. Dearborn was 
united in marriage with Miss Louie 
Frances Eaton, daughter of Moses 
W. and Louisa S. Eaton, of Frances- 
town, .and grand-daughter of Dr. 
Thomas Eaton, a physician of long 
and extensive practice, and one of 
the most extensive farmers of his time. 
In 1S57 he was elected county treas- 
urer, and re-elected in 1S58. It was 
the first public position he had held, 
and its duties were satisfactorily dis- 
charged. 

In 1853 he removed to Peterbor- 
ough, occupying the office of E. S. 
Cutter, Esq., who had recently been 
appointed clerk of the courts for 
Hillsborough county. He resided in 
Peterborough till 1S65. During this 
time he was in partnership with Charles 
G. Cheney, and afterward with Albert 
S. Scott, both of whom have since 
died. He represented the town in 
the legislature in the years 1861 and 
1862, being a member of the judiciary 
committee. 

In the summer of 1865 he removed 
to Nashua, for the purpose of contin- 
uing the practice of his profession. 
An accidental purchase led to a change 



36 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



of occupation. The Nashua Tele- 
graph had for many years been edited 
by Albin Beard, a genial, witty, and, 
withal, accomplished writer. Under 
him the Telegraph had acquired a 
marked local popularity. He died in 
September, 1S62. Its present pub- 
lishers were inexperienced writers, and 
illy qualified to satisfy the admirers of 
its former editor. The Telegraph 
was rapidly deteriorating in value and 
influence. The senior proprietor in- 
quired of Mr. Dearborn what he 
would give for his half of the estab- 
lishment. A somewhat nominal price 
was offered, and much to the surprise 
of Mr. Dearborn was accepted. He 
at once entered upon the duties of 
editor and financial manager. Under 
his direction the Telegraph was rap- 
idly recovering its patronage and in- 
fluence, but at the end of two years 
his health failed, and a change of oc- 
cupation became a necessity. He 
disposed of his interest to the present 
editor, Hon. O. C. Moore, and re- 
sumed the practice of law. 

Since his residence at Nashua, Mr. 
Dearborn has contributed largely to 
the improvement of real estate, to the 
erection of improved school buildings, 
and to the reconstruction and greater 
efficiency of the public schools. He 
was appointed register of probate for 
Hillsborough county in 1S6S, and 
held the office till 1874. 

For several years he was treasurer 
of the Nashua & Lowell Railroad, and 
is still one of the directors. In his 
official action he aided largely in sus- 
taining the measures which have 
placed that corporation in the front 
rank of profitable railways. He is 
also the treasurer of the L'nderhill 
Edge Tool Company, and is at this 
time president of the board of edu- 
cation. 

Twenty years ago, while a res- 
ident of Peterborough, he was ap- 
pointed by the governor one of the 
bank commissioners of New Hamp- 
shire. In that capacity he became 
acquainted with the extent and pe- 
culiarities of the financial institu- 



tions of the state. In 1S64 and 1865. 
he actively superintended, in his offi- 
cial capacity, the converting of the- 
state banks of discount into the na- 
tional banks of the present system. 
In March, 1866, he was appointed 
examiner of the national banks for 
the State of New Hampshire, a posi- 
tion which he still holds. He is the- 
only person who has filled this posi- 
tion since the organization of the na- 
tional banking-system. 

In the discharge of the duties of" 
bank-examiner, official fidelity requires 
that the investigation shall be thorough ! 
and exhaustive. That during the past, 
eighteen years but a single instance of 
defalcation has occurred resulting in. 
loss among the forty-nine national 
banks in the state, is pretty conclusive 
evidence of a diligent and careful su- 
pervision. From the length of time he 
has held the position he has become 
familiar with the indications of laxity, 
lenity, negligence, not to mention: 
recklessness, which mark the first 
steps of danger to a banking institu- 
tion ; and his suggestions and warn- 
ings to bank officials have not infre- 
quently been of advantage to the 
public generally, as well as to stock- 
holders, where no publicity has been- 
gained through the press or otherwise. 

Personally, Mr. Dearborn is not an 
ostentatious, obtrusive, aggressive man. 
He has no fondness for newspaper 
notoriety, no solicitude lest he should 
be overlooked by the public, and has 
a special dislike for unmeaning titles. 
In politics and religion he is liberal 
and tolerant, conceding to others the 
utmost freedom of opinion. Attend- 
ing to his own duties, it is not his 
habit to interfere with the personal 
affairs of others. But when attacked 
without reason or provocation, no 
matter what his pretensions, his assail- 
ant will speedily find that he has need, 
of a prudent husbandry of his re- 
sources. 

Mr. Dearborn is a member of the 
Congregational church. His two chil- 
dren are sons. The older, John Ea- 
ton, born November, 1862, is acquis- 



PORTRAITS FOR POSTERITY. 



37 



ing a business education, and is at 
this time clerk for his father in the office 
•of the Edge Tool works. The younger, 
George Van Ness, born in August, 1S69, 
is attending the public schools. His 
house is pleasantly situated on Main 
street, and is one of the desirable 



residences in the city. Still in the 
prime of life, his many friends have 
no reason to doubt that in the future, 
as in the past, he will be adequate to 
any responsibility which may devolve 
upon him. 



PORTRAITS FOR POSTERITY. 



In the council-chamber in the state 
• house, at Concord, there are arranged 
upon the walls the portraits of all the 
governors of New Hampshire, since 
its organization as a state. In the 
senate-chamber above are the portraits 
•of many of the presiding officers of 
that body. In the state library are 
gathered, very appropriately, the por- 
traits of the chief-justices of the state. 
In the rotunda, or Doric hall, are the 
portraits of several heroes of the state 
in the war of the Rebellion. In the 
representatives' hall, above, are the 
portraits of distinguished sons of New 
Hampshire, generals in the Revolution 
and in the war of 1S12, editors and 
statesmen, grouped around the father 
■of his country. More than one hun- 
dred portraits are already in position 
within the state house, and others are 
in preparation. 

In the art gallery of Dartmouth 
College, at Hanover, there are over 
one hundred portraits of members of 
the faculty, benefactors of the college, 
and distinguished graduates. 

At Phillips Exeter Academy there 
are already in position forty-two por- 
traits. 

Who can estimate the satisfaction 
and gratification afforded to coming 
generations by these magnificent collec- 
tions of portraits ! The student at 
Hanover and Exeter will try to emulate 
the great and good men who formed 
their characters within the classic 
shades of those institutions ; he will 
more fully realize and appreciate the 
golden opportunities within his reach. 



Every citizen of the state, of high or 
low degree, can not but look with pride 
to the state house, embellished as it is 
with portraits of men who have made 
the history of the commonwealth. 

To one man is chiefly due the credit 
of securing for all time these three 
collections. Through the patriotism, 
energy, perseverance, industry and 
research of Hon. Benjamfn F. Pres- 
cott, of Epping, a student of Phillips 
Exeter Academy, a graduate of Dart- 
mouth College, secretary of the state, 
and governor, have these portraits been 
gathered, and to him all honor is 
due for his great work. Eleven 
years of active and unremunera- 
tive labor has he devoted to this 
cause, carried on correspondence the 
most voluminous, and made visits 
almost innumerable. Paintings have 
been obtained from the most unex- 
pected sources, and the most distant 
localities. 

Herewith is given a list of the por- 
traits already secured through Mr. 
Prescott's instrumentality : 

STATE HOUSE. 
PROVINCIAL G O V ERNOR.S. 

Simon Bradstreet. Original artist 
unknown ; copy by Adna Tenney from 
a portrait now in the possession of the 
proprietors of the Museum in Boston, 
Mass. 

Joseph Dudley, governor in 1686 
and in 1 702. A copy from a painting 
in the rooms of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society. 

William Burnet, governor from 



3S 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



172S to 1730. A copy of the portrait 
in the senate-chamber in the Massa- 
chusetts stale house. 

Jonathan Belcher. A copy of the 
painting in the rooms of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society. Governor 
from 1730 and 1731. 

John Wentworth (lieut. -governor), 
from 1 71 7 to 1728. Full length, by J. 
Blackburn, in 1760: copy by Ulysses 
D. Tenney, of New Haven, Conn. 
Presented to the state by Mark H. 
Wentworth, of Portsmouth, N. H. 

Benning Wentworth, governor 
from 1 741 to 1767. Full length, by 
J. Blackburn, in 1760 ; copy by U. D. 
Tenney. Presented to the state by 
Mark H. Wentworth. 

John Wentworth, ll. d., governor 
from 1767 to 1775, %y hen he withdrew. 
This portrait is a copy after an original 
by John S. Copley, and is of bust 
size. It was copied by U. D. Tenney. 
Presented to the state by Mark H. 
Wentworth. 

presidents under the constitution 
OF 17S4. 

John Langdon, el. d. Original by 
John Trumbull ; copy by U. D. Ten- 
ney. Presented to the state by Alfred 
Langdon Elvvyn, of Philadelphia, Pa.- — 
a grandson. Mr. Langdon was speaker 
of the house of representatives from 
1776 to 1782; senitor in congress 
from 1789 to 1795, and president of 
the same body. He was one of the 
most liberal and patriotic men of his 
time, and bore a conspicuous part in 
the Revolution. President in 1785 
and in 17SS. Governor from 1805 to 
1809, and from 18 10 to 1S12. 

John Sullivan, ll. d. Painted by 
U. D. Tenney, from an original pencil 
sketch by Trumbull, in 1 790. Present- 
ed to the state by Dr. John Sullivan, 
of Boston, Mass. — a great-grandson. 
Gen. Sulhvan was one of the promi- 
nent generals of the Revolutionary 
war. President in 1786, and in 1789. 

GOVERNORS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 

OK 1702. 

John Taylor Gilman, ll. d. An 
original by J. Harvey Young, of Boston, 
Mass. Presented to the state by the 



Gilman family. Governor from 1794 
to 1805, and from 181 3 to 18 16. 

Jeremiah Smith, ll. d. Original by 
Alexander ; copy by Adna Tenney. 
Presented to the state by Hon. Jere- 
miah Smith, ll. d., of Dover — a son.. 
Gov. Smith was also chief-justice of 
the state from 1S02 to 1809, and from 
1S13 to 181 6. Presidential elector in 
1 80S; governor in 1S09. 

William Plumer. Original by Albert. 
Gallatin Hoit ; copy by Adna Tenney. 
Presented to the state by William. 
Lawrence Plumer and Nathaniel Green 
Plumer, of Epping — grandsons. Gov. 
Plumer was speaker of the house of 
representatives in 1797, and president 
of the senate for the state in 1S10 
and 1 Si 1, and United States senator 
from 1802 to 1 So 7. Governor from 
1S12 to 1813, and from 1S16 to 1S19.. 

Levi Woodbury, ll. d. Original by 
C. B. King, of Washington, D. C. ; 
copy by Thomas A. Lawson, of Lowell, 
Mass. Presented to the state by the 
children of Gov. Woodbury. Mr. 
Woodbury was governor in 1S23; 
speaker of the N. H. house of 
representatives in 1825 ; senator in 
congress from 1S25 to 1S31, and 
from 1 84 1 to 1S45 ; secretary of 
the navy from 1831 to 1834 ; secretary 
of the treasury from 1S34 to 1S41, 
and associate justice of the supreme 
court of the United States from 1845 
to 1S51. 

John Bell. An original by U. D. 
Tenney, from material in possession, 
of the family. Presented to the state 
by Hon. Charles H. Bell, ll. d. — a son. 
Governor in 1S2S. 

Benjamin Pierce. Original by H. 
C. Pratt ; copy by Adna Tenney. 
Presented to the state by Col. Frank 
Hawthorne Pierce, of Concord — a 
grand-son. Governor in 1827 and in 
1829. 

Samuel Dinsmoor. An original by 
Marchand. Presented to the state by 
Col. William Dinsmoor, of -Keene — a 
son. He was also representative in 
congress in 1811 and 1812; presiden- 
tial elector in 1820; governor from, 
1831 to 1834. 



PORTRAITS FOR POSTERITY. 



39 



William Badger. An original by 
Adna Tenney, from an engraving in 
possession of the family. Presented 
to the state by Col. Joseph Badger, of 
Belmont — a son. Governor from 1S34 
to 1S36 ; state senator from 1S14 to 
1 Si 7 ; presidential elector in 1S16. 

Isaac Hill. An original by U. D. 
Tenney. Presented to the state by 
John M. Hill, Esq., of Concord — a 
son. He was a state senator in 1S20, 
1S21, 1S22, and 1S27 ; second comp- 
troller of the U. S. treasury from 1829 
to 1S30 ; U. S. senator from 1S31 to 
1836; governor in 1S36, 1S37, 1S3S. 
In 1S40, was sub-treasurer in Boston, 
Mass. 

John Page. Original by Alonzo 
Slafter ; copy by Adna Tenney. Pre- 
sented to the state by Hon. John A. 
Page, of Montpelier, Vt. — a son. He 
was councilor in 1836 and in 183S ; 
U. S. senator from June, 1836, to 
March, 1S37 ■ governor from 1839 to 
1S42. 

Henry Hubbard. Original by Wil- 
son j copy by H. M. Kno\vlton,of Bos- 
ton, Mass. Presented to the state by his 
children. He was speaker of the 
house from 1825 to 182S ; arepresent- 
ative in congress from 1829 to 1S35, 
and a senator in congress from 1S35 
to 1841 ; governor in 1S42 and 1843 > 
from 1S46 to 1849 asst. U. S. treasurer 
in Boston. For a part of the 23d 
congress he was speaker. 

John H. Steele. Original by H. 
Bundy ; copy by Adna Tenney. Pre- 
sented to the' state by John H. Steele, 
of Peterborough — a kinsman. Coun- 
cilor from 1S40 to 1S42; governor 
from 1S44 to 1846. 

Samuel Dinsmoor, Jr., ll. d. An 
original by Plumer Prescott. Pre- 
sented to the state by Col. William 
Dinsmoor, of Keene — a brother. 
Governor from 1849 to 1852. 

Noah Martin. Original by N. B. 
Onthank ; copy by Adna Tenney. Pre- 
sented to the state by Mrs. Noah 
Martin, of Dover. Governor from 
1852 to 1854. 

Frederick Smyth. An original by 
E. L. Custer, of Boston, Mass. Pre- 



sented to the state by Gov. Smyth. 
Governor from 1S65 to 1867. 

Walter Harrlman. An original by 
U. D. Tenney. Presented to the state 
by himself. Pie was state treasurer 
from 1S53 to 1855 i state senator from 
1S59 to 1861 ; colonel nth Reg't N. 
H. Vol's, and brevet brig.-gen. ; sec- 
retary of the state from 1S65 to 1S67 ; 
governor from 1867 to 1S69 ; naval 
officer in Boston, Mass., from 1S69 to 
1S73. 

Onslow Stearns. An original by 
Edgar Parker, of Boston. Mass. Pre- 
sented to the state by himself. He 
was president of the N. H. senate in 
1863 ; governor from 1S69 to 1S71. 

James A. Weston. An original by 
U. D. Tenney. Presented to the state 
by himself. Governor in 1871 and in 
1874. 

Ezekiel A. Straw. An original by 
Adna Tenney. Presented to the state 
by himself. He was president of the 
state senate in 1S65 > governor from 
1872 to 1S74. 

Person C. Cheney. An original by 
Edward L. Custer, of Boston, Mass. 
Presented to the state by himself. 
Governor from 1S75 to 1S77. 

Benjamin F. Prescott. An original 
by U. D. Tenney. Presented to the 
state by himself. Was secretary of the 
state in 1S72, 1S73, 1875, 1876 ; gov- 
ernor from 1877 to 1879. 

Natt Head. An original by U. D. 
Tenney. Presented to the state by 
himself. He was adjutant-general 
of the state during the Rebellion ; 
president of the senate in 1877 ; & ov ~ 
ernor from 1879 to 1881. 

new hampshire generals in the 
revolution. 

John Stark. Original by Trumbull ; 
copy by U. D. Tenney. Presented to 
the state by Miss Charlotte Stark, of 
Dunbarton — a granddaughter. 

Alexander Scammel. Original by 
Trumbull ; copy by U. I). Tenney. 

Enoch Poor. Original by Thaddeus 
Kosciusko ; copy by U. D. Tenney. 
Presented to the state by Col. Bradbury 
P. Cillev, of Manchester — a grandson. 
The original painting was sketched 



4 o 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



one Sunday on the blank leaf in a 
copy of the New Testament, while 
both were at church. Kosciusko then 
colored it and presented it to his 
intimate friend, Gen. Poor. It has 
been transmitted as an heir-loom to 
Col. Cilley. It was worn by his 
mother, as a breast-pin, during her 
life-time. She was the daughter of 
Gen. Foor. 

Joseph Cilley. Original by Trum- 
bull ; copy by U. D.Tenney. Presented 
to the state by Col. Joseph Cilley, of 
Nottingham — a grandson, and an officer 
in the war of 1S12, and now residing 
in Nottingham (1SS3) in his ninety- 
third year. 

William Whipple. Original by 
Trumbull ; copy by U. D. Tenney. 
Gen. Whipple was also a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, and a 
member in congress from 1774 to 
1779. 

Henry Dearborn. Original by Gil- 
bert Stuart; copy by U. D. Tenney. 
Gen. Dearborn, in 1 7S9, was appointed 
marshal for the district of Maine, by 
Washington ; representative in con- 
gress from 1793 t0 1797 ; secretary of 
war, under Jefferson, from 1S01 to 
1809 ; after which he was collector of 
the port of Boston. In 1S22 he was 
appointed minister to Portugal, and 
served in that position two years. 

James Reed. Original by Trumbull ; 
copy by Miss Anna DeWitt Reed, of 
New York city— a lineal descendant. 
Presented to the state by Mrs. Caroline 
G. Reed, of New York city. 

M I S C I : LL AXEOUS PORTRAITS. 

Franklin Pierce. An original, full 
length, by U. D. Tenney. Presented 
to the state by Col. Frank Iiawthorne 
Pierce — a nephew. Mr. Pierce was 
.speaker of the house of representa- 
tives in 1S31 and 1S32: senator in 
congress from 103 7 to 1S42, and 
president of the United States from 
March, 1S53, to March, 1857. 

John P. Hale. An original, full 
length, by U. D. Tenney. Presented 
to the state by friends of Mr. Hale. 
He was speaker of the house of rep- 
resentatives in 1846; representative 



in the 28th congress; senator in con- 
gress from 1847 t0 l &53' from 
1855 to 1S59, and from 1S59 to 1S65. 
In 1 S3 2 he was the free-soil candi- 
date for president. U. S. minister to 
Spain from 1S65 to 1S70. 

Jeremy Belknap. A copy of an 
original in possession of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society. He wrote 
a valuable history of New Hampshire. 

Nathaniel Peabody Rogers. An 
original by U. D. Tenney. Presented 
to the state by Hon. Jacob H. Ela, 
and Hon. John R. French — the latter a 
son-in-law. 

Jeremiah Mason. An original by 
Chester Harding. Presented to the 
state by Robert M. Mason, Esq., of 
Boston — a son. Mr. Mason was attor- 
ney-general of the state in 1S02, and 
served several years ; was a senator in 
congress from 1S13 to 1S17, and a 
lawyer of national reputation. 

Samuel Cushman. An original by 
Chester Harding. Presented to the 
state by Mrs. E. S. Cushman Tiiton — a 
daughter. Mr. Cushman was a repre- 
sentative in congress from 1835 to 
1S39. 

Matthew Thornton. An original 
by Adna Tenney, from material fur- 
nished by Capt. James S. Thornton, 
of the U. S. Navy. It was presented 
to the state by Capt. Thornton. Mat- 
thew Thornton was chairman of the 
committee of safety in New Hamp- 
shire ; was a member of congress 
from 1774 to 1779, and a signer of 
the Declaration of Independence. 

Israel Evans. A copy by U. D. 
Tenney, from an original on ivory — 
artist unknown. Presented to the 
state by George Porter, Esq., of Pitts- 
burg, Pa. Mr. Evans was a chaplain 
in the Revolution, and an intimate 
friend of Washington and Lafayette. 
His portrait was recognized by Lafayette 
when in Concord in 1825. Mr. Evans 
was pastor of the Congregational 
church in Concord from July 1. 1789, 
to July 1, 1797. He was a trustee of 
Dartmouth College from 1793 to 1S07, 
and founded one of its professorships, 
which bears his name. 



PORTRAITS FOR POSTERITY. 



4i 



Tames Sheafe. An original by Henry 
Inman. Presented to the state by 
John Fisher Sheafe, Esq., of New York 
city — a son. Mr. Sheafe was a rep- 
resentative from New Hampshire 
in the 6th congress, and United States 
senator in 1 So 1-2. 

CHIEF JUSTICES OF THE STATE. 

Simeon Olcott. A copy by U. D. 
Tenney. Presented to the state by 
George Olcott, Esq., of Charlestown — 
a grandson. Mr. Olcott was U. S. 
senator from 1801 to 1S05 ; a trustee 
of Dartmouth College from 1 7S4 to 
*793- 

Andrew S. Woods, ll. d. An origi- 
nal by U. D. Tenney. Presented to 
the state by Col. Edward Woods, of 
Bath — a son. 

Henry A. Bellows, ll. d. An origi- 
nal by Adna Tenney. Presented to 
the state by Hon. Charles Doe and 
Hon. Jeremiah Smith, who at the time 
of presentation were associate justices 
of the supreme court. 

J. Everett Sargent, ll. d. An 
original by U. D. Tenney. Presented 
to the state by himself. Judge Sar- 
gent was also speaker of the house in 
1 S5 3, and president of the senate in 
i854. 

Ira A. Eastman, ll. d. Painted by 
U. I). Tenney. Presented to the 
state by his widow. 

1 'RESIDENTS OF THE N. II. SENATE. 

Kenning M. Plan. An original by 
U* 1). Tenney. Presented to the state 
by J. Q. A. Bean, Esq., of Boston, 
Mass. — a son. He was councilor in 
1829; president of the senate in 1S32 ; 
a representative in congress from 1833 



to 1 8 



37- 



William Haile. A copy by Adna 
Tenney, after an original by himself. 
Presented to the state 'by Hon. 
William II. Haile, of Springfield, 
Mass.— a son. Mr. Haile was also 
governor of the state from 1857 to 

Moody Currier, ll. d. An original 
by U. D. Tenney. Presented to the 
state by himself. He was president 



of the senate in 1857, councilor from 
i860 to 1S62. 

Herman Foster. An original by 
Adna Tenney. Presented to the state 
by himself. President of the senate 
in 1S61. 

Nathaniel Gordon. An original by 
N. B. Onthank. Presented to the 
state by himself. President of the 
senate in 1870. 

Charles H. Campbell. An original 
by Adna Tenney. Presented to the 
state by himself. President of the 
senate in 1872. 

James B. Creighton. An original 
by U. D. Tenney. Presented to the 
state by himself. President of the 
senate in 1840. 

Charles G. Atherton. An original. 
Presented to the state by his widow, 
Mrs. Anne Atherton. Mr. Atherton 
was speaker of the house of represent- 
atives from 1S33 to 1 S3 7 ; representa- 
tive in congress from 1S37 to 1S43, 
and senator in congress from 1843 t0 
1S49. 

Harry Hibbard. An original by U. 
D. Tenney. Presented to the state by 
members of the New Hampshire Bar. 
He was speaker of the house of rep- 
resentatives from 1S44 to 1S46 ; pres- 
ident of the senate from 1S47 t0 
1S49 ; representative in congress from 
1S49 to 1S55. 

David A. Warde. An original by 
JohnBurgum, of Concord. Presented 
to the state by himself. President of 
the senate in 1S73. 

William H. Y. Hackett. An origi- 
nal by U. D. Tenney. Presented to 
the state by the sons of Mr. Hackett. 
He was president of the senate in 1862. 

John W. Sanborn. An original by 
U. D. Tenney. Presented to the state 
by Mr. Sanborn. President of the 
senate in 1875. 

David H. Blffcm. An original by 
U. D. Tenney. Presented to the state 
by the family of Mr. BufTum. Presi- 
dent of the senate in 1S78. 

Natt Head. An original by Plumer 
Prescott. Presented to the state by 
himself. President of the senate in 

1877. 



42 THE GRAN IT 

Titos Brown. An original by Howe, 
of Lowell, Mass. Presented to the 
state by Thomas B. Bradford, of 
Francestown. Mr. Brown was a rep- 
resentative in congress from 1S25 to 
1829. President of the senate in 
1S43- 

Jacob H. Gallinger. An original 
by U. D. Tenney. Presented to the 
state by himself. President of the 
senate in 1SS1. 

John Kimball. An original by U. D. 
Tenney. Presented to the state by 
himself. President of the senate in 
1882. 

William P. Weeks. An original by 
U. D. Tenney. Presented to the 
state by Hon. Joseph D. Weeks, of 
Cannan, N. H. — a son. President of 
the senate in 1S4Q. 

OFFICERS OF THE WATS OF 1S12-14. 

Gen. James Miller. Original by 
Henry Willard ; copy by U. D. Ten- 
ney. Presented to the state by the 
family of Gen. Miller. He was terri- 
torial governor of Arkansas from 1S19 
to 1825 ; also collector of the port of 
Salem, Mass., from 1825 to 1849. 

Gen. John McNeil. An original by 
Henry Willard. Presented to the state 
by Mrs. E. A. Benham, of Boston, 
Mass., and Mrs. Fanny McNeil Potter, 
the surviving children of Gen. McNeil. 
He was for many years surveyor of 
the port of Boston. Mass. 

Col. Joseph Cilley, a grandson of 
Gen. Joseph Cilley of the Revolution- 
ary war. An original by U. 1). Tenney. 
Presented to the state by Col. Cilley. 
He was wounded in the battle of 
Lundy's Lane, serving as a lieutenant 
under Gen. Miller. He now resides at 
Nottingham, in his ninety-third year. 
He was U. S. senator from 1846 to 
1847. 

secretaries of the state. 

Theodore Atkinson. Copy of an 
original by J. Blackburn in 1760; 
two-thirds length, sitting posture. 
Secretary from 1741 to 1762, and 
from 1769 to 1775; chief justice 
of the supreme court of judicature 
from 1 754 to 1775. 



£ MONTHLY. 

Theodore Atkinson, Jr. Two-thirds 
length, standing posture ; copy after 
J. Blackburn, 1760. Secretary from 
1 762 to 1 769. 

Lemuel N. Pattee. An original by 
Adna Tenney. Presented to the state 
by his widow, Mrs. Pattee, of Goffs- 
town. 

Thomas L. Tullock. An original by 
U. D. Tenney. Presented to the state 
by Mr. Tullock. He was secretary 
from 1S5S to 1 86 1 ; postmaster of 
Portsmouth from 1849 to T ^53 > navy 
agent at Portsmouth from 1S61 to 
1865 ; collector of Internal Revenue 
for the District of Columbia from 1S69 
to 1S76. He was assistant postmaster 
of Washington for several years, and 
at the time of his death, 1SS3, was 
post-master of the same city. 

officers in the war of the rebel- 
lion. 

Col. Jesse A. Gove, U.S. V. (Capt. 
10th U. S. Infantry). An original by 
Adna Tenney. Presented to the state 
by his wife, Mrs. Jesse A. Gove. He 
was killed while leading the 2 2d 
Massachusetts Vol's, in the battle of 
Gaines's Mills, Va., June 27, 1S62. 

Col. Phin P. Bixbv. An original by 
U. D. Tenney. Presented to the state 
by the personal friends of Col. Bixby. 

Col. Evarts W. Farr. An original 
by U. D. Tenney. Presented to the 
state by his wife, Mrs. Farr, and Hon. 
Henry YV. Blair, U. S. senator. He 
served in the nth Reg't N. H. Vol's, 

Note. — Aside from the portraits men- 
tioned above, are the following, in the 
seeuring of which Mr. Prescott is en- 
titled to no direct credit: In the repre- 
sentatives' hull, those of George Wash- 
ington. Daniel Webster, and .John 
DeGraffe; in the senate chamber. 
John" S. Wells; and in the council 
chamber. Anthony Colby, .Tared W. 
Williams. X. 15. Baker. David L. 
Morkil. Ralph Metcalf. William 
Haile. Matthew Harvey, Ichabod 
Goodwin. X. .S. Berry, and .1. A. Gil- 
more. Charles II. Bell, ll. i>. 
Painted by U. D. Tenney. Presented by 
himself. Speaker of the house of rep- 
resentatives in 1860; president of the 
senate in 18G4 ; C. S. senator in 1871! ; gov- 
ernor from 1881 to 1883. In Doric hall 
the marble bust of Hon. Amos Ti ck. 



PORTRAITS FOR POSTERITY. 



43 



and lost an arm in the service. He 
was a member of the executive coun- 
cil in 1876, and at the time of his 
death was a representative in congress, 
,879. 

PHILLIPS EXETER ACADEMY. 

John Phillips, ll. d., the founder. 
Full length, in sitting posture ; copy 
after an original by Gilbert Stuart, by 
Adna Tenney. Presented to the acad- 
emy by Messrs. E. and E. G. Wallace, 
Rochester, N. H. 

Lewis Cass. An original by G. P. A. 
Healey, in a standing posture, two- 
thirds length. Presented by the chil- 
dren of Gen. Cass. 

Daniel Webster, ll. d. An origi- 
nal, three-fourths length, in a standing 
posture, by Joseph Ames. Presented 
bv the "Marshfield Club," of Boston, 
Mass. 

Edward Everett, ll. d. Original by 
J. Harvey Young, of Boston ; copy 
by same artist. Presented by Peter 
C. Brooks, of Boston. 

Josiah BARTLETr. A copy after 
Trumbull, by E. Billings, of Boston. 
Presented by Josiah Calef Bartlett, of 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Samuel Phillips and Lt.-Gov. Sam- 
UEL Phillips, Jr. Presented by the 
the Phillips family of Andover, Mass. 
The latter is an original painting, and 
was designed for the Lee family in 
Virginia, but never reached them. It 
was painted about 1798. 

Daniel Dana, d. d. Original by 
Thomas A. Lawson, of Lowell, Mass. ; 
copy by same artist. Presented by 
Miss Jane Dana, of Derry — a daugh- 
ter. Dr. Dana was president of 
Dartmouth College in 1820. 

Nichoias Emery. Original by H. C. 
Pratt ; copy by J. G. Fletcher, of 
Portland, Maine'. Presented by Mrs. 
L. G. S. Boyd, and Miss Charlotte G. 
Emery, of Portland— daughters of 
Judge Emery. 
^ Leverett Saltonstall. Original by 
Chester Harding, of Springfield, Mass. ; 
c op>' by Osgood, of Salem, Mass. 
Presented by Leverett Saltonstall, Esq.- 
his son. He was a representative in 
congress from 1839 to 1843. 



Samuel D. Parker. An original by 
Thomas Ball. Presented by Mr. 
Parker when upward of ninety years 
of age. 

John A. Dix. A marble bust, chiseled 
when Gen. Dix was U. S. minister to 
France. Presented by himself. 

Benjamin F. Butler. A medallion 
in marble, by Andrews, of Lowell, 
Mass. Presented by Gen. Butler. 

W illiam O. B. Peadody, d. d. An 
original by Chester Harding. Pre- 
sented by Oliver AW Peabody, of 
Boston — a son. 

Charles Burroughs, d. d. Original 
by E. Billings, of Boston ; copy by 
same artist. Presented by his wife, 
Mrs. Burroughs, of Portsmouth. 

Joseph G. Hoyt, ll. d. An original 
by Adna Tenney. Presented by the 
friends and pupils of Chancelor Hoyt. 

Jeremiah Smith, ll. d. Original by 
Alexander : copy by Adna Tenney. 
Presented by his widow, Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Hale Smith, and Hon. Jeremiah 
Smith, ll. d., his son. 

Paul A. Chadbourne, ll. d. An 
original by J. G. Fletcher, of Portland, 
Me. Presented by himself. 

John P. Hale. An original by U. D. 
Tenney. Presented by Hon. Moses 
T. Willard and wife, of Concord. 

Augustus Woodbury (Rev.). An 
original by Miss Rosa F. Peckham, of 
Providence, R. I. Presented by- Mr. 
Woodbury. 

John Kelley. An original by N. B. 
Onthank. Presented by the family of 
Judge Kelley. 

Theodore Tebbets (Rev.) . An origi- 
nal by Adna Tenney. Presented by 
the relatives of Mr. Tebbets. 

Amos Tuck. An original. Presented 
by Edward Tuck, of New York city — 
a son. 

Samuel Hale. An original, by his 
daughter, Miss Martha Hale, and pre- 
sented to the academy by her. 

Peter C. Brooks. An original by 
J. Harvey Young. Presented by Mr. 
Brooks. 

Jared Sparks, ll. d. A plaster cast. 
Presented by Mrs. Sparks. 

Theodore Lyman. A marble bust. 



44 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



Presented by Hon. Theodore Lyman 
and Mrs. Cora H. Shaw, of Boston — 
son and daughter. 

George Bancroft, ll. d. An origi- 
nal by Schaus, of Berlin, Prussia. 
Presented by Mr. Bancroft while U. S. 
minister to Berlin. 

Richard Hildreth. A copy in oil 
by U. D. Tenney, from a crayon. 
Presented by Charles H. Hildreth, 
Mi d., of Gloucester, Mass. — a brother. 

Woodisridge Odlin. An original by 
U. D. Tenney. Presented by Mr. 
Odlin. 

John Langdox Sibley. An original 
by F. P. Vinton, of Boston. Presented 
by the trustees of the academy. 

HexryWixkley. An original. Pre- 
sented by Mr. Winkley. 

Joshua \V. Peirce. An original by 
U. D. Tenney. Presented by his chil- 
dren. 

James Walker, d. d. A crayon. 
Presented by his family. 

Bexjamix F. Prescott. An original 
by U. D. Tenney. Presented to the 
academy by Mr. Prescott. 

Joseph Greex Cogswell, ll. d. 
Plaster cast. Presented by David G. 
Haskings, of Cambridge, Mass.* 

NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Nathaxiel Bolton, d. d. An origi- 
nal by Adna Tenney. Presented by 
Dr. Bouton's family. 

William Prescoit, m. d. An origi- 
nal by Adna Tenney. Presented by 
Nathan B. Prescott, Esq., of Deny. 

Jeremy Belknap, d. d. A copy of 
the portrait in the state house in 
Concord, by Nathaniel Nelson, of 
Concord. Presented to the society 
by contributions for the purpose. 

STATE NORMAL SCHOOL. 

S. H. Pearl (first principal). An 
original by U. D. Tenney. Presented 
to the school by its alumni. 

PEMBROKE ACADEMY. 

Abraham Burnham, u. d. A copy 
after Adna Tenney by U. D. Tenney. 

* Note. — The academy has also in its 
collection, portraits of Benjamin Abbot. 
ll. i>., and of Gideon LaneiSoule. ll. i>., 
former principals. The lirst by Chester 
Harding, and the last by Porter. 



Presented by John A. Burnham, Esq., 
of Boston, Mass. He was presfdent 
of the board of trustees from the 
founding of the academy till his death, 
in 1S52. 

Benjamin F. Prescott. An origi- 
nal crayon by J. Bailey Moore, of 
Manchester. 

Natt Head. An original crayon 
by J. Bailey Moore, of Manchester. 

DARTMOUTH COLLEGE. 

Samson OccoM(Rev-). A copy by 
A. Tenney from a mezzotint taken in 
England in 1 766. Occom was an In- 
dian of the Mohegan tribe, a pupil 
under Eleazer Wheelock, in his Indian 
school in Connecticut. He was the 
first ordained Indian preacher who 
ever went abroad. This portrait is 
three-fourths length, in a sitting posture, 
with his hand pointing to an open bible. 
The mezzotint was found in England, 
by the late Sam'l G. Drake, of Boston, 
nearly twenty-five years ago. It was 
presented to the college by B. F. Pres- 
cott and others. 

Prof. George Bush, d. d., class of 
18 18. Painted by U. D. Tenney 
from an excellent steel engraving. 
Presented by Hon. Edward Spalding, 
of Nashua. 

Major-Gen. Eleazer Wheelock 
Ripley, class of 1S00. An original 
painting in military costume. Artist 
unknown. Gen. Ripley was a grand- 
son of the founder ; was a distinguished 
officer in the war of 1S12 ; was also a 
representative in congress from 1835 
to 1S39. Presented to the college by 
Mrs. A. W. Roberts, of New Orleans, 
La. — a step-daughter. 

Rev. Laban Ainsworth, d. d., class 
of 1778. Presented by Mrs. M. M. 
Greene, of Amherst, Mass. — a grand- 
daughter. Mr. Ainsworth was pastor 
of the Congregational church in Jaf- 
frey, X. H., for more than seventy-five 
years, and died at the extreme age of 
100 years, 7 months, and 28 days. 

Hon. Francis Cogswell, class of 
1822. An original. Presented by 
his sons, John F. and Thomas M. Cogs- 
well. 



PORTRAITS FOR POSTERITY. 



45 



Gov. John Wentworth, ll. d. A 
copy after Copley, by U. D. Tenney. 
Presented to the college by Mark H. 
Wentworth, Esq., of Portsmouth, N. H. 
— a kinsman. Mr. Wentworth was the 
last royal governor of the province. 
He was a warm friend to the college. 

Rev. Ebexezer Porter, d. d., class 
of 1792. Painted by A. W. Twitchell, 
an artist of New Hampshire birth, 
now in Albany, N. Y. Presented by 
the artist to the college. 

Hon. Johx Wentworth, ll. d., 
class of 1836. An original by G. P. 
A. Haley, now of Paris, France. Pre- 
sented by Mr. Wentworth. 

Hon. George W. Nesmith, ll. d., 
class of 1820. An original by U. D. 
Tenney. Presented to the college by 
the class of 1SS1 in the College of 
Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts. 
Judge Nesmith was then and still re- 
mains president of this associated 
institution in Dartmouth College. 

Note. The following are portraits in 
the collection at Dartmouth College, 
which Mr. Prescott had no part in se- 
en ring : 

Iiev. Eleazer Wheeloek, d. d.— the 
founder. 

llev. Francis Brown, i>. i>. — third presi- 
dent. 

Rev. Bennett Tyler, d. i>. — fifth presi- 
dent. 

Rev. Nathan Lord, i*. ]>., ll. i>. — sixth 

president. 
Rev. Rosweli ShurtleiT. d. d. (Prof.) 
Prof. Nathan Smith, M. d. — founder of 

Medical College. 
Prof. Cyrus Perkins, M. d. 
Prof. Charles B. Haddock, ll. l». 
L'rof. "William Chamberlain, a. m. 
Prof. Dixi Crosby, M. D., LL. D. 
Prof. Albert Smith. 51. i>.. LL. i>. 
Rev. Benjamin Hale. l>. i>. (Prof.) 
Prof. Jra i'oung, a. m. 
Rev. David Peabody, a.m. (Prof.) 
Rev. Samuel G. Brown, D. ll. d. 

(Prof.) 

Kev. Daniel J. Xoyes, D. d. (Prof.) 
Prof. Edwin D. Sanborn, ll. d. 
Prof. Stephen Chase, a. si. 
Pi"f. Edmund P. Pcaslee, si. d., ll. d. 
Prof. John S. Woodman, a. si. — bene- 
factor. 

Rev. John N. Putnam, a. si. (Prof.) 
Rev. Charles A. Aiken. D. u.. PH. i>. 
y (Prof.) 

u!^, f : Ja «»cs W. Patterson, ll. d. 
William Legge. second Earl of Dart- 



Albert Gallatin Hoit, class of 
1S29. An original by himself. Pre- 
sented by his son, Albert H. Hoit, of 
Salem, Mass., and a daughter. Mr. 
Hoit was one of the most eminent 
artists ever graduated from the college. 

Hon. Isaac W. Smith, class of 1846. 
An original by U. D. Tenney. Pre- 
sented by T. M. Stevens, Esq., of 
North Andover. Mass. — a school-mate 
and intimate friend of Judge Smith. 
Mr. Smith is now an associate justice 
of the Supreme Court of New Hamp- 
shire. 

Rev. Asa McFarland, d. d., class 
of 1 793. Copy after S. F. B. Morse, 
by U. D. Tenney. Presented by Maj. 
Henry McFarland — a grandson. Dr. 
McFarland was pastor of the Congre- 
gational church in Concord, a tutor in 
the college from 1795 to 1797, and 
trustee from 1S09 to 1822. 

Hon. Josiah Bartlett, m. d., a 
signer of the Declaration of Independ- 

niouth — for whom the college was 
named. 

John Phillips, ll. d. — benefactor, and 
founder of Phillips Exeter Academy. 

Rev. Nathaniel Whittaker, d. d. 

Daniel Webster, ll. d. 

Jeremiah Mason, ll. p. 

Joseph Ilopkinson, ll. d. 

Amos Twitchell, M. i>. 

Richard Fletcher, ll. d. — benefactor. 

Matthew Harvey, ll. d. 

Charles Marsh, ll. d. 

Rufus Choate. ll. i>. 

Richard B. Kimball, ll. i>. 

Abiel Chandler — founder of Chandler 
Scientific Department, 

Gen. Sylvan us Thayer, ll. d. — founder 
of Thayer School of Architecture and 
Engineering. 

John Quincy Adams, ll. d. 

Marble bust of Nathan Lord. 

Prof. John Hubbard, a. si. 

Prof. Alpheus Crosby, a. 31. 

Prof. Thomas R. Crosby, sr. D. 

Samuel Appieton — benefactor. 

Henry Winkley. A. 31. — benefactor. 

William Peed — benefactor. 

Prof. Ebenezer Adams, A. M. 

Rev. Asa D. Smith, d. d., ll. d— sev- 
enth president. 

Benjamin P. Cheney, a. sr. — benefactor. 

John Conant — benefactor. 

Prof. Ezekiel W. Dimond. a. si. 

Alpheus B. Crosby, M. D. 

There are many other valuable paint- 
ings and works of art not enumerated 

in the above list. 



I 



46 THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



ence. Copy after Trumbull, by E. 
Billings. Presented by Josiah Calef 
Bartlett, now of Taunton, Mass. — a 
kinsman. 

Hon. Ira A. Eastman, ll. d., class 
of 1829. An original by U. D. Ten- 
ney. Presented to the college by 
his widow, Mrs. Eastman. Trustee 
of the college from 1S59 to 1S80. 

Hon. J. Everett Sargent, ll. d., 
class of 1S40. An original by U. D. 
Tenney. Presented by Mr. Sargent. 
He was chief justice of the supreme 
court of New Hampshire. 

Rev. Ezra E. Adams, d. d., class of 
1836. A plaster cast. Presented by 
his widow, Mrs. Adams. 

John Wheelock, ll. d., class of 
1 771 (second president of the col- 
lege). Painted by U. D. Tenney, 
from material furnished by Hon. Dan- 
iel Blaisdell. Presented by Gov. B. F. 
Prescott. 

Rev. Daniel Dana, d. d., class of 



178S (fourth president of the college). 
A copy by Thomas A. . Lawson, of 
Lowell, Mass., after an original by 
same artist. Presented by Hon. 
Nathan Crosby, ll. d., of Lowell. 

Prof. Clement Long, d. d., class 
of 1S2S. An original by U. D. Ten- 
ney. Presented by several pupils of 
Prof. Long. 

Hon. Anthony Colby. Governor 
of the state, and a trustee. Original by 
U. D. Tenney. Copy by same artist. 
Presented by Gen. Daniel E. Colby, 
of New London — a son. 

George G. Fogg, ll. d., class of 
1839. Secretary of state in 1S46 ; 
U. S. minister to Switzerland from 1861 
to 1S65 ; L T . S. senator from 1866 to 
1S67. Presented by George G. 
Edgerly — a nephew. 

Daniel M. Christie, ll. d., class of 
1815. U. S. district attorney for New 
Hampshire in 1S2S. Presented by his 
children. 



THE OLD NORTH CHURCH, BOSTON. 



KY FRANK G. HARRIMAN. 



Having contemplated attending 
divine services some day in this ancient 
edifice, we set out, on the last Sunday 
morning in September, under an um- 
brella and slouched hat, the day being 
rainy and lurid, to accomplish the 
object. We made our way down 
Hanover into Salem street, which, not- 
withstanding the inclemency of the 
weather, presented its usual quota of 
men, women and children, who flocked 
in the alleys, tried to shield themselves 
from the mist and rain in the door- 
ways, or indulged in vagaries on the 
narrow side walk. It was with some 
difficulty that the gauntlet was run, re- 
quiring considerable caution (clothed 
as we were in our best Sunday suit) to 
avoid being smeared by coming in 
contact with that frisky, filthy, tatterde- 
malion tribe. We passed the Little 
Wanderers' Llome, but concluded, 



from appearances just described, that 
the little wanderers were out. We 
could hear the bell calling us to wor- 
ship ; but as we could see no spire, 
wondered where it could be, till we 
stood at the very door and saw now 
and then a worshiper entering. With 
a peculiar reverence we passed, with 
others, under the ancient vine-covered 
portal. The sexton, not being over 
employed, without delay showed us 
into one of the old-fashioned, high, 
strait-backed box-pews. We closed 
the high door and buttoned it, as 
though we wished to be left to our- 
selves, and without any thought of 
sacrilege commenced our meditations 
and observations. The first thing no- 
ticed was the absence of stained glass, 
All the light there was from a cloud- 
wrapped sun, save what was debarred 
by the proximity of brick walls, came 



THE OLD NORTH CHURCH, BOSTON. 



47 



dancing through the seven-by-nine 
glass of the seven-by-nine lighted 
windows, and commenced a conflict 
for the mastery of the must and mist 
of ages. On the arched roof over- 
head were drawn many water-marked 
maps of time. High galleries, sup- 
ported by square columns running 
from floor to roof, environ the front 
and sides. From the center, sus- 
pended by heavy iron chains, hung 
two candle -mounted chandeliers, 
which, together with the cherubim on 
either side of the organ, were taken 
from a French vessel by the privateer 
Queen of Flungary, and presented to 
the church in 1746, by Capt. Grushea. 
At the right, over an improvised min- 
ister's study, stands a marble bust of 
Washington, which is said to have 
been the first ever made of the Father 
of our Country. Lafayette pronounc- 
ed it a perfect likeness, though it 
differs very materially from those of a 
more modern origin. In the rear of 
the altar are several paintings, among 
which is one of Christ, an open bible, 
cherubim, and texts of scripture, to- 
gether with the Lord's prayer and ten 
commandments. The service, which 
is of the Episcopal or English church 
order, was impressive, save only as it 
was broken by a curly headed young 
man going to the rear and informing 
the sexton that two young lads, so 
small that we could scarcely see the 
crowns of their heads above the high- 
backed pews, were not giving strict 
attention to a sermon that dealt with 
ancient history, Socrates, and the 
heathen gods. From the angle of 
their heads, what I could see, I should 
judge they were looking somewhat 
higher than the sermon or the preacher, 
and, together with ourselves, were 
taking in the surroundings of the his- 
torical old edifice. Though they 
made no noise, the sexton, like unto 
the tything-man of old, paid them a 
respectful visit, and evidently gave 
them a word of warning, which, very 
naturally, they soon forgot, for, so far 
as we could see, there was no percep- 
table change in their conduct. The 



minister gave them a stern look, and 
presently the sexton made his appear- 
ance in the high vacant gallery, and, 
like a sentinel stood all through the 
service, in full view of the observing 
boys, at whom he shook a threatening 
linger every now and then. A part of 
the service, as usual, consisted in tak- 
ing up the collection. Two deacons, 
quite aged, and one wearing a some- 
what faded wig, bore about, each, a 
large silver plate, which we learned 
was presented, together with the com- 
munion service, to this church in 1733, 
by King George the II. Three bright 
nickels, about all the change we had, 
which we artistically placed in the center 
of one of the plates, made quite a re- 
spectable show. 

The service over we were shown 
the immense royal bible, printed at 
Oxford in 1716-17, by John Basket, 
which is noted for its excellent typog- 
raphy and fine engravings. It is 
called the vinegar bible, as the title to 
Luke 20:9 is called the parable of 
the vinegar. This, together with the 
communion service, was presented in 
1733 by George II. The prayer-book 
is quite a novelty. It was used before 
and after the establishment of our 
independence as a nation. The 
prayers for the king were pasted over, 
and the name of the president of the 
United States written in, together with 
prayers to correspond. In the study 
before mentioned is the marble bust 
of Washington, which, together with 
the prayer-book with its alterations, 
plainly indicates that the members of 
the church, in the trying days of the 
Revolution, were loyal not only to 
God but to the thirteen states as well. 
Several portraits of the early rectors 
also hang in the study. One of the 
most noticeable is of Rev. Mr. Worth, 
who presided for forty-five years. 

With several others we made 
a visit to the tower, through filth, 
and dust, and dark winding stairways, 
to the oldest chime of bells in America. 
They bear the following inscriptions : 
1st. This peal of eight bells is the gift 
of a number of generous persons to 



4 8 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



Christ's church in Boston, New Eng- 
land, Anno 1744, A, R. 2d. This 
church was founded in the year 1723. 
3d. We are the first ring of bells cast 
for the British Empire in North 
America, 1744. 4th. God preserve 
the Church of England, 1744. 5th. 
William Shirley, Esq., Governor of 
Massachusetts Bay, in New England, 
Anno 1 744. The subscription for 
these bells was begun by John Han- 
cock and Robert Temple, church war- 
dens, 1743, and completed by Robert 
Jenkins and John Gould, church war- 
dens, 1744. 7th. Since generosity 
has opened our mouths, our tongues 
shall ring aloud its praise, 1744. 8th, 
Abel Kudhall, of Gloucester (Eng.), 
cast us all, Anno 1744. Still on and 
up we went, the very same way which 
Robert Newman took on the night of 
April iS, 1775, with the signal lights 
of Paul Revere, who, together with 
Col. Conant and others, waited on 
the Charlestown shore for the signal 
to tell which way the British trooris 
would go, by land or sea. 

" If the British march 
By land or sea from the town to-night. 
Hang a lantern aloft in the belfry arch 
Of tiie North Church tower as a signal 
light.— 

One, if by land, and two, if by sea. 
And J on the opposite shore will he, 
Iteady to ride and spread the alarm 
Through (.-very Middli-sex village and 
farm. 

For the country folk to be up and to 
arm." 

We found two pigeons that had 
sought shelter from the storm, flitting 
about, startled at our approach, and 
so we read of Newman's adventure : 

*• By the wooden stairs with stealthy 
tread. 

To the bel fry-chamber overhead. 
And startled the pigeons from their 
perch 

On the sombre rafters that round him 
made 

Masses and moving shapes of shade, — 
By the trembling ladder, steep and tall. 
To the highest window in the wall." 

This accomplished Newman came 
quickly down, passed through the 
church, jumped out at a back win- 



dow, and went through Unity and 
Bennet streets to his home unobserved. 
He was found in bed by the British, 
who took him to jail, but for lack of 
evidence against him he was set at 
liberty. The ride of Paul Revere is 
familiar to all. 

The views from these " highest win- 
dows in the wall " are remarkably fine 
and enchanting. They look out upon 
a world of progress and activity. 
How unlike are the surroundings to 
those which met the observer's vision 
of a hundred years or more ago. The 
red-coats went, never to return again, 
except as friendly guests of a free and 
independent nation. Where once 
were barren wastes, now stand im- 
mense warehouses and innumerable 
dwellings. The old land-marks are 
gone, and Boston has encroached 
upon the sea. The islands of the 
bay have grown populous, and the 
beaches, the summer homes of thou- 
sands from all parts of the world. The 
interior, as it were, has become a part 
of this once little town, till the bound- 
aries of the real Boston of to-day are 
unmarked, and still Boston is silently 
and surely marching on. 

October 17, 187S, a tablet was 
placed in the tower of this old church, 
forty-two feet from the side walk, bear- 
ing the following inscription : 

THE SIGINAL LANTERNS OF 
PAUL REVERE, 
DISPLAYED IN THE STEEPLE OF 
THIS CHURCH, APRIL 18, 1775, 
WARNED THE COUNTRY OF 
THE MARCH OF THE BRITISH 
TROOPS TO 
LEXINGTON AND CONCORD. 

It is said that Gen. Gage witnessed 
the burning of Charlestown and the 
battle of Bunker Hill from this steeple. 

Under the church are thirty-three 
tombs. One contains the remains of 
Rev. Timothy Cutler, d. d., first rector 
of the church, together with his wife. 
In No. 29 once rested Maj, Pitcairne, 
but his remains were long since re- 
moved to Westminister Abbey. Lymle 
M. Walter, the founder and fust editor 



A CURIOSITY IN LITERATURE. 



49 



of the Bos tan Transcript, is buried 
here. 

Rev. Walter Montague, rector of the 
church, was the person who received 
the ball that was taken from Gen. 
Warren, who fell at Bunker Hill. It 
:s said that the first regularly organized 
Sunday-school in New England was 
established in this church in 1815, by 
Rev. Asa Eaton and Shubal Bell. 

The church was built in 1723. The 
walls are three and one half feet thick. 
The spire rises to the height of one 
hundred and seventy-five feet. In 
1S04 it was blown down, and was re- 
built in 1S07. In 1 S47, being in a de- 



cay ing condition, it was successfully low- 
ered to the ground, from a height of 
one hundred and thirty-five feet, anil 
was re-built in conformity to the original 
plan. It still stands guard over the 
sacred dead beneath its walls, and 
those in the ancient burial-place, 
Copp's Hill, near by. This church is 
one of Boston's most ancient histor- 
ical and sacred land-marks, and we 
trust it may stand through coming 
generations, till the old north-end shall 
again, as in days of yore, become a 
flourishing business center of this great 
metropolis. 



A CURIOSITY IN LITER A TURK. 



BY J. A. STICKNEV. 



Ax Astronomical Diary ; or, an AL- 
MANACK For the Year of our 
Lord CHRIST, 175S. Being the 
Second after Bissextile or Leap- 
Year. In the 31st Year of the 
Reign of King GEORGE II. 
PORTSMOUTH, in New Hamp- 
shire : Printed and Sold by Daniel 
Fowle. 

In the order of time this little book 
might have come into our hands for 
review many years ago, but it did n't. 
It contains sixteen pages, each of 
which is five and a half inches long 
and three and one eighth inches wide. 
It was printed by the first printer of 
New Hampshire, in the second year 
after he moved into the state from 
Boston. Typographically considered, 
it is a creditable production, and its 
editor and publisher was very proud 
of it, which we know because he men- 
tions "The Art of Printing, which has 
l>een, and now is, of as much Advan- 
tage to Mankind as any ever discov- 
ered : since it conveys to us in so 
cheap and easy a Manner the Learn- 
ing of past Ages, and enables us to 
acquaint ourselves with all Parts of 
the World, with surprizing Dispatch," 
vii— 4 



&c. [Phew! how's that for 1758? 
The stage-coach had not been started. 
Talk about your telephones, telegraphs, 
and steam-bouts and cars !] 

Notwithstanding the delay in for- 
warding this book for review, it is in a 
capital state of preservation. Some 
good person, " gone down to history," 
or oblivion, put it in the great family 
Bible for a mark, and there it must 
have laid for more than a hundred 
years. [Is this any evidence that our 
ancestors read their Bibles oftener 
than we do?] The delightful meer- 
schaum color, which can only come 
from centuries, is evenly and equally 
diffused through all its pages. The 
first page is devoted to the title and a 
quotation from Young ; the second to 
the editor's preface ; the succeeding 
twelve to the calendar, and the last 
two to articles entitled "Of Eclipses." 
and " Of Comets." The first two and 
last pages are ornamented with bor- 
ders still on sale by type-founders, and 
the calendar pages are surrounded and 
divided with single rules in all cases, 
with the exception that the father of 
New Hampshire printers was obliged 
to use his " stops and marks," v/hen 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



the rules gave out, and when that re- 
source failed him, he bordered one 
page with the diphthongs and ce. 

The sun and moon have the same 
appearance as in the almanac for 1SS3. 

In his preface he says that in conse- 
quence of his not giving weather pre- 
•dictions " the Peruser will necessarily 
■be obliged to form Judgment of the 
Weather from the Appearance of the 
Heavens • * * * * and will, no 
♦doubt, have a peculiar Pleasure, so 
often as he finds the Event coincide 
with his Prediction." [Hasn't that 
been handed down to the present 
day?] Pie says he adds a column to 
gratify those who " retain the antique 
Notion of the Moon's influencing dif- 
ferent Parts of the human Body : 
Which I esteem as romantick as any 
Fable of Dox Quixit, and an affront 
to Common Sense." [Just so. But 
Leavitt's Almanac for 18S3 spells out 
Ihe parts of the human body daily af- 
fected by the moon, ''as she changes 
her situation in the Ecliptic, to differ- 
ent-Signs, that they may have Oppor- 
tunity to perform those bloody Opera- 
tions, which othenvays they would 
esteem extremely hazardous." There 
can't be any doubt that Leavitt is 
ahead of Fowle in " influencing differ- 
ent parts of the human Body."] 

There were six eclipses in 1758, 
•one " of the Moon, visible, total and 
nearly central" at Portsmouth. "Of 
•Comets," the Almanac has quite free 
mention. Sir Isaac Newton's theories 
are given, and "The Comet this Year 
■expected, Dr. Jlally has ventured to 
predict." Mr. Fowle is doubtful as to 
the effect the comet would have upon 
the earth, but thinks " if it should ap- 
proach so near as to have a sensible 
Parrallax, I should conjecture its Ef- 
fects would be considerable on Vege- 
tables, Fluids, and probably perceiv- 
able on the Sea." After quoting Mr. 
Whiston as supposing that the Deluge 
was,, and the Conflagration would be 
•occasioned by a comet, he quaintly 
closes as follows : " but we have no 
:heed that I know of to suppose it 
■necessary ; for the subterraneous Fire, 



if permitted, might effectually answer 
the end ; and the Uncertainty and 
Suddenness of the Time, as appears 
by Revelation, renders it improbable." 
After one hundred and twenty-five 
years the bulk of public opinion still 
remains with Mr. Fowle, Joe Miller to 
the contrary notwithstanding. 

That portion of the calendar which 
Leavitt fills with advice to farmers, 
Fowle fills with dates of important 
historical events and proverbs. The 
historical events are conspicuous for 
the absence of those now taught in 
our public schools. We quote two, 
viz. : May 31, 175S. General ELEC- 
TION, Boston. As no other election 
is mentioned, the press of Boston will 
be pleased to know of this confirma- 
tory evidence of the driving of the 
Hub ages ago. Nov. 23, 1 75S. Ser- 
apia, a woman of Alexandria, brought 
forth five children at a birth. Elinora, 
a Citizen of Florence, was delivered 
of fifty-two children, never less than 
three at a birth. Saying nothing of 
this excellent opportunity for a gov- 
erness over this full pack of children, 
or whether any one of them ever had 
occasion to sing " Do they miss me at 
home," we end this long review of a 
short book by advising our patron; to 
carefully read 

The Proverbs of 1758. 

What a multitude of circumstances 
must be brought together to form a 
petty happiness in this world ! 

Job's Wife was the only evil which 
could draw a sigh from him ; This 
was the only one he seemed to feel. 

Of all our senses, sight is infinitely 
quickest. 

Fight and die for thy country. 

Credit 's like a Venice glass, soon 
broke. 

He that is not handsome at twenty, 
nor strong at thirty, nor rich at forty, 
nor wise at fifty, will never be hand- 
some, strong, rich, or wise. 

A judge ought to be indifferent. 

A neuter only has room to be a 
Peace-maker. 

He is wise that is honest. 



A CURIOSITY IN LITERATURE. 



Many imagine themselves only par- 
simonious, when they are covetous. 

It is only in the optical point that 
'the world will bear looking at. 

The houses of the great, in reality, 
are not the most cheerful ones. 

A father, by an excess of parsi- 
mony, gives his son an aversion to it. 

A disgraced courtier is the most 
striking picture of the nothingness of 
■exaltation ; the most eloquent preacher 
-can 't come up to the description. 

The table robs more than the thief. 

Idleness turns the edge of wit. 

Some who, within their own doors, 
commend a simple way of living, and 
are for the cheapest eatables, leave 
their philosophy in the cupboard when 
they gu abroad. 

The wise man is above any fear of 
a woman's anger ; but he is wiser who 
is cautious of provoking her. 

A miser and a hog may be com- 
pared together ; till they are both 
dead we receive no benefit of cither. 

No man is great till he sees that 
every thing in this world is little ; and 
of all that is little, that they are the 
least. Would they Know what is 
Greatness ? Great is he, and he aione. 
who makes the whole Creation, and 
its amazing Cause, (the Circumference 
and his own interest) the Centre of 
his Thoughts. 

Do not go to the Doctor for every 
disease, the Lawyer for every quarrel, 
or Bowl for every thirst. 

We may allow it for truth, which is 
made a common maxim, that ingen- 
uous minds are most wrought upon by 
obligations and favor. 

A long-winded talker is often com- 
plained of. 

The more a man leaves behind him, 
with the greater reluctance he dies. 

Is a man sinking, his best friends 
let go their hold, and turn then backs 
upon him. Does a man come up 
again, every one makes toward him ; 
there 's no being too intimate with 
him. 

Think of ease, but work on. 
Have a care of that base evil, de- 
traction ; it is the fruit of envy, as 



that is of pride, the immediate off- 
spring of Satan, who of an angel, 
made of himself a devil. 

Fish and visitors often smell in three 
or four days. 

They most hunger in frost, that will 
not work in heat. 

The press transfers within a day, or 
near, all that which can be written in 
a year. 

He that 's once ambitious is always 
so. 

Love is a credulous thing. 

A Fop is but a piece of a man. 

He who gives quick, gives willingly. 

Little things have their graces. 

Do nothing improperly ; some are 
witty, kind, cold, angry, easy, stiff, jeal- 
ous, careless, cautious, confident, close, 
open, but all in the wrong place. 

He who hath but one hog, makes 
him fat ; and he who hath but one 
son, often makes him a fool. 

An idle man is the devil's playfellow. 

Some people are busy, and do noth- 
ing. 

It is wise not to seek a secret, and 
honest not to reveal one. 

Few out-preach the Ant, and she is 
silent. 

When you are married study addi- 
tion, practice multiplication, and avoid 
division. 

At hearing a fine voice the ear can 
not but be delighted. 

Some die of hunger, but more by 
eating. 

None guard so well against a cheat, 
as he who is a knave compleat. 

Company is often pestered with 
blockheads, who stammer out a dull 
tale. 

There 's no companion like the 
penny. 

In the Kingdom of the blind, he 
that hath one eve is a prince. 

A fat house Keeper makes lean ex- 
ecutors. 

Every where is Adam cried out 
against ; yet, where is the place in 
which the like is not transacted? 

No condition for a man seems more 
natural than that of marriage. 

A fine woman, beloved and ungov- 



5 2 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



ernable, with a spirit disdaining the 
curb of reason, what a scourge ! what 
a curse ! 

By doing nothing we learn to do 
evil. 

Idleness is the key of beggary. 

The greatest virtue oftenest lies in 
bodies of the middle size. 

That religion can not be right, that 
a man is the worse for having. 

Dry bread at home, is better than 
roast meat abroad. 

Ingenuity, as weli as religion, some- 
times suffers between two thieves, pre- 
tenders and despisers. 

He is most free who is bound by 
the laws ; he is most happy who 
abridges his pleasures ; and he is most 
magnanimous who fears his God. 

The wealthy are too often imperti- 
nent and overbearing. 

A child of a prodigal parent will 



necessarily have recourse to covetous- 
ness. 

A mistaken vanity often puts us to- 
great trouble. 

Forbid a fool a thing that he will do. 

It's honorable to die for thy country. 

St. Paul's injunction to children to- 
obey their parents, is followed with an 
admonition to the latter, not to be 
bitter against them. 

A gay coat doth not makp a gentle- 
man, nor a gilded cover a good book. 

Most courtships are little better than 
playing at blind man's buff. 

No sooner is Isaac marriageable, 
than his prudent and affectionate 
father looks out a wife for him. A. 
fortune is not the question with Abra- 
ham. 

Marriages are often said to be ap- 
pointed in heaven before they are 
contracted on earth. 



SKETCHES OE WENT IVOR T/f t N. H.—NO. i. 



BV HON. J. E. SARGENT, IX. D. 



The town of Wentworth was char- 
tered by Gov. Benning Wentworth in 
1 766. There were originally sixty 
grantees or proprietors, mostly residing 
in the towns of Kingston, East Kings- 
ton, Hawke (now Danville), and 
South Hampton, which originally in- 
cluded what is now Seabrook, and Salis- 
bury, Mass. The charter is in the 
usual form of the charters of those 
days. " In the name of George the 
Third, by the Grace of God, of Great 
Britain, France and Ireland, King, 
Defender of the Faith," &c. A tract 
of land six miles square was granted, 
containing 23,040 acres, "out of which 
an allowance is to be made for high- 
ways and unimprovable lands, by 
rocks, ponds, mountains and rivers, 
1,040 acres." The land was to be 
divided into sixty-six equal shares, and 
was bounded on the north by Warren, 
east by Rumney, south by Dorchester, 
and west by Orford — and to be known 



as the town of Wentworth ; and its 
inhabitants were declared to be en- 
franchised with and entitled to all and 
every the privileges and immunities 
which other towns within our province 
exercise and enjoy. When the town 
should consist of fifty families resident 
therein, they were to have the liberty 
of holding two fairs therein annually, 
and that a market may be opened and 
kept open one or more days in each 
week. Provision is m'ade for the call- 
ing of the first meeting of the propri- 
etors, and the annual meetings there- 
after. "To have and to hold " said 
granted premises upon the following 
conditions : Every grantee shall plant 
and cultivate five acres of land within 
five years, for every fifty acres con- 
tained in his or their shares or propor- 
tions, in said township, on penalty of 
forfeiture, &c. All white pine trees in 
said township, " fit for masting our 
Royal Navy," to be preserved and not 



SKETCH OF WENTWORTH, N. H. — No. i. 



53 



IV \>c cut without permission; upon 
the division of the lands, a tract of 
land as near the center of the town as 
may be, to be marked off as town lots 
of the contents of one acre, one of 
which lots shall be assigned to each 
proprietor. The rent to be paid for 
the same is one ear of English corn 
per annum, and in 1777, on the 25th 
day of December, one shilling, procla- 
mation money, for every hundred acres 
of land owned by him. was to be paid 
by every proprietor and owner to the 
king, and in the same ratio for a larger 
or smaller tract, which was to be in 
full of all future rents and services. 

Dated November 1, 1766. 

There was a reservation of five hun- 
dred acres in the north-west corner 
of the plan of the town, marked 
*'B. IV." and known as the Governor's 
reservation. 

This charter was granted to John 
Paige, Esq., and fifty-nine others. 
There were five sons of said John 
Paige, Esq., who were, with him, 
grantees and proprietors of the town, 
namely, Samuel, Moses, John, Ephraim, 
and Enoch. They all lived in Salis- 
bury, Mass., and so far as we know, 
only two of them ever came to 
Wentworth. The two younger sons, 
Ephraim and Enoch, afterward settled 
in Wentworth and died there. Prob- 
ably but few of those original proprie- 
tors ever saw any part of the township 
thus granted to them. We can not 
learn that any others of the whole 
sixty original proprietors ever settled 
in Wentworth except Ephraim and 
Enoch Paige. 

John Paige, Esq., the first grantee, 
was the son of one Onesiphorus Paige, 
of Salisbury, Mass., and was born Feb- 
ruary 21, 1696. He married Mary 
Winsley, of said Salisbury, April 16, 
1720. They had five sons and sev- 
eral daughters, none of whom, so far 
as we know, ever came to Wentworth, 
except the two younger sons as before 
mentioned. But they were not among 
the first settlers of the town. 

During the year 1770 the first set- 
tlement was made in town by David 



Maxfield, Abel Davis, and Ephraim 
Lund, and in the order above named, 
though all in the same season. 
David Maxfield settled on the White 
farm, as it was formerly called, on the 
interval since occupied by Richard 
Pillsbury and Col. Joseph Savage. 
He lived in town but about two years. 
Abel Davis cleared a small piece of 
land and built a log-house on the Jon- 
athan Eames place, so-called, and 
since occupied by Daniel Eames, and 
now by Amos Rollins. This house 
was west of the present buildings 
toward the river. Pie remained in 
town but a short time, removing to 
Vermont. His daughter, Mary Davis, 
afterward came into town and lived 
with Enoch Paige's family, and became 
the second wife of Ebenezer Gove, 
one of the early settlers, about 17S0. 
Ephraim Lund erected a log-house on 
the east side of the river, near where 
the red school-house now stands in 
District No. 1. He resided in town 
five or six years, and then removed to 
Warren, where he afterward lived and 
died at an advanced age. 

Ephraim Paige, son of John Paige, 
Esq., and Mary Paige, of Salisbury, 
Mass., was born at said Salisbury, 
March 16, 1731. He married Hannah 
Currier there and had ten children, 
born in Salisbury, and then in the sum- 
mer of 1773 he moved his family to 
Wentworth, where he had three more 
children, making thirteen in all — ten 
daughters and three sons. John Paige, 
the eldest son, was born at Salisbury 
in 1 769. Samuel, the second son, was 
born in Wentworth in October, 1773, 
and is said to have been the first male- 
child born in the town of Wentworth. 
His third son, Currier Paige, was born 
in Wentworth, March 29, 1781, and 
was the youngest of the family, 
Ephraim first settled in a log-house on 
the lower end of the interval, since 
owned by James K. Paige, and after- 
ward occupied as a town-farm, near 
the brook. The road that then passed 
up the west side of the river went east 
of the village, round the hill and back 
of it, to the interval above. He lived 



54 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



here several years, and then built 
another log-house and moved up 
where the buildings have since been, 
and the road extended up to this point 
originally, and then went on bearing 
to the west, by the farms formerly 
known as the Kezer and the Stetson 
farms, and thence over Beech Hill to 
Warren. 

Ephraim Paige died in Wentworth, 
November 4, 1802, aged 72. and Han- 
nah, his wife, died there July 9, 1S13. 
aged 75. 

Enoch Paige, the brother of Ephra- 
im, was born in Salisbury, Mass., Sep- 
tember 29, 1 74 1. He was twice mar- 
ried in Salisbury. By his first wife he 
had three daughters ; by his second 
wife he had no children. His eldest 
daughter Mary was Ebenezer Gove's 
first wife, but she dying, he married 
Mary Davis as before stated. Enoch 
moved his family to Wentworth about 
1 775, and settled near where Samuel 
Currier's house afterward stood, now 
occupied by Samuel G. Currier. He 
had spent much time in town before 
he moved there. He acted as a sur- 
veyor in running out the lands and in 
establishing the lines and bounds. 
Probably no one did more than he did 
in procuring settlers in the town and 
in aiding and assisting the early immi- 
grants. Upon the organization of the 
town in 1779 and in the years that fol- 
lowed, Mr. Paige filled most of the 
important offices in town. 

He was town-clerk from 1795 to 
1800 inclusive. He was chosen its 
first representative to the General As- 
sembly at Exeter, in 1781, and soon 
after he was appointed one of the 
judges of the inferior court for the 
county of Grafton. 

After coming to Wentworth, and in 
the year 1779, he married for his third 
wife widow Mary Taylor, of Plymouth, 
N. H., whose maiden name was Wor- 
cester. She died in the year 1800. 
They had six children, Persis, Enoch, 
Benjamin, John, Ephraim, and Samuel 
Worcester, the first born in 1780, and 
the last in 1 791. He was generally 
known as Major Enoch Paige. He 



died much respected in 1829, aged; 
88. 

Dr. Peter L. Hoyt, who lived in 
Wentworth and died there some dozen, 
years ago, wrote a history of Went- 
worth, which I have seen in manu- 
script, in which he collected many facts, 
and anecdotes about the early settlers 
in the town. He is my authority for 
stating that Major Enoch Paige was a 
judge in that county, and he relates an. 
anecdote concerning him, as follows :. 
" A good anecdote is told of the Judge 
while attending court at Plymouth at 
one time. It was at the period when 
all great men and especially all judges, 
and ministers wore powdered wigs. 
Judge Paige, in consideration of the 
dignity of his office, had provided 
himself with one of the most approved, 
and latest style. While at Plymouth, 
he boarded in the family of one Jo- 
seph Kimball, who subsequently moved 
into Wentworth, upon what has since 
been known as the Dr. Knowlton farm, 
on the east side of the river. Kimball 
had a daughter Hannah, who after- 
ward married Capt. John Paige of 
this town. Judge Paige one night, on 
retiring to bed, left his wig hanging in 
the sitting-room. In the morning, 
Hannah, full of fun and frolic, put it 
on her head as she went to the barn- 
yard to milk. But it made her look, 
so odd and grotesquely that the cows 
were all frightened at her appearance, 
and she could not get near one of 
them. She was finally compelled to 
take it off, and hanging it on a stake 
in the fence by the side of the yard, 
she had no further difficulty in ap- 
proaching the cows. She hastily fin- 
ished her milking so as to get back 
before the Judge should arise and miss, 
his emblem of judicial authority, which 
was so unnatural as to frighten the 
cows. Afterward, while residing as 
neighbors in this town, she and the 
Judge had many jokes and many 
hearty laughs over this incident." 

Enoch Paige, Esq., son of the above, 
was born November 15, 1782, and in: 
the later part of his life was almost 
universally known as Master Paige.. 



SKETCH OF WENTWORTH, N. H. — No. i. 



55 



He always lived in town. He was a 
volunteer in the war of 1S12, was ap- 
pointed a lieutenant, and was for some 
time stationed at Stewartstown, N. H., 
to defend the frontier of the state. 
From here he went to Plattsburg, N. Y., 
and remained there for a time. He 
received a pension from the U. S. 
government for several years before 
his death. After he returned from the 
war he followed school-teaching for 
many years, and thus became known 
by the title of Master Paige. He was 
very popular as a teacher. He knew 
little of moral suasion, or any other 
kind of suasion, but ruled his school 
with a rod, if not of iron at least of 
hickory or beech — chastising without 
much mercy in case of disobedience. 
But in those days he was always sus- 
tained by the district, and generally by 
the parents, who were often in the 
habit of threatening their children that 
if they were whipped at school, they 
would be whipped again when they got 
home. He was one of the most suc- 
cessful teachers of his day. He mar- 
ried June 2, 1S22, Betsey W. Glines, 
and their children were as follows : 

Albert Gallatin Paige, born March 
28, 1823. 

Amanda Jane Paige, born Ortober 
20, 1S24. 

Calista Paige, born July 28, 1829. 

Master Paige died April, 1835. He 
was town-clerk from 1S24 to 1830 in- 
clusive. In 1 83 1, 1833, and 1834, he 
represented the town in the state legis- 
lature, and from 1830 to 1835 he was 
treasurer of the county of Grafton. 
His widow married a Mr. Dame, of 
Orfordville, and her children accom- 
panied her and resided there. There 
are now no direct descendants of 
Master Enoch or of Major or Judge 
Enoch Paige residing in Wentworth. 

But it was different with the de- 
scendants of Ephraim. They settled 
in and near Wentworth. Many of the 
daughters married there, and the three 
sons, John, Samuel and Currier, all 
settled in Wentworth. A daughter of 
Currier, Dolly Paige, married Jonathan 
Fames, generally known as Bachelor 



Fames, who was a son of Priest Fames, 
one of the early settlers, whose tomb- 
stone is in the town cemetery, near the 
gate, on the left as you enter. There 
was a large family of the Eames's, who 
lived in Wentworth for a long time, 
but who have now moved away or de- 
ceased. Currier Paige finally moved 
to Canada to live with one of his chil- 
dren. Samuel Paige, the second son. 
of Ephraim, lived in Warren, adjoining. 
Wentworth, on the old road over the 
hill on the east side of the river. He 
died there July 29, 1857, aged nearly 
84 years. He had one son, who .set- 
tled in Littleton, N. H. 

Capt. John Page, the eldest son of 
Ephraim, was about four years old 
when his father moved from Salis- 
bury, Mass, in 1773. He, of course, 
had to undergo the trials and hard- 
ships incident to the pioneer settlers, 
in a new country. He had but little 
chance to attend school, but was pos- 
sessed of a strong mind and memory, 
and he early acquired habits of busi- 
ness and was active and enterprising, 
and he proved eminently successful in 
what he undertook. He had great 
physical strength and endurance, with 
a frame tall and well-proportioned, and 
it was his boast that no man could do 
a greater day's work than he could ; 
and though he was rather given to 
boasting of his individual exploits, yet 
his hired help, who undertook to keep 
up with him, found that his boasting 
was not in vain. 

At his father's death he inherited 
the homstead farm, on the interval 
above the village, on the west 5iide of 
the river, where he resided for many 
years. He was long the largest farmer 
and land-owner in town, owning a 
large quantity of wild land in different 
parts of the town, especially in the 
westerly part, on what was long known 
as Ellsworth hill. He had several 
boys, who were all brought up to work 
on the land. He cleared up those, 
wild lands and sowed grain and grass, 
and, after mowing them for a few 
years, he turned them into pasture. 
In this way he raised much stock, and 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



for many years he is said to have pos- 
sessed a larger stock of neat cattle 
than any other man who ever lived in 
town. He was the richest man in 
lands and cattle, probably, that ever 
lived in town at any time, though there 
may have been others since worth as 
much money as he. He was a good 
farmer for those times, industrious, of 
temperate habits and good moral 
character. He was benevolent in 
his way, but was in the habit of 
scrutinizing pretty thoroughly the ob- 
jects to which he gave. He was pub- 
lic spirited and enterprising. 

In 1824, or thereabout, he moved 
to the village, and for a short time 
kept the tavern at the old stand, which 
he then owned, and which was located 
near where Mr. H. P. Chase's house 
now stands. This business was not 
congenial to his tastes, and he soon 
moved from there into the three-story 
house adjoining, where he resided un- 
til his death, which occurred Septem- 
ber 4, 1840, aged 71 years. Hannah 
Paige, his wife, was the daughter of 
Joseph Kimball, who was an early 
settler in town, moving from Ply- 
mouth. She died, respected, Febru- 
ary 17, 1837, aged 65. Their children 
were as follows : 

James K. Paige, born July 26, 1794. 

Ephraim Paige, born May 22, 1796. 

John Paige, born April 27, 1798. 

Eleanor Paige, born Feb'y 19, 1800. 

Samuel Paige, born March 1 7. 1803. 

Joseph Paige, born July 19, 1805. 

Louisa Paige, born April 18, 1S11. 

Hannah Paige, born April 13, 1816. 

Of the daughters, Eleanor married 
Jesse Eaton, who lived and died in 
Wentworth, leaving a family, who re- 
side in Wentworth and vicinity. Lou- 
isa married James McQuesten, of 
Plymouth, where they both died, leav- 
ing one daughter, who resides in Ply- 
mouth. Hannah married (1) Isaac 
W. Wright, and (2) Asa Goodell ; she- 
lived and died in Wentworth, leaving 
one daughter. Joseph Paige lived 
and died in Wentworth leaving a fam- 
ily. Two sons of his are physicians 
in Taunton, Mass. Samuel Paige 



was never married. John Paige lived 
and died in Wentworth, leaving a 
daughter who resides in Lawrence, 
Mass. Ephraim Paige lived most of 
his life in Wentworth, finally moved 
to Warren, and died there, leaving a 
family. 

James K. Paige inherited the same 
farm from his father, Capt. John Paige, 
which he inherited from his father, 
Ephraim Paige. This was one of the 
best farms in town, and being selected 
by Ephraim Paige, about 1773, on his 
removal from Salisbury, Mass., it re- 
mained in the same family for eighty 
years, until 1853, when the town pur- 
chased it of James K. Paige, for a 
poor-farm, as it was called, and Mr. 
Paige moved to Rumney and died 
the same year. He had been a mili- 
tary man in his younger days, and for 
many years bore the title of colonel. 
He was afterward chosen a deacon 
of the Congregational church in Went- 
worth, which office he held until his 
death. He married Annie Maria 
Ramsey, of Rumney, who died Au- 
gust 19, 1867. They were both very 
industrious, temperate, and exemplary 
in their lives, and for many years they 
were leading and worthy members of 
the church, to whose prosperity they 
were strongly devoted. They left 
seven children — four sons and three 
daughters, all of whom moved to Wis- 
consin many years ago, except one 
daughter who now resides in Concord, 
N. H. 

For many years after the first settle- 
ment of the town, the level space now 
occupied by the village common, and 
the two rows of houses, one on either 
side of the common, was occupied as 
a cemetery, and instead of the high- 
way that now runs through the village, 
the road then went south of the pres- 
ent village, near the brook, and on the 
north side of it, from where the Ells- 
worth hill road crossed the brook 
below the mill, on the west, to the 
end of the bridge that then crossed 
Baker's river at the east or south-east 
of the village. After a time the high- 
way was changed and laid out up 



\ 



EARTHQUAKES IN NEW ENGLAND. 



57 



where it now is. The remains were re- 
moved from the burying-ground and 
uut into the present cemetery at the 
north-west on the hill, and the common 
was laid out and conveyed to the 
town, and the houses were built on 
both sides the common, and the road 
•,vas extended northerly across the 
plain and down the hill, and crossing 
the old road before alluded to at the 
Kphraim Paige place, went on and 
crossed Baker's river, in the town of 
Warren, and thus opened a way from 
Wentworth village to Warren, on the 
west side of Baker's river, whereas be- 
fore the only way was up on the east 
side of the river or over Beech hill, as 
before stated. 

Many changes have been made in 
the highways in town, but the hills 
on the west side of the river are so 
high and so rugged that it is impossi- 
ble that the roads that lead to them 
>hould be otherwise than hard and 
steep, and yet many of the best farms 
in town lie on these hills. But the 



town seems to be rather deteriorating 
as a farming town. The young peo- 
ple are disposed to leave and go to 
the cities or to the West, and so strong 
has been this tendency that for many 
years the population has been dimin- 
ishing. It was largest in 1850 that it 
has ever been when the census has 
been taken. At that time there were 
1 197 inhabitants ; but in 1S60 there 
were 1056 : in 1S70, 971 ; and in 
18S0, only 939 : and probably some- 
what less than that at tire present time. 
Still, the village is kept in good con- 
dition, the houses and yards are kept 
in good repair, and every thing looks 
tidy and comfortable about the place. 
The drives in the neighborhood are 
very fine, and the scenery, as viewed 
from various points in the town, is un- 
surpassed for grandeur and for beauty. 
The location is healthy, and there arc 
few places where individuals or fami- 
lies from the cities could spend a few 
months in the summer more pleasantly 
than here. 



\ 



EARTHQUAKES FROM 1638 TO 1883, IN THE NEW ENGLAND 
STATES AND IN THE BRITISH POSSESSIONS NORTH OF 
THE UNITED STATES AND EAST OF THE ROCKY MOUN- 
TAINS. 



BY 



jos i ah emery 
[continued.] 



The following account is from Brad- 
ford's History of Plymouth Planta- 
tions, pages 366, 367: "This year 
(1638), about the 1st or 2d of June, 
a great and fearful earthquake ; 
it was in this place heard before it was 
felt. It came with a rumbling noise, 
or low murmur, like unto remote thun- 
der ; it came from the nor'ward and 
passed southward. As the noise ap- 
proached nearer, the earth began to 
shake, and came at length with that 
violence as caused platters, dishes, and 
s «ch like things as stood upon shelves, 
to clatter and fall down ; yea, persons 



were afraid of the houses themselves. 
It so fell out that at the same time 
divers of the chiefs of this town were 
met together at one house, conferring 
with some of their friends that were 
upon their removal from this place 
(as if the Lord would hereby show 
the signs of his displeasure in their 
shaking apieces and removal one from 
another). However, it was very ter- 
rible for the time, and as the men 
were set talking in the house, some 
women and others were without the 
doors, and the earth shook with that 
violence as they could not stand with- 



58 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



out catching hold of the posts and 
pales that stood next them ; but the 
violence lasted not long. And about 
half an hour or less came another 
noise and shaking, but neither so loud 
nor strong as the former, but quickly 
passed over, and so ceased. It was 
not only on the seacoast, but the In- 
dians felt it within land : and some 
ships that were upon the coast were 
shaken by it. So powerful is the 
mighty hand of the Lord as to make 
both the land and sea to shake, and 
the mountains to tremble before him 
when he pleases ; and who can stay 
his hand? It was observed that the 
summers, for divers years together, 
after this earthquake, were not so hot 
and seasonable for the ripening of 
corn and other fruits as formerly, but 
more cold and moist, and subject to 
untimely frosts, by which, many times, 
much Indian corn came not to matu- 
rity ; but whether this was any cause, I 
leave it to naturalists to judge." 

Johnson, in his " Wonder-working 
Providence of Zion's Saviour in New 
England," as quoted by Mr. Brigham, 
says: "This year, 1638, the first day 
of the fourth month (June), about two 
o'clock in the afternoon, the Lord 
caused a great and terrible earthquake, 
which was general throughout the 
English Plantations ; the motion of 
the earth was such that it caused di- 
vers men (who had never heard of an 
earthquake before), being at work in 
the fields, to cast down their working 
tools, and run with ghastly, terrified 
looks to the next company they could 
meet withal ; it came from the west- 
ern and uninhabited parts of the wil- 
derness and went the direct course." 

The year at that time began in March, 
which will explain why June is called 
the fourth month. 

Dr. Dwight, in the first volume of 
his letters written in the beginning of 
the present century, speaks of the 
earthquakes of New England, and has 
knowledge of only nine having occur- 
red. Of this one (1638) he quotes 
Dr. Trumbull, the historian, who says : 
" This was a great and memorable 



earthquake. It came with a report 
like continued thunder, or the rattling 
of numerous coaches on a paved 
street. The shock was so great that 
in many places the tops of chimneys 
were thrown down, and the pewter 
fell from the shelves. It shook the 
waters and ships in the harbors, and 
adjacent islands. The duration of 
the sound and tremor was about four 
minutes. The earth at turns was un- 
quiet for nearly twenty days. The 
weather was clear, the wind westerly, 
and the course of the earthquake from 
west to east." 

The second earthquake in New 
England occurred March 5, 1643. 
"At seven o'clock in the morning," 
says Gov. Winthrop, " being the Lord's 
day, there was a great earthquake. 
It came with a rumbling noise, like 
the former, but, through the Lord's 
mercy, it did no harm." The above 
is the only notice I can rind of this 
earthquake. Mr. Brigham says that 
Gov. Winthrop seems to be the only 
one of our early historians who notices 
it, and that it is mentioned in neither 
Mallet's or Van Hoff 's catalogue. 

October 29, 1653, there was a slight 
shock of an earthquake, as mentioned 
in Coffin's History of Newbury, page 
59- 

In 165S occurred what is usually 
styled in the old histories " a great 
earthquake." Morton says this year 
there was a very great earthquake in 
New England ; but no account of the 
day, hour, or direction is given : per- 
haps it was April 4. Van Hoff enu- 
merates this in his list, but gives no 
further particulars, referring simply to 
the " Philosophical Transactions " as 
his authority. Mallet does the same. 
See William T. Brigham's Historical 
Notes on the Earthquakes of New 
England, page 3. 

Professor Williams is also authority 
for a great earthquake in New Eng- 
land, January 31, 1660 (February 10, 
1661?). 

January 26, 1663, there was an earth- 
quake ac the shutting in of the even- 
ing, one of the greatest in New Eng- 



EARTHQUAKES IN NEW ENGLAND. 



59 



Kind, and on February 5th another. 
The first shock continued above half 
an hour. On the same day, at even- 
ing, another, and did not cease till 
July following. Coffin, page 66. 

Mr. Brigham, in his Historical Notes, 
says: "January 26, 1662. three violent 
shocks were felt in New England ; 
chimneys were thrown down." Mor- 
ton, in his Memorial, as quoted by Mr. 
Brigham, says : " February 5th, 1665 
(n. s.), at the shutting in of the evening 
there was a very great earthquake in 
New England, and the same night 
another, although something less than 
the former, and on the seventh an- 
other, about nine of the clock in the 
morning." 

This earthquake, says Mr. Brigham, 
was severer in Canada than in the 
plantations of Massachusetts Bay. 
Clayigero declares, in his History of 
Mexico, that it overwhelmed a chain 
of mountains of freestone, more than 
two hundred miles long, and changed 
that large tract into a plain. 

Mr. Brigham*s reduction of Charle- 
voix's account of this earthquake is as 
follows : " About half past five in the 
evening, the heavens being very serene, 
there was suddenly heard a roar like 
that of a great fire. Immediately the 
buildings were shaken violently, and 
doors opened and shut of themselves 
with a great slamming. Bells rang 
without being touched, the walls split 
asunder, while the floors separated 
and fell down. The fields were raised 
like precipices, and the mountains 
seemed to be moving out of their 
places. Animals were terrified and 
uttered strange cries. For nearly half 
an hour the trembling lasted, a most 
unusual time, but it began to abate in 
a quarter of an hour after. 

" The same evening, about eight 
o'clock, there was another equally vio- 
lent shock, and within half an hour 
two others equally violent. The next 
day, about three hours from the morn- 
ing, there was a violent shock, which 
lasted a long time ; and the next night 
some counted thirty-two shocks, of 
which many were violent. Nor did 



these earthquakes cease until the July 
following. New England and New 
York were shaken, as well as Canada, 
but in less degree, and the whole ter- 
ritory convulsed, so far as can be 
learned ; extended three hundred miles 
from east to west, and half as many 
from north to south. 

" Sometimes the shocks were sud- 
den, at others they came on gradually ; 
some seemed to be vertical, others 
horizontal. Springs and brooks were 
dried up or became sulphurous ; and 
some had their channel so completely 
altered as hardly to be recognized. 
Between Tadoussac and Quebec, two 
mountains were shaken into the St. 
Lawrence. The course of all these 
waves, when felt in New England, was 
from the northwest, and the center of 
disturbance was not far from the an- 
cient volcanoes of Montreal. On the 
shores of Massachusetts Bay houses 
were shaken so that pewter fell from 
the shelves, and the tops of many 
chimneys were broken ; but as many 
of the latter were of rough stone, they 
were more easily overthrown." 

January 26, 1662. old style, corre- 
sponds with February 5th, 1663. N. S. 
This will explain the apparent confu- 
sion, and renders it extremely probable, 
if not certain, that the earthquakes 
mentioned at these two dates are one 
and the same. 

Mr. Brigham is the only authority 
I can find for the earthquake of No- 
vember 6, 1662. 

March 6, 1665, N. S.. violent shocks 
of earthquake were felt at Tadoussac 
and Malbay, in Canada, according to 
Sale ma m. 

There was also, in Canada, accord- 
ing to the same authority, an earth- 
quake on the 25th of October, 1665, 
at 9.30 p. ml, preceded by a noise 
louder than that of two hundred 
pieces of artillery, and " lasting about 
the time of a miserere" 

From October, 1665, to the great 
earthquake of 1727, I find nothing 
but this from Mr. Brigham's Historical 
Notes. " Earthquakes are mentioned 
in the years 16G8. 1669, 1670, and 



6o 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



1 706, but no account of them has 
been preserved. Neither Mallet nor 
Van Hoff mention them. Dr. Mather 
simply speaks of those occurring on 
the last two years : and there was one 
in January, 1720; but all were so 
slight as to escape general notice, and 
no particulars have been recorded." 
There is also this entry in Judge Sew- 
all's diary: ''February 8, 1685, Sab- 
bath afternoon, there was an earth- 
quake." 

I find this, also, in Rev. Richard 
Brown's diary, as quoted by Toshua 
Coffin : 



"This year (1700) has been famous 
for three things, namely, — First, for 
that the winter was turned into sum- 
mer, or at least we had little or none, 
the ground being bare for the most 
part, though we have had snow at 
some times, yet very shallow, not ex- 
ceeding above twelve inches, and that 
by an advance of southern winds 
faded away speedily. Second, an 
earthquake on the last of January 
which was considerably great. Third, 
another on the last of February, pass- 
ingly considerable." 

( To be continued.} 




Nestling among the foot-hills of the 
YV bite Mountains, on each side of the 
wild Aiftmonoosuc river, is the village of 
Littleton. For thrift and enterprise it 
is unexcelled. Occupying as it does the 
most available outlet for the large sec- 
tion lying to the north of the mountains, 
its merchants command a large trade. 
The scenery from every part of the 
village is impressive : the hills on every 



hand rising majestically, and only dwarf- 
ed by the nearness of a great mountain 
chain. The river goes dashing through 
the town in gre.'t downward leaps, each 
utilized by humrn industry. Everybody 
is busy on the business street, trade 
comes freely from all the region around, 
new houses are being erected on every* 
hand, and all is activity. 

For the benefit of friends at. a distance, 



LITTLETON. 



6-1 



are have taken a hasty glance at the 
rarious industries' carried on in the 
village, and herewith report : 

There has been no failure of a busi- 
ness firm in town since 1857. Tea; 
. state has been steadily appreciating in 
value. It ships and receives more freight 
than any station north of Laconia. The 
Apthorp Water Company's works supply 
the village with spring water, from a 
reservoir of half a million gallons, two 
hundred and fifty-six feet above the steps 
of Thayers' Hotel. This reservoir is 
M-rved through an eight-inch pipe. The 
«*»<jond reservoir is one hundred and fifteen 
feet higher than number one, and the 
fountain-head or reservoir number three 
nf mx acres, is about four hundred feet 
higher than number two. These last are 
connected with number one by a four- 
inch pipe, thus affording a never-failing 
sourci of supply. The capital of the 
i ompany was originally §30,000. 

The valuation of the town i: over 
$1,340,000. The selectmen for 1883-84, 
are .lames II. Bailey. Dennis Wheeler, 
and Trueworthy L. Parker. George K. 
Lovejoy is town-clerk ; Alonzo ^Yeeks is 
treasurer; Rev. F. II. Lyford is the 
Superintending School Committee. In 
the Union District, Rev. F. H. Lyford, 
lienjamin F. Robinson, and William 11. 
Mitchell, Ksq., are the committee. The 
supervisors are William A. Haskins, 
JohnW. English, and Charles II. Daniels. 



Albert H. Bowman is chief of police. 
There is a volunteer Hook and Ladder 
Company ; a I lose Company, and a Hand 
Engine. 

The railroad was opened to Littleton 
i>: July, 1S53. In after years, when the 
road was extended to Lancaster, the 
citizens of the latter town sent to Little- 
ton a signal flag, thus intimating that 
the town would become a flag station. 
Robert Nelson was the first station 
agent; Horace E. Chamberlain succeded 
him : the present agent, Alden Quimby, 
has been at his post twenty-seven years. 

Four new houses are in process of 
construction by Ira Barker. Charles 
Parker, Col. Cyrus Eastman, and Cr.arles 
F. Eastman. The Oak Hill House is 
conducted i y Capt. George Farr and 
Dr. John Jarvis, of Boston. There are 
eighty i\ oiiis which are well filled dur- 
ing the summer season. H. L. Thayer & 
Son (Frank Thayer), conduct Thayers' 
Hotel, a house unsurpassed in northern 
Xew Hampshire for home comforts. 
Uxiox House, managed by John M. 
Potter, is centrally located and commands 
its fair share of patronage. It accommo- 
dates fifty guests. 

The Y. M. C. A. was organized in 
1 b~-j, and has a public reading-room open 
every evening in the week, and carries 
on three or more gospel meetings weekly, 
beside daily prayer meetings. The 
Assoc ation is active and does effective 
w rk. Dr. S. C. Sawyer is president 




OAK HI LI. HOUSE. 



62 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



J. F. Tilton, secretary, with a member- 
ship of seventy-five. 

The Littleton National Bank, 
established in 1S71 ; capital SI 50,000, sur- 
plus and undivided profits, i?50, 709.99; 
dividends, since 1870, 4 per cent, semi- 
annual, §116,931.20 on deposit. John 
Farr, president ; Henry L. Tilton, vice- 
president ; Oscar C. Hatch, cashier ; J. E. 
Harris, teller: Kuel W. Poor, book- 
keeper; Herbert U . Denio, clerk. Di- 
rectors : John Farr, Henry L. Tilton, 
Eleazer 1?. Parker, Cyrus Eastman, 
Oscar C. Hatch, Geo. B. Kedington, and 
Geo. A. Bingham. The company built 
their beautiful and substantial bank 
building in 1873. at sn expanse of 
81*2,000. The- effort of the bank officers 
has been to foster and develop the 
bus'ne.-iS of the town, ami their policy 
has always been very liberal. 

The Littleton Savings Bank, or- 
ganized in 1871, has on deposit 8020,565.- 
27 ; surplus and undivided profits, *22;- 
360.22; 4313 accounts open. Geo. A. 
Bingham, president; Henry L. Tilton, 
vice-president ; ( )scar C. J latch, secretary 
and treasurer. Directors: Geo. A. Bing- 
ham, Henry L. Tilton. John Farr. Geo. 
B. Kedington, Eleazer B. Parker. Otis 
G. Hale, Hartwell II. Southworth, Augus- 
tus A. Woolson, Nelson C. Farr, and 
Oscar C. Hatch. 

Ira Parker ano Company, manufac- 
turers of Littleton Saranac Buck Gloves, 
embarked in the manufacture of gloves 
in 1875; the company consists of Ira 
Parker, of Littleton, and George M. 
Glazier, of Boston, Mass. The company 
employ between two and three hundred 
operatives in the factory, and many more 
in the adjoining country. The annual 
product is 50,000 dozen! The material 
used in the manufacturing is the native 
American deer-skins, tanned by the Page 
patent process in their own tannery. 
The goods are sold to New England and 
western jobbers, — some going to the 
western coast. Ira Parker was the origi- 
nal manufacturer of the Saranac gloves, 
which are made from leather tanned with 
the grain on. the monthly pay-roll 
reaches sometimes as high as $15,000. 

The Eureka Glove Manufactur- 
ing Company was established in March, 
1876. The company consists of Nelson 
Parker, S. Oscar Parker, Charles Parker, 
William F. Parker. Henry Merrill, and 
Porter B. Watson. The capital of the 
company is §50,000. The company em- 
ploys fifty operatives in their factory, 
and some five hundred out side, manu- 



facturing from 12,000 to 15,000 dozen 
annually, doing a business of 6125,000 
a year. They claim to make the most 
serviceable and best buck-skin goods, in 
America. The raw deer-skins are select- 
ed from the best stock in the Chicago 
and St. Louis markets, shipped to the 
company's tannery in Littleton, where 
they are t nned by an improved patent 
process with the grain on, rendering the 
leather strong as green hide, pliant, and 
almost impervious to water. The leather 
is cut by dies into gloves and mittens at 
their factory, and made by hand with the 
best of linen thread. The market for 
the goods is found from Maine to Cali- 
fornia, and is being extended Europe 
(the writer has worn a pair of the 
Eureka gloves for two years, in all kinds 
of wet and cold weather, and they bid 
fair to become heir-looms in his family). 
They are as soft and pliant as when first 
worn. Nelson S., Oscar, and Charles 
Parker, are brothers, sons of Silas Parker, 
formerly of Lisbon, well-known as a tan- 
ner. William F. Parker is their cousin, 
a native of Lisbon. Henry Merrill is a 
native of Littleton. Porter B. Watson 
was formerly of Warner, and is treasurer 
of Coos county. Not a single dozen 
gloves of their annual products has been 
made from any material save buck-skins. 
Their goods have reached their present 
celebrity from the thorough woikman- 
ship and excellent material employed. 
Their patented swivel level button and 
buttoner, adds to the value of the 
Eureka gloves. Nelson Parker is presi- 
dent of the company; Henry Merrill, 
secretary and salesman; Charles Parker, 
treasurer. 

White Mountain Glove Works 
(Alonzo Weeks, George S. Whittaker, 
and Robert Meiner), established in Jan- 
uary, 1881, manufacture grained tanned 
buck-gloves. The dry deer-skins are 
bought in Chicago and New York, 
tanned at Waterford, Yt , cut, sewed and 
finished in their factory. They employ 
thirty-five operatives in the shop, and 
eighty to one hundred outside. The 
buck-gloves ma le by this firm are of 
leather, dressed with the grain on, which 
is claimed to be an excellence, because 
the leather thus prepared sheds water 
and will not stiffen from wetting. They 
are very durable and not expensive. 
The animal product for the past year has 
been 0000 dozen. The market for these 
gloves is in the North-west, where they 
are eagerly sought by all exposed to the 
inclemency of the northern winter. Mr. 



LITTLETON. 



t>5 



Weeks is a native of Danville, Vt. 
(torn April 22, 1819), settled in Little- 
ton in 1843, and for thirty-eight years 
was in the boot and shoe business, until 
lie went into the present firm. Mr. 
Whittaker is a native of Holliston, 
Mass. (born August 11, 1841), is by 
trade a woolen dyer and finisher; was in 
Littleton as a boy a few years, and 
settled in town in September, 1880. 
Mr. Meiner is a native of Zeitz, Prussia 
(bom May 31, 1843), migrated in ISb'S, 
settled in Littleton in 1875. He is a 
glove-maker by trade, learning the busi- 
ness in his native country. 

The Granite State Glove Co. — 
Charles L. Clay, Sherared Clay, Thomas 
Carlton, and Charles Morrill. Capital 
S*20,000. Established 1882; manufactured 
0000 dozen during the past year, and are 
enlarging their works at Scythe Factory 
village, expecting to greatly enlarge their 
operations. They make the Littleton 
glove, also the Plymouth glove. Charles 
L. Clay is a native of Andover, settled 
in Littleton in 1881, and is a son-in-law 
of Henry C. Kedington. Sherared Clay, 
is a cousin, from Plymouth, who married 
a daughter of Nathan Burns. Charles 
•Morrill is also from Plymouth. Thomas 
Carlton is a native of Littleton, son of 
the late Edmund Carlton, Esq., a nephew 
of Charles Carlton Collin. Their goods, 
wherever known, speak for their own 
merit. 

The New Hampshire Scythe Com- 
pany was established by Ely and ileding- 
ton in 1S36 (George XV. Ely and ( ieorge P. 
Kedington). In 1842 the firm became 
Henry C. Kedington 6c Co., which was 
until "1856. In 1871 it was established 
as at present, the two founders being 
v till interested. The company manufac- 
ture two thousand dozen per year, and 
sell about two to three thousand dozen. 

Tilton & Goodall (George M. Tilton 
and Fred. E. Goodall), are engaged in 
the manufacture of full-fashioned Little- 
ton South-down underwear. They use 
the most improved machinery, employ 
skilled labor and make a very fine quality 
of goods, which is in great demand 
wherever introduced. Their markets are 
in Boston and Chicago, where their 
goods are eagerly sought. The firm was 
established in the winter of 1882-3. 
lhey employ twelve operatives, and 
have already established a fine business. 
Thev are bothnatives of the town, voting, 
enthusiastic, and aim to pu-h for a lead- 
ln g place among New England manufac- 
turers, by honest and persistent work. 



The wool used by the firm is of the 
highest grade, and the products are un- 
excelled by any. Among the qualities 
of their goods are these : they are war- 
rented fast colors, seamless, and will not 
crock or rip. 

Benjamin W. Kilburn employs six- 
teen operatives making his famous stereo- 
scopic views. He makes 000,000 per 
year. 

Eaton & English (Charles Eaton and 
Fred. II. English), deal, wholesale and 
retail, in flour, grain, groceries, crockery, 
glassware, fruits, and canned goods. 
The firm was established in March, 1883. 
They succeeded Eaton <S: Green. Mr. 
Eaton is a native of Landaft, and settled 
and went into business in Littleton in 
1S6S at his present stand. Mr. English 
is a native of Hartland, Vt., but has 
lived in town since 1861. 

Edson, Bailey & Eaton (George A. 
Edson. .James II. Bailey, and Henry A. 
Eaton), were established as a firm in 
September, 1882. The business was 
first started in 1836. by Colby & East- 
man. Ethan M, Colby, the senior, now 
lives in Colebrook ; the junior member 
of the firm being Col. Cyrus Eastman, 
well-known throughout the state as a 
successful financier. In 1838 the firm 
name became Eastman. Mellish & Co., 
and so continued until 1843, when it was 
changed to Eastman, Tilton & Co., 
Franklin Tilton being the junior mem- 
ber. In 1833, Col. Eastman took his 
brother, Frank J. Eastman, into part- 
nership under the firm name of C. and 
F. J. Eastman. Frank el. Eastman re- 
tired in 1858 (and in after years settled 
in Tilton, and at present is the wide 
awake correspondent of the Laconia 
Democrat in that village), and the firm 
resumed the name of Eastman, Tilton & 
Co., Charles F. Eastman being the Co. 
In 1807, Mr. Tilton died, and Col. East- 
man took his son, Charles F. Eastman, 
into the business. The present firm do 
a large wholesale and retail business at 
the -'depot store" in flour, grain, 
groceries, general hardware, blacksmith 
supplies, painting materials, stoves, 
wooden-ware, hollow- ware, agricultural 
implements, salt, lime, cement, and 
general merchandise. Mr. Edson and 
Mr. Bailey are natives of Littleton ; Mr. 
Eastman of Franconia, and the firm are 
young men of energy, capacity, and enter- 
prise. 

Dow Brothers (Arthur F. Dow and 
llobert M. Dow), deal in dry goods, 
groceries, and general merchandise. The 



04 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



firm was established in 1S79, succeeding 
the firm of Fan- \ Dow. The l>ow 
brothers are natives of Littleton. The 
firm are enlarging their store and have 
added a wholesale department to their 
retail trade, and are rapidly building up 
a good business in northern Xew Hamp- 
shire and Vermont. t 

South worth & Lovejoy are dealers 
in dry and fancy goods, groceries, boots, 
shoes, and crockery. Hartwell IT. South- 
worth is a native of Fairlee, Vt., and 
started in business in Littleton in 186S, 
with George Fan*. In 1873. Mr. Fan- 
left the lirm, and George E. Love joy 
entered it. 

The firm of .Bellows & Sox (YVni. 
J. Bellows. William II. Bellows and 
George S. Bellows), dealers in carpets, 
oil-cloths, clothing, hats, caps, crockery, 
glass-ware, window-shades and wall-paper, 
was established in 1873. Mr. Bellows 
is a native of Walpole, a brother of 
Hon. Henry A. Bellows, C hief Justice of 
New Hampshire. 

Elbridgk Flint, jeweler, has a hand- 
somely fitted up store, and carries a 
large stock of jewelry, watches, clocks, 
silver and plated ware, spectacles, hand- 
bags, and ornamental articles. He also 
deals in ammunition, tire-arms and sew- 
ing-machines. Mr. Flint is a native of- 
Shrewsbury, Mass., learned his trade in 
Worcester, and settled in Littleton in 
186 J. 

Stephen Ouvrand conducts a res- 
taurant for ladies and gentlemen, and 
deals in confectionery, fruit, teas, coffees, 
spices, pipes and cutlery. He sells most 
of the oysters used in the vicinity. Mr. 
Ouvrand is a native of Quebec, and 
started in business in Littleton in 1S7'I. 
Phileas F. Ouvrand, his son, is his as- 
sistant. 

Charles C. Smith manufactures tin 
ware, and deals in stoves, lead pipe, 
iron pipe, lamps, and kitchen furniture. 
Mr. Smith is a native of Danville, Vt.. 
but has resided in Littleton fifty years, 



since Oct. 23, 1833. There are four em- 
ployed in the concern. 

Charles C. Smith deals in stoves 
and manufactures tin ware. The family 
have been in business in town for half a 
century. 

Wilbur F. Romxs & Co.. apothecary, 
deals in drugs, medicines, toilet articles 
and fancy goods. Makes a specialty of 
trusses, and has a first-class establish- 
ment. Mr. Robins is a native of the 
town, and has been in business since 
1878. 

Tiltox Brothers (John F. and Fred. 
A. Tilton), dealers in gentlemen's fur- 
nishing goods, ready-made clothing, 
boots, shoes, hats and caps, cany a large 
stock, and do a good business. They are 
driving, enterprising young men. The 
firm was organized in 1870. They are 
the sons of Franklin Tilton, late of the 
firm of Eastman & Tilton, and a native 
of the town. 

Opera Clothing House. Lane &: 
Stocker (Gilbert E. Lane and George K. 
Stocker), in Tilton's new Opera Block, 
deal in clothing, furnishing goods, hats 
and caps and carry a large and well as- 
sorted stock, and are doing a large busi- 
ness. Mr. Lane is a native of Lancaster: 
Mr. Stocker of Windsor, Vt. The lirm 
was established March, 188*2. 

Lorix P. Cole, dealer in books and 
stationery, on one side of his store, boots 
and shoes, on the other, offers goods for 
the understanding, which the public ap- 
preciate. He is the authorized agent 
in Littleton to reeeive subscriptions for 
the Graxite Monthly. 

J. J. Barrett 6c Sons ( James J., Geo. 
W. and Allien J. Barrett), are engaged 
in the insurance and conveyance busi- 
ness, representing eleven tire and on" 
life company. The senior member of 
tin' firm is a native of Bethlehem, and 
has resided in Littleton since about 1S5-"). 

There are many more business houses 
in the village, but time, forbids our go- 
ing more into details. 



is 




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THE 

GRANITE MONTHLY, 

A NEW HAMPSHIRE MAGAZINE 



Devoted to Literature, Biography, History, and State Progress. 



Vol. VII. 



DECEMBER, 1883. 



No. 3. 



HON. LEONARD RICHARDSON CUTTER. 



The city of Boston is not the me- 
tropolis of" Massachusetts alone; it is 
the chief city of New England. In 
commercial importance this city is sec- 
ond to none on the Western Continent, 
except New York. As a great empo- 
rium it has drawn within its limits the 
most energetic and enterprising men 
from every section of the Union, es- 
pecially from New England. These 
men have grasped great financial prob- 
lems, have organized and combined 
capital and labor, have inaugurated en- 
terprises extending through distant 
states and foreign countries, and have 
had, like the merchants of Antwerp 
and London, a world-wide reputation 
and influence. 

The state of New Hampshire has 
contributed her quota to the long list 
of successful merchants of Boston, as 
well as to the distinguished statesmen 
of Massachusetts : men who, while be- 
coming thoroughly identified with the 
state of their adoption, have never lost 
their affection for the place of their 
birth, and the scenes of their child- 
hood. 

Love for his native town is very 
marked in the case of the subject of 
this sketch ; a gentleman who in early 
manhood left his paternal home to 
seek his fortune in the city, and while 
eminently successful in acquiring 
riches, has gained and retained the re- 



spect and confidence of his fellow- 
citizens. 

ANCESTRY. 

i. Richard Cutter, the progenitor 
of the Cutter family, son of Samuel and 
Elizabeth Cutter, came from Newcas- 
tle-upon-Tyne, England, with bis 
mother, and settled in Cambridge, 
about 1640 ; was admitted a freeman, 
June 2, 1641 ; joined the Ancient and 
Honorable Artillery of Boston in 1643 : 
was a member of the church ; married 



(1) about 1644, Elizabeth 



-, who 



died March 5, 166 1-2, aged about 
42 years ; married (2) February 14, 
1662-3. Frances (Perriman) Amsden, 
widow of Isaac Amsden, of Cambridge ; 
was the father of seven children by 
each wife ; was a cooper by trade ; and 
died June 16, 1693. He was buried 
in old Cambridge. 

2. Ephraim Cutter, born in 1651-, 
married Bethia Wood, lived in Chartes- 
town and Watertown, and had eight 
children. He was an officer in Kin^ 
Philip's war. 

3. John Cutter was born July 25, 
; 700 ; married Rachel' Powers, lived in 
Lexington and Woburn, and died Nov. 
20, 1747. 

4. John Cutter, born January *y, 
1726, lived in Waltham, Shrewsbury 
and New Ipswich, N. H. He mar- 
ried, Nov. 16, 1749, Susanna, daughr 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



ter of Joseph Hustings ; had eleven 
children, and died Sept. 27, 1771. 

5. Joseph Cutter was born May 
13, 1752, at Lexington, Mass. ; mar- 
ried Rachel, daughter of Nehemiah 
Hobart ; was a farmer, and settled in 
Jaffrey, N. H., where he died June 25, 
4840. 

<i. Daniel Cutter was bom Feb- 
ruary 2, 1784, in Jaffrey ; married Nov. 
t8, 1S06, Sally, daughter of Col. Tim- 
othy and Rebecca (Bateman) Jones, 
of Bedford, Mass. He was a promi- 
nent farmer in Jaffrey, and died Sept. 
23, 1868. 

7. Leonard Richardson Cutter," 
son of Daniel and Sally (Jones) Cutter, 
was born in Jaffrey July 1, 1825. He 
received his early education in the 
public schools of JalTrey, and at the 
Melville Academy. At the age of 
seventeen he gave up the idea of ob- 
taining a classical education, and, for 
three winters, he was engaged in teach- 
ing, working during the summers on 
his father's farm, and building up a 
robust frame. 

Ten months before he arrived at 
man's estate, he left his native town and 
sought employment in Boston. His 
services were secured by Joseph Mann, 
a retail grocer, with whom he re- 
mained for six years, when he suc- 
ceeded to the business. For the next 
ten years he conducted a retail gro- 
cery concern. 

About 1S60 Mr. Cutter embarked 
in the real estate business, — a line in 
which he has been eminently success- 
ful. Herein his creative genius and 
executive ability have had full sway. 
He was the first builder who erected 
tenement houses in Boston, drawing 
the plans himself, without the assist- 
ance of an architect. 

Having implicit confidence in the 
rapid growth and ultimate prosperity 
of his adopted city, he has invested 
largely and wisely in real estate ; and 
his good judgment is demonstrated by 
the steady accretion of his property, 
until, to-day, his name is high on the 
roll of the money kings of the city. 



The fact that he has become the 
owner, of a piece of property is a cer 
tificate of its worth, and its advance in 
value is sometimes the work of min- 
utes, not of hours or days. 

Mr. Cutter's city residence, on the 
corner of Beacon and Arlington streets, 
is one of the land-marks of the city, 
and is famed as one of the most ele- 
gant and substantial private structures 
in New England. Its interior is 
chastely yet sumptuously furnished, 
every where indicating the refined taste 
of its owner. The summer home of 
the family is a charming mansion, 
built of granite, beneath the shadows 
of old Monadnock, in Mr. Cutter's na- 
tive town of Jaffrey. 

In politics Mr. Cutter was an old 
line Whig, a firm believer in Daniel 
Webster, and upon the decadence of 
that party he affiliated with the De- 
mocracy. In 1859 he first became 
actively interested in politics, accept- 
ing a place on the Board of Assessors, 
to which he was elected by the city 
council. In 1S70 he was elected a 
member of the Board of Aldermen, 
and for three successive years was re- 
elected. In 1S73 he was chairman 
of the board, and for some weeks was 
acting Mayor of the city — an office 
which he filled with ability and discre- 
tion. 

As an alderman he assisted, in 
1S73, in the organization of the Board 
of Health, and served on the commit- 
tees on claims, police, fire depart- 
ment and paving, usually in the capac- 
ity of chairman. 

His sterling good sense has been of 
great advantage to the city. He is 
conversant with ail the wants of the 
public. Of undoubted integrity, he \* 
thoroughly independent. No clique 
can flatter or force him. He looks to 
what is right, and does it, regardless 
of consequences. 

From 1 S 7 1 , for twelve years, Mr. 
Cutter served on the Board of Wa- 
ter Commissioners ; for the last four 
years in the capacity of chairman. In 
this office his ability, efficiency, faith- 
fulness, integrity and capacity, have 



DAYS WITH THE BROOK. 



67 



been very apparent. He was and is 
ever opposed to jobs, corruption, ex- 
travagance, and unnecessary expendi- 
ture. 



He married, April 15, 1852, Mercy 
Taylor, of Boston. Two children 
grace his home ; Agnes Elizabeth and 
Emma Adelaide. 



DAYS WITH THE BROOK. 



BY ANNIE WEN" 

The morning was fine, a purple mist 
was hiding the tops of the distant hills 
and mountains, suggestive of Indian 
summer. September had been ush- 
ered in with sere, brown fields, dusty 
roads, and great heat. Drought had 
been abroad in the land for two 
months. . 

As I walked along in the unfrequent- 
ed creek road, leading to the brook, 
I saw wild asters, life-everlasting, and 
golden-rods blooming ; the summer 
(lowers were nearly all gone : yellow 
clover had rolled itself into little hard, 
brown balls, and stood stiffly by the 
roadside ; hardback and iron bush were 
faded and dull. 

When I reached the bridge under 
which the salt and fresh waters are 
wedded, I lingered to admire the 
beauties around me. On the east side 
of the bridge a dense thicket of wil- 
low, elm and alder, was growing ; 
among the trees, in an open space, 
golden-rods of a rich yellow were grow- 
ing rank and tall ; the sunlight flick- 
ered and fell through the quivering 
leaves of the willows, upon the mur- 
muring water, and upon the flowers, 
deep in color, on the other side. 

I leaned over the railing to look at 
the new abutment, and wished that 
the old tumbled down wall of twenty 
years ago was still there. I used to let 
myself down carefully over the rick- 
ety rocks, drag through the clinging 
cleavers, to peep under the dark old 
bridge at the pewee's nest built on one 
of the stringers. The old bridge has 
passed away — a new one built in its 
stead ; the old abutment has been 
Liken out, and the rocks that for years 



WORTH BAER. 

had lipped whenever a foot pressed 
them, are now split and placed in 
workman-like manner. 

The pewee has taken umbrage at 
the innovation, and will not build on 
the new bridge. 

All that remains the same after the 
lapse of years, are the cleavers, the 
brook, and the little current in the 
brook where I used to throw "sticks, 
and watch them whirl about, and 
set off down stream at a rapid rate, 
while I wondered if human beings 
were as helpless in life's stream, as 
the twigs were in the current of the 
brook. 

A little below the bridge, in a cove, 
can be seen the remnant ot a beaver's 
dam. It is more than three rods in 
length and is built in a semi-circle ; be- 
hind the dam is a small mound cov- 
ered with red oaks, poplars, and alders. 
Close to the water's edge, poison ivy 
lurks like a thief to catch the unwary. 
Years ago, past the memory of our 
oldest people, the beavers had left this 
dam ; but it seems as if every tide 
helps to keep the little animal, and 
his work, fresh in the minds of this 
generation. 

I whistled for my dogs — gone in 
pursuit of some game — crossed the 
road, and entered the pasture famous 
for mills in the years agone. Facing 
me, in a straggling ruin, stands the 
relics of the grist-mill. A turning- 
lathe and thrashing-machine were 
run in connection with the grist-mill 
at one time ; but business began to 
grow less, and the old people of the 
town tell me that fire opportunely 
wiped the whole thing out. Here the 



68 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



brook was sliding through and around 
the rocks., for — 

" The silver note in the brooklet's throat 
Had softened almost to a sigh." 

Across the brook, near the other 
shore, a plot of spearmint was grow- 
ing ; small detachments of this colony 
were blooming close under my feet. I 
gathered and crushed in my fingers 
the tiny lavender whorls, and the per- 
fume they yielded, as a guerdon for 
the gathering, was most fragrant. 

On a handful of earth, between the 
rocks where a truant wavelet occasion- 
ally ran over it, snake-head was throw- 
ing up its creamy blossoms. On the 
shore, like guards, stood the tall, 
straight silk weeds, armed with their 
plump pods, stuffed with silk. 

Thrown against the wall, an old mill- 
wheel leans, as if weary of toil. Last 
spring, when the waters were rushing 
wildly down ihe brook, this wheel 
made its appearance among us. It is 
supposed that years ago it was dis- 
carded, when an old mill, a mile or 
more up the stream, was torn down. 
All this time the wheel has been hid- 
ing, like a criminal, in eddies here and 
there, until the rush of water in the 
early spring rolled it on down stream. 
It was picked out from among the 
rocks, and is now filling a gap in the 
disjointed stone wall. 

Three or four rods farther on I 
came to the ruins of a saw-mill. This 
mill was held up by stones piled under 
each corner. Once, when the miller 
had a very large log in, and started 
the mill he felt a trembling. He 
stopped the mill and found that one 
corner was giving away. 

This mill was never started again 
here, but was moved up the brook. 
Above the ruins I came to islands in 
the middle of the stream ; these were 
rich in blossoms, and trailing vines. 
Meadow beauty was growing lush, and 
its flowers were of a deep shade. Thor- 
oughwort was growing in the midst, 
as if to tone down the brightness of 
its brilliant neighbor ; wild clematis, 
with its pale green, downy heads, was 



running at will over these herbs and 
weeds, and finally, tired of this humble 
way of living, threw itself into a pine 
tree growing near the water. 

As the dogs and I splashed and 
plunged along on the edge of the 
brook, schools of skippers made off for 
the other shore and swam around in 
the greatest confusion. 

Alter I had freed myself from the 
clinging embrace of an out-reaching 
clematis vine, and had righted my hat„ 
I stopped to notice where the saw- 
mill of later years stood. Nearly every 
trace had gone, and the old mill and 
its site will be remembered by hearsay. 

On the east side the bank rises verv 
steep from the brook, and as I looked 
up its rugged side I recollected the 
story told me when a child. Skirting 
the bank a wheel path runs. This path 
for a century or more has been used 
to cart thatch and salt hay (cut on 
the beds in the creek) over, and all 
the rock-weed and muscle mud, and 
other movables, which were brought 
up the creek in gundalows, for parties 
living back in the country. After a 
rain this road would be very slippery, 
the ground being clayey. Many years 
ago a man was carting wood in an ox- 
cart over this road, when all at once the 
can began to swing round, and be- 
fore he could speak the oxen began to 
go down over the bank. They held 
on with their hoofs bravely, but the 
small oak roots broke, and they went 
down. The wood upset, but the oxen 
were not injured. 

Huge willows, ancient as the brook 
itself, ifone could judge from appear- 
ance, borders the brook on each side 
for some distance. Here the sheep 
come down to drink, and the pasture 
is embroidered with narrow paths, like 
a silver braid, in the short green grass. 

To-day this part of the stream is 
called Barbel brook, but in an old 
grant, dated February 6, 1702, it is 
styled " the freshet that Runeth Down 
to fresh creek." 

The ruins of mill No. 4 were lying 
near, and nature, with a lavish hand, 
was fast concealing the rubbish. I 



DAYS WITH THE BROOK. 



69 



saw the penstock standing, as it had 
stood for so many years. When I took 
hold of the planks, I found them 
yielding readily to my touch. Time 
and the weather had destroyed their 
strength. This mill was moved up the 
brook and placed on a firmer founda- 
tion, but it was fated never to do much 
work. Three thousand of boards were 
sawed out and the saw went down, 
never to come up. The mill pond 
was so small that the water would not 
turn the mill but a few times before it 
would stop. Then the anxious miller 
would take hold and bravely lift at the 
saw, hoping to encourage it to saw off 
one more board, but he would have to 
shut down and wait for the mill-pond 
to fill again. 

In the pasture, back of the mill 
ruins, can be seen traces of the cellar 
where the house of Dr. Thomas Miller 
stood, early in 1700. A group of wil- 
lows marks the spot. Some years ago, 
while the men in the district were 
working on the road, a lignum vitse log, 
hollowed out at one end, was discov- 
ered in the wall by the highway. The 
man who picked it up wondered at its 
-strange appearance, and upon inquiry, 
found it was Dr. Miller's mortar. It 
had been lying round at the house of 
a neighbor. No one would undertake 
to split it up for stove-wood, and finally 
it was piled into the wall. 

The man who found it took it home, 
and a little later had a mortar of sym- 
metrical proportions turned out, and to- 
day it is treasured as a relic of the 
past. The mechanic who turned the 
mortar was interested in the story con- 
cerning it, and he saved enough of the 
wood to make a head for a cane, and 
recently he gave the cane to a party 
living near the Dr. Miller cellar. Old 
records tell us that the administration of 
Dr. Miller's estate was granted June 
3°, *7 02 - 

His estate was appraised jT\ 1 26. 6s. 
1 id. In 1 729 Thomas Miller and many 
others signed a petition to be set off 
as a parish from Dover. The Parish 
was called Somersworth. Dr. Thomas 
Miller was the first parish clerk. I 



stepped down close to the brook, and 
a solemn looking frog leaped out into 
the middle of the stream, and quickly 
swam back to the shore, and hid him- 
self under the grass hanging over the 
water. 

I now crossed the road laid out 
June 8, 1733, by Paul Wentworth, 
Tho. Wailingford, Tobias Hanson, and 
James Davis, selectmen of the town of 
Dover. This is one of the oldest roads 
in the town. 

In the pasture, beyond the ancient 
highway, the brook tumbles recklessly 
over rough rocks, and sings a merry, 
rollicking song. 

Close to the water the cellar of Capt. 
Morris Hobbs can be seen. On this 
spot the last twenty years of " Master 
Tate's " life was spent. 

41 Master Joseph Tate " played quite 
a conspicuous part in the early history 
of the town. 

He told almost miraculous stories of 
his life, and these tales have been 
handed down to the present time. 

He said " that he was an English- 
man, and that he was impressed into 
the service of England and came to 
Amerira on an English ship. When 
near Portsmouth he jumped overboard 
and swam for the shore. He got entan- 
gled in the sea-weed, and came near 
being drowned, but finally succeeded 
in gaining dry land. He followed up the 
Piscataqua, and lived at one time on 
the Salmon Falls river, " a few rods 
below the lower mill." He taught 
school in Somersworth, and at last be- 
came the care of the town. For many 
years he was "bid off" by Capt. Mor- 
ris Hobbs. 

A copy of his records, dating back 
to 1767, is owned by the town of Rol- 
linsford to-day, and many quaint and 
curious things can be found therein. 

I left these ruins, rich in history, and 
traced my brook through a willow 
grove. In the cow-path I found a 
wooden mortar. Following my first im- 
pulse I set it afloat. While watching the 
course of my craft I found that it was 
manned by a spider. I thought from 
his countenance that he was concerned 



7° 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



and mystified by the motion, and he 
hastened "on deck" to take ob- 
servations. I left him to float down to 
some rocky islets, where he could live 
like Robinson Crusoe. In this pas- 
ture I startled sober-minded cows, and 
one, who perhaps had been a trifle 
giddy, judging from the blind-board 
over her face, tried many ways to dis- 
cover what strange party had invaded 
her domain. 1 think curiosity is an 
inherent quality in the brute creation, 
as well as in mankind. Some of these 
cows concealed their inquisitiveness, 
much better than others. For these I 
had great respect. A spotted one 
was determined to investigate my dogs. 
Jack answered her rather gruffly, and 
she made off. 

I wandered on by the purling 
brook, through alders and elders, the 
latter ladened with berries. A swarm 
of golden butterflies rose above my 
head, floated around and settled down 
on the bushes, only to augment their 
number and ri:>e again. I concluded 
they were happy and passed along. 
Vivid red bunches of " Jack in the Pul- 
pit" fruit showed where last June Jack 
could have been found by the bota- 
nist. Jack is a recluse, and one must 
know his haunts well to find him with 
us. At this point I left the brook and 
walked up a steep hill, through small, 
hard wood trees, in quest of the place 
where Capt. Hobbs and his wives and 
" Master Tate " were buried. I was 
rewarded for my walk by finding the 
spot. Rough stones mark their graves. 

Remembering a spring which I was 
wont to visit in my school-days, I 
looked around among the pines, and 
soon discovered the rich foliage of the 
sturdy rock maple. From among the 
roots of this noble tree a tiny stream 
of clear, cold water, always runs sum- 
mer or winter. The thirsty traveler can 
be refreshed here. Egg-shells, bread 
crumbs, and pieces of brown paper, 
scattered on the mossy bank above, 
told how urban dwellers enjoy a bit of 
woods life, just over the line of city 
limit. A cocoanut dipper had been 
used by many and carefully put back 



for the next comer. The sun was near- 
ly overhead. My dogs, wearied with 
their morning's chase, had stretched 
themselves for a nap. They would 
wake suddenly to snap at a trouble- 
some fly and hasten to sleep again. 

The murmuring'of the brook below- 
called me to resume my march. 

I crossed the " turnpike " where a 
tall narrow culvert penned the waters. 
This part of the brook is calied " Wil- 
low Brook." I found that here the 
main brook receives a branch. I fol- 
lowed the main one. and it led me 
through tall pines. On one side is a 
steep bank, carpeted with shiny pine 
needles ; on the other, is low meadow- 
ground. Tall ferns were growing by 
the brook side, and they seem to leap, 
over to catch a glimpse of their finely- 
formed leaves in the smooth water be- 
low. 

I followed a narrow, deep stream, 
through the Roberts pasture. This 
land was granted, in 1702, to John 
Roberts. That year Roberts and his 
wife came up from Dover Neck, built 
a log-house, and started an orchard ; 
but the Indians proved so troublesome 
that they left their house and went 
back to Dover Neck. After a year or 
two they came back and took up a per- 
manent abode. Woods grew close 
around them, and bears walked boldly 
about. I have heard this story of the old 
settlers : 'The man and his wife each 
had a pig. The woman petted hers ; 
but the other one grew uncultivated and 
piggish in his ways. One night the old 
folks heard the pigs squeal. The wo- 
man said, il Getup; there's a bear 
there." The man said, " Lay still ; no 
there ain't." One more squeal ; and 
the woman ventured to open the door. 
In pushed her pig, breathless with run- 
ning and blind with fear. He ran 
against the old lady, and toppled her 
upon the bed. The other pig being 
wild, kept clear of the house, and 
bruin captured him. Generation after 
generation of this family have lived on 
this land, and one of the name owns it 
to-day. A part of the original log- 
house is used for a woodshed by the 



DAYS WITH THE BROOK. 



7* 



present owner. The house in which 
he lives is stored with ancient articles. 
Standing on red dressers large pewter 
platters and round porringers form a 
bright array. A long necked gourd, 
used to hold coffee, has hung for years 
in the old " dresser room/' On the 
red brick hearth a tiny iron skillet 
stood, and was used in lieu of a wash 
basin. In the " fore-room" a buffet, 
built in one corner, held the best dishes 
of the family. A bed, made up plump 
and square, covered with a blue woolen 
coverlet, quilted in " feathers and 
straight work," occupied considerable 
space. Behind the door, a tall eight- 
day clock told the true time to those 
who opened the door and peeped in. 
Once, while calling here, I saw a large 
bible, and was told that it was printed 
in numbers and then bound. The 
Robertses were scholarly people, and 
took the newspapers, when none of 
their neighbors could afford to, and 
the people used to gather there to hear 
the news. 

In a back bed -room stands a chest 
of drawers with ,( Sarah Miller " paint- 
ed on the back. She was a daughter 
of Dr. Thomas Miller, and married a 
Roberts, and this was her property. 
In this house the rooms are sheathed to 
the ceiling with wide boards, and were 
painted dark red. In the attic, linen 
wheels, spinning wheels, reels, swifts, 
barley riddles, and many other imple- 
ments of the long-ago can be seen. 
A set of tiny scales belonged to 
this family, and people came from far 
and near to get money weighed. They 
are treasured by the present owner. 

In the comer of this granted " 
land, near the brook, a deer was shot, 
not many years ago. A little above 
where the deer gave up his life, the 
water runs between steep banks. As I 
walked on, the tall pines were whisper- 
ing softly over my nead, and tiny oaks 
and maples were rustling their large 
leaves,, as if to attract my attention. 
Huge slaty stones raised themselves in 
the middle of the brook, and the water 
swirled angrily around them. One 
group of rocks resembled a St. An- 



drew's cross, and only lacked the four 
letters to make the cross complete. 

This place is called " The Falls." 
On the bank above stands a deserted 
dwelling-house. A long time ago it 
was used for a pest house. I thought 
what a pretty, quiet place for people 
suffering with that loathsome disease 
to be brought to. The smell of the 
woods, and the song of the birds, min- 
gled with the rushing of the water, 
must have been gratetul to those poov 
bodies, worn with sickness. A wheel 
path skirts the bruok for several rods. 
Where the brook crossed this path, a 
saw-mill stood, in the days gone by. 
At my right, in the held beyond, the 
cellar of the old Merrow house can be 
seen, and a few apple trees are left of 
the ancient orchard. This Merrow 
was given to using lengthy words, re- 
gardless of their significance. At one 
time he was relating a slight that some 
one had put upon him, and ended his 
complaint by saying, " I presented 
that, now I tell ye." He was one of 
the signers of the petition that the 
parish of Somersworth might be incor- 
porated as a town. 

He had a daughter Elsie ; she had 
passed her youth and wore out her 
middle life doing rough work on the 
farm. The fences were straggling, and 
frail in many places, and her father's 
herd, and the neighbors', were wont to 
get together. Elsie had run after them, 
built fence, and felt extremely wicked 
so many times, that finally she gave 
vent to her feelings in the following sar- 
castic words : " I am dog, devil, and 
fence." 

I left Elsie and her discontent and 
plunged into the near alder swamp 
through which the brook ran in a tiny- 
stream. 

Occasionally a cat-bird gave her 
shrill scream over my head. Ground 
sparrows peeped at me with a side- 
long glance as I parted my way throagh 
the low growing branches. Ere long 
I came to another division. Warren's 
brook runs in a northerly direction. 
Twombly's brook (as it is here called) 
runs nearly west. . 



T.2 

/ 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



I walked along in open pastures ; 
ihe beauties of the brook I had left be- 
hind me ; the water gurgled on for a 
long distance in a narrow ditch ; eager- 
ly I looked to the tall woods ahead. 
A cruel barbed wire fence brought me 
and my dogs to a stand-still. The 
brutes looked me inquiringly in the 
face as I walked along, trying to find 
some hollow in the ground where the 
lowest line of wire would be high 
enough to let us crawl under. At last 
I succeeded, and passed through with- 
out injury, as did my followers. 

The brook now led me intoSomers- 
worth, and for two miles I followed it 
through pastures, fields, and woods, 
and at last hunted it down in a swamp, 
within sight of the spires of the hilly 
village, Great Falls. From two large 
springs, a few rods apart, leaps forth 
the head waters of this brook. Trout 
and shiners dart and play in the clear 
water. 

'I he sand and the water tempts many 
otherwise obedient children to play 
truant, and spend the long summer 
days sailing boats, and wading here. 1 
found such a party, and they fled like 
partridges at my approach, fearing the 
birch withe, which they had merited 
that day by disobedience. 

October, rich in glorious autumn 
tints, was fast waning, when I started 
off through the fields, still green in 
spots. 

In a grove of tall pines crowning a 
hill, I heard a blue-jay call in anxious 
tones to his mate ; twice, thrice he 
called, and his answer was the sharp 
crack of a cruel gun, followed by an- 
other report. Almost before the smoke 
had curled its way up among the pines, 
a man, dressed in a hunting jacket, 
with game bag, powder flask, and shot 
bag, hanging about him, came out in 
sight, with two beautiful blue-jays in 
his hands. He hurried along by the 
wall, and picked up a dead crane 
which he had shot a little while be- 
fore. I came up to see this tall, slim 
bird ; the feathers on his wings seemed 
aimost like coarse hairs, and they were 
of a lovety lavender color. Beneath 



them fawn colored downy feathers 
could be seen. His long legs and bill 
proclaimed how he fished his living 
from the shallow pools on the flats, 
after the reckless waters had left them. 
I felt a thrill of sadness, when I looked 
at the drooping heads of the birds, 
and the thick red blood oozing 
from the shot wounds, telling too 
plainly that the bird-soul had left its 
beautifully feathered tenement. 

I crossed a pasture where the cat- 
tle had gnawed the short, sweet grass 
close into the sod ; peeping out, tiny 
blue violets were blooming so gayly. 
These little plants blossoming so un- 
timely, had thrown up a stem not more 
than half an inch, and hurried to flower 
before the coming of " Vidar the 
Silent." 

When I found myself at the junction 
of " Barbel brook " and its tributary, 
I cast a longing look toward the 
" Falls" and began to follow the brook 
running westward. A tall, large pine 
had been cut down and was lying 
prone with its branches still on it. A 
clump of small pines were hovering 
around like children over a prostrate 
parent. 

I felt, as I neared the high mound 
built by the Boston and Maine rail- 
road, about 1842, the ground trem- 
ble under me. I looked around for 
the cause, and an iron horse, puffing 
and grinding, came in sight, with a 
long train of cars attached. 1 watched 
the powerful machine roll on, and 
then commenced to climb the steep 
bank. When I gained the top I saw 
my guide glistening in the curves and 
angles farther on. Another branch 
came rushing out, but I left that for 
a later day. I passed along in the 
pasture below the house, which was 
formerly used for a town poor-house. 
I was startled by a big splash in the 
brook, and the water grew riiy. I 
stooped down to investigate, when an- 
other plunge followed. Under a large 
bunch of bog rush I discovered a much 
disturbed face. The musk-rat and his 
mate had been surprised by me, and 
one had concealed himself in this mi- 



DAYS WITH THE BROOK. 



7:> 



nute cavern. His little chubby face 
was dripping with the water taken on 
his last plunge. I pitied his cramped 
position, and as he evidently did not 
wish to make my acquaintance, I 
passed on. 

Soon I crossed another main road, 
and in the pasture the brook divided 
again. Beyond, tall golden-rods, clad 
in feathery costumes, stood waiting a 
propitious breeze to waft their many 
winged seeds afar : quantities of these 
seeds fastened themselves to me, 
and I willingly bore them on in my 
journey. 

As I pushed through a bunch of 
alders I woke, from a mid-day nap, a 
trio of horses. The oldest fled, and 
the colts followed ; one little bushy fel- 
low showed plainly by his gait that he 
would be a pacer when he became a 
roadster. 

The brook now ran under the road, 
and on the other side a small tarn 
walled in, confined the head-waters of 
this branch ; swamp maples grew on 
one side and elms on the other ; red 
squirrels were holding converse in the 
tall stone wall at the north side. In 
this diminutive tarn the water was 
dark, and the bright maple leaves 
buried beneath it. shone the brighter 
for the burying. In the field opposite 
cattle, like Jacob's of old, were busy 
cropping the fro=t-bitten rowen. 

I walked along in the highway until 
I came to the branch I had left below. 
Here I entered another cow pasture, 
and my watery guide led me into a 
swamp of birches and maples. I made 
my way noiselessly over the brittle twigs. 
Here I was alone with the woods ; the 
leaves had dropped and left the 
branches bare. I could catch glimpses 
of the blue sky ever and anon. Sud- 
denly I was awakened, from my mus- 
ings by the dull whirring sound of 
wings ; looking up quickly I saw two 
partridges rise and light in a scrubby 
apple tree. I crept up and saw the 
cock, with his feathery cap, taking swift 
observations. One more move on my 
part and the twain flew off with much 
ado. 



Farther on in the swamp, nearly out 
to another main road, this tributary 
commences its life in a spring. I 
think that the cattle feeding in the pas- 
ture, and the wild animals, alone fre- 
quent this source. 

Retracing my steps I gained open 
ground, and discovered and old cellar. 
Here many years ago stood the Ezekiel 
( ?) Ricker house, and the traces of 
the wheel path running near are all 
that is left of the old " county road." 

As the roads run now, this cellar 
seems left by civilization ; but when it 
was inhabited, the people lived on the 
main road from Dover to Norway 
Plains. 

I walked through the tall, white grass, 
and it bent like wire under my tread. 
I could see nothing east of me but the 
pine clad side ot" " Capt. Ich.'s hill." 
I intended to climb it, and my path 
led through a grove of savins. The 
warm sun brought out a cedar-like 
smell from the shrub that was most 
agreeable. My footing over the glossy 
pine needles was precarious, but I was 
well paid for my physical efforts, when 
I reached the summit. Dividing 
'Zekiel Ricker's side of the hill from 
Otis Ricker's (for whom the hill is 
sometimes called) , a wall stood, and 
can be traced to-day, although it was 
long since mustered out of service. 

Large oaks hold the top and spread 
their strong arms in a protecting man- 
ner over the small pitch pines growing 
in the cleared space where thirty years 
ago corn was planted. I sat down 
amid the baby pines and thought how, 
in a few years, they would be called 
" young growth," and some one would 
be speculating about " how many cords 
to the acre." Behind me I heard the 
noisy protest of the crisp oak leaves as 
they fell to the ground. The warm wind 
wafted a mingled perfume of pine and 
cedar to me, and a strong love of 
nature filled my soul. I felt that I 
was blessed indeed to be here. How- 
perfect every thing was. All had been 
arranged by a never erring hand. The 
horizon at the north was guarded by 
Bonneg-Beag, the east by Agarnenti- 



74 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



cus and his train. The Rocky hills 
and Frost's hills ended the chain, and 
the blue mists told me where the Atlan- 
tic washed the limited sea-board of 
New Hampshire. 

This hill and acres numbering three 
hundred, once belonged to Capt. Icha- 
bod and Andrew Rollins, sons of Judge 
Ichabod Rollins. Their heirs now own 
a good share of it. Between two 
roads stands the house occupied by the 
Rollins family a century ago ; but it has 
been remodeled by stranger hands. 

Capt. Ichabod and Andrew lived 
here many years, and the town's peo- 
ple tell from hearsay and remem- 
brance of their kind deedi, and noble 
ways. An old man whose hair is 
white with the snow of three-score win- 
ters, told me much of them. He said : 
" I went there to live when I was four 
years old, and staid till I was nigh 
twenty-two." "Andrew Rollins," he 
said, " was a great worker ; he used to 
team with six oxen to the Bay ( Lake 
Winnipiseogee) ; he freighted groceries 
from Dover up, and brought back 
shooks, staves, shingles and boards ; 
he went that old road, right out by 
'Zekiel Ricker's, cross Tate's brook, 
over Rocky hills, and so on to Nor- 
way Plains. I tell ye, it was a long 
drive, three days and three nights to 
make atrip. Capt. Ichabod had been 
to sea forty-five years ; he had brought 
home a monkey ; they called him 
"Jack." [was awful 'fraid of him 
when I fust went there, but he did n't 
live a great while. Just before town 
meeting all the carpets in the lower 
part of the house was taken up, and 
three barrels of crackers and two or 
three quintals of fish would be brought 
and a barrel of rum set up. Town- 
meeting night all the neighbors would 
come and have a good time, and the 
Cap'n would fiddle for them. I 
never heard an ugly word at these 
times while I staid there." 

The old man told me this without a 
question, scarcely, and he seemed to 
grow young again, living over those old 
times. He said " Cap'n Ichabod had 
brought home chaney and all kind of 



knives and forks, and the cases to put 
them in, there ! The house was full of 
stuff brought from furrin parts." 

At my right, Garrison hill loomed 
up and seemed very near. In the In- 
dian times, two men were killed in the 
valley between these hills. A flock of 
crows flew over me, and we regarded 
each other with curious stare. 

This hill is a famous resort for foxes, 
and the mother fox often rears her 
bright-eyed, sharp-muzzled brood, only 
to have them chased away by the keen- 
scented hound and shot by the waiting 
gunners. 

Plainly I heard the " Whoa : hish 
buck " of the farmer turning the stiff 
green sward in the field below. Re- 
luctantly I left the hill. 

In my way down I passed under old 
apple trees known as the " Nocks 
Orchard." and again was lost in the 
swamp. 

When I cleared the thick birches, I 
was near two men plowing with a yoke 
of dark cherry-colored oxen, with a 
steady-going horse on the lead ; a 
plump, gray dog came to the fence to 
greet me as I stopped to admire a last 
year's scare-crow. 

The owner of the team told me that 
he was a descendant of Ezekiel Ricker. 
and that he had, after many years, 
drifted back, and now owned a farm 
near the old place. 

As I walked along in the road home- 
ward, I found a grave-yard, up from 
the road, fenced in with a neat iron 
fence, and ever-green trees were grow- 
ing among the grave-stones. I won- 
dered who were buried there. The gate 
was locked, but I read through the 
fence, 

Capt. Ichabod Rollins. 
Died Nov. i8, 1848, 
Aged 61 years. 

Andrew Rollins, Esq. 
Born Oct. 29, 1770. Died March 15. 
1832, 
Aged 61 years. 

A patron, and example of diligence 
and benevolence. In him the man of 



A NIGHT RIDE 



75 



industry found encouragement, and 
the poor man had a friend. 

The sufferings which terminated in 
his lamented death were borne with 
the patience and resignation of a Chris- 
tian. 

The memory of the just is blessed. 

Sally P. Rollins. 

Widow of Andrew Rollins. Esq. 
Died April 23, 1840. 
Aged 61 years. 



These three people all lived to be 
sixty-one years old, and then passed 
away from a life of usefulness and kind- 
ness. They were beloved by their 
town's folk, far and wide. 

Few, perhaps, know of these stones 
marking their graves ; but by kind deeds 
these people built monuments in 
the memories of many that will never 
perish. 

This generation hears of them from 
the one belore. 



A NIGHT RIDE. {LAKE BAIKAL, EASTERN SIBERIA.) 



11Y THOMAS W. KNOX. 

The winter threw its fleecy snows around us 

On cold Siberia's plain; 
And winds from Arctic's icy climes had found us 

Crossing; their wide domain. 

We reached the lake's low bank; our halt completed 

We sought the other shore, 
And anxiously our Cossack guide entreated 

To take us safely o'er. 

The frozen waters stretched away before us. 

Spread like a silent sea. 
Our Tartar steeds with fiery vigor bore us 

Fast as the deer can flee. 

And while tin y galloped o'er that inland ocean. 

The night-cloud ope'd above; 
With flashing beams each star appeared in motion 

Like eyes that glow with love. 

Reflected "neath us in that boundless mirror 

The spangled dome was spread; 
Jt gave again, with not a single error. 

The twinkling gems o'erhead. 

And while we watched the stars, whose rays were beaming 

Through all that depth below, 
The rising moon, with silver light, came streaming 

Beyond the Eastern snow. 

The skies were spread around, above, below us, 

The world was left behind. 
And Eastern light seemed shining out to show us 

Where Faith and Hope are ^hiiued. 

Among those burning, starry clusters living. 

Breathless we held our way. 
Forgetting earth ; hut soon we saw. half sighing. 

The gleam of breaking day. 

And back to earth the sounding hoof-beats brought us. 

And Cossack driver's yell. 
And morning winds on frost-blanched faces caught us 

And broke that wondrous spell. 



76 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



MAY-FLOWERS. 



A CHAPTER FROM THE 
I. 

[The manuscript which furnished me 
with the facts that are here narrated, 
and which is noticed more at large in 
the body of this history, did not of 
course comprise every petty detail that 
I have given. Some matters of consid- 
erable moment I have been forced to 
supply from other sources, and I should 
be pleased to notice in particular the ex- 
cellent History of Concord, by the late 
Rev. N. Bouton. If there is any thing 
seemingly improbable in the narrative, 
the reader will do me the grace to re- 
member that the manuscript stands 
sponsor for all, and of the truth of this 
he must frame his own conjecture, not 
forgetting, when he passes judgment, 
that the occurrences which took place 
after the writing of the manuscript rest 
on no such secondary authority. The 
manuscript itself has had rather a curi- 
ous history. It is now in the possession 
of an uncle of mine. Dr. .John A. Meekin, 
of Peeks-skill, to whom my thanks are 
due. for valuable aid in elucidating it. 
It was given him by Mr. James New- 
comb. once connected with the paper- 
mill of Xewcomb <& Barrett, formerly 
in operation in Lowell, who rescued it 
from a mass of waste paper sent from 
Concord. This was more than thirty 
years ago. and I have no doubt that it 
was brought to light when the old 
Walker house was overhauled and re- 
paired bv its present owner in the vear 
1848. — 11. N. K. ] 

Before the year 1818 the Congrega- 
tionalists had it all their own wax- 
in Concord. For nearly a century 
after the Rev. Timothy Walker, in 1730, 
began religious services with eight 
members in his congregation, no differ- 
ences had shaken the community. A 
society of the Friends, indeed, and 
very recently some movements of the 
Baptists and the Methodists, showed 
that the ancient unity was near its dis- 
solution, and for the past year the 
Episcopal Liturgy had been occasion- 
ally followed by a small assemblage of 
persons, but no new denomination had 
yet gained a sound footing. The Epis- 
copal movement was much furthered 
by the efforts of a young graduate in 



HISTORY OF CONCORD. 

divinity, Edgar Somerton by name, 
who was not yet in orders. The first 
rector, the Rev. Cha's Burroughs, was 
not appointed until the following year. 
Mr. Somerton was a slight and sensi- 
tive young man, thoroughly devoted 
to the work to which he had conse- 
crated his life. It was in the month 
of April that this chronicle begins. 
The young man had already been for 
some months in Concord, where he 
had by this time made friends with 
several fine old families of the place, 
whose companionship sufficed in some 
measure to drive from his mind a cer- 
tain morbid melancholy to which his 
too susceptible nature had ever been 
prone. Xo family stood higher in the 
esteem of the community than that of 
the Walkers. The Honorable Timothy 
Walker, now a man of eighty years, 
lived in the old, gable-windowed, gam- 
brel-roofed mansion, which was built 
by his father, the Rev. Timothy, in 
1734, and which still stands on the old 
family place. Not far away stood the 
more modern house of his son, Charles 
Walker, whose daughter, Lucretia, now 
in her nineteenth year, was accounted 
the most beautiful and accomplished 
young lady in the place. A tall, grace- 
ful figure, borne with a certain con- 
scious dignity that was almost pride, 
yet redeemed from the shadow of se- 
verity by the kindness that lay in the 
depth of her blue eyes, and by the 
frank smile upon her lips — a smile al- 
ways dignified and quiet, yet always 
kind, — betokened a mind that knew 
its own worth without vanity, and a 
heart full of ardent but elevated emo- 
tion. Can any one wonder if the young 
student, fresh from the dreams and the 
romance of history and legend, found 
his friendship for this beautiful girl be- 
ginning to prey upon his peace? 

The May-flowers were just bursting 
their cerements and clothing the hills 
in the purity without the chill of snow. 



MAY-FLOWERS. 



It was a Monday afternoon, when Mr. 
Somcrton and Miss Walker might have 
[>een seen walking upon the hillsides 
to the west of Concord. The spring 
was early this year. The warm sun 
beamed upon the grass and the budding 
trees, and the bluebirds poured their 
liquid melody upon the glad air ; and 
it seemed to Edgar Somerton, as he 
watched the waves of Miss Lucretia's 
bright hair flowing softly over the blue 
dress on this sunny day of spring, that 
the bluebirds themselves were not more 
free than she, and that he might sooner 
hope to call the bluebirds to his hand 
than to approach Miss Lucretia nearer 
than a mere casual friend might come. 
She was so far, so far away from him. 
like the evening star, which looks upon 
the earth with tender eye. but keeps 
its state inviolate for ever. She was 
kind, and talked pleasantly and sweetly 
of the bright season with all its burst- 
ing joy ; yet she was in her very friend- 
liness so unattainable, that it was al- 
most a pain to be with her. 

" I have heard it said, Mr. Somer- 
ton," she began, after a while, " that 
your stay in Concord is to be cut short 
in a few months. I hope I am wrong." 

" I should choose to stay here for 
ever, if the liberty were mine." he re- 
plied. 

" You would hardly find room 
enough in Concord," she said, " to use 
your best powers for any long time. 
It is but a small place." 

" What are powers, and what is suc- 
cess, if the sweetness of living be gone ? 
Oh, I will not go, I cannot leave — my 
friends." 

I am sure we should all be sorry. 
Hut you are always sure of friends, 
wherever you go." 

" Friends, friends, what are friends?" 
he said. 

" You spoke of leaving thtm your- 
self," she answered. 

" A man can have but one friend, 
Miss Walker," he cried with suppressed 
passion, looking up hopelessly as he 
spoke. " Miss Walker, you are the light 
of my life." 

" I am sure," she returned quietly 



and kindly, after a half-involuntary 
glance at her companion, 44 I am sure. 
Mr. Somerton, I wish I might brighten 
your life a little for you, for I have no- 
ticed that it seems too gloomy some- 
times. Do not let me be a moth's 
candle, though," she added more 
quickly. 44 But see, what glorious blos- 
soms." 

Glorious they were indeed, and she 
stooped to gather a handful as she 
spoke. Edgar Somerton stood beside 
her without the heart to help her, or, 
perhaps, his thoughts were too painful 
to give him leave for such attentions. 
But at last he bethought him of his 
duty, and the basket was soon filled. 
The sun was low, and it seemed to 
Edgar Somerton, as he walked home 
with Miss Walker, that the crimson 
clouds, which faded so soon into dull 
banks of leaden gray, were the aptest 
symbols of his ill-starred hopes. 

He half forgot his pain, a few days 
later, when Miss Walker met him upon 
the street, with her kind smile. " Will 
you walk up to grandfather Walker's 
with me. Mr. Somerton? " she said. "1 
am staying there now while our house 
is empty. The rest of the family have 
gone to Cambridge to visit my brother 
Charles, whose class is to give a grand 
entertainment on May-day." 

" What kind reason kept you with 
us in Concord? I am sure your 
brother could spare you least of all." 

44 Oh, we like some of the children 
to stay with grandpa, and keep him 
cheerful," she replied, 44 but why do 
you always talk of me, as Colonel Har- 
rington used to do, who was quartered 
here three or four years ago. He 
quite turned my head ; I was only a 
child then, and he should have known 
better. But officers are almost always 
reckless." 

44 Yes, that. is why they are favorites. 
Prudence makes few friends." 

" And yet," she answered, " I am 
sure that men may sometimes be brave 
and spirited, without being headstrong 
and rash. Ah S" and her voice grew 
stronger, while the far-away unap- 
proachableness seemed to fall again 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



like a mist upon her heightened 
form. 

" Ah, if men could be heroes, and 
women stars to shine beside them, we 
should not have to wait for the golden 
age. There are good qualities enough ; 
but no one is all good. Oh could I 
but see the man who stands in the 
front of the battle, fighting victoriously 
for truth and for every thing great, for- 
getting himself and living alone with 
his heart, how I should worship him, 
and be ready to sacrifice myself to the 
glory of his greatness until — " 

They had reached the gate, and the 
fair enthusiast, who had entirely for- 
gotten her companion, turned and saw 
him standing- with a dejected counte- 
nance at her side. Her heart smote 
her, and she added more gently : '-And 
vet I know it is not the part of many 
to lead, and even those who follow 
may do their own work nobly. Will 
you come into the parlor for a little 
while, Mr. Somerton?" 

" No, I thank you." he replied ; it 
is late, and I have yet to call upon 
Widow Thompson, whose little Norah 
is very sick." And indeed, Edgar 
Somerton was almost glad to go away. 
Miss Walker's distance from him was 
so great, and her condescension, though 
unconscious, was so plain. 

" I shall see you to-morrow night at 
Mr. Sparhawk's May-party, I hope," 
said Miss Walker, as he was about to 
turn away. 

" If you hope to see me there, I 
shall be present, though I had intended 
to remain at home. I will go, if I 
may expect to find you there." 

" Such holidays keep the heart light, 
and I think every one should do his ut- 
most to chase away the shades of mel- 
ancholy." 

11. 

The candles flashed brightly from 
the windows of the old Livermore 
house on the night of the first of 
May. This house, which was built in 
1786, by Major Daniel Livermore, was 
at the time of this narrative occupied 
by Samuel Sparhawk, the banker, who 



having a wide acquaintance through 
New Hampshire and elsewhere, had 
proposed that this party should be 
the event of the season. All the wor- 
thy people of the town, old and young, 
thronged the brilliant rooms, trimmed 
in their gayest plumage. There were 
the Kents, and the Thompsons, and 
the Walkers ; the Abbotts, the Bradlevs, 
the Avers, and the Kimballs ; the 
Hutchinses, the Eastmans, the Dows, 
and the Elliotts : — Yes, yes, they were 
all there, and a host beside. But to Ed- 
gar Somerton there was only one, — and 
where was she? Here was her Aunt 
Betsey, with whom no doubt Mis-. 
Walker had come. Mr. Somerton in- 
quired of Mrs. Betsey, who said that 
Lucretia was somewhere about, but 
she did not know just where, and be- 
fore Edgar had time to take the alarm. 
Aunt Betsey, who was famous as a 
talker, had begun a history of the 
Walker family for his questionable 
pleasure. Edgar gave small heed, 
though he had to make a show of at- 
tention, and his ear caught more read- 
ily a remark made by Lizzie Aver to 
her friend Caroline Kent, who stood 
close at his elbow : — "Just look at "Cre- 
tia Walker, will you ? Did you ever 
see the like? She needn't be so airy, 
if she is the best looking girl in town." 

"Who is that gentleman that she i-; 
with?" returned Miss Kent. 

"That ! — don't you know him ? Why. 
he is the lion of the evening. That is 
Mr. Morse, the artist. You ought to 
know him ; he talks like a book." 

Edgar heard no more ; but he could 
see Miss Walker now, over Aunt Bet- 
sey's shoulder. Her gloved hand 
rested upon the arm of a gentleman, 
who, from his distinguished and easy 
bearing, Edgar Samerton judged at 
once to be the Mr. Mors:; in question. 
Mr. S. E. B. Morse, afterward famous 
the world over as the inventor of the 
electric telegraph, was at this time well 
known through New England as an 
artist and portrait painter. After cross- 
ing the Atlantic with Washington' All- 
ston, and studying in England under 
the guidance of Benjamin West, he 



MAY-FLOWERS. 



79 



Sud earned considerable distinction in 
the British Academy by his picture of 
the " Dying Hercules." He was now in 
his twenty-eighth year, full of ambition 
and hope. Edgar Somerton's heart fell 
as he thought of Miss Walker's heroic 
ideal, and wondered whether she had 
found it here. It was sometime before 
he saw her again ; but when he did 
so, she gave him a kind smile, and he 
greeted her at once. Had she news 
of her father and mother and the oth- 
ers in Cambridge ? Oh, yes, Susie had 
written ; they were having a delightful 
visit, and Charlie was so kind and so 
happy : and she went on to tell him all 
about the spring festivities in Boston. 
It was all very gracious — this talk ; 
but oh, so for away from where his 
thoughts longed to be. But to-night, 
more than ever. Miss Walker seemed 
wrapped in a golden haze that like a 
necromancer's spell made her unap- 
proachable. She was like a summer 
cloud, he thought, and he a dusky 
mountain tarn : the cloud drifts past, 
and itself unchanged, changes the pic- 
ture in the depths of the lake, which 
lies fast bound, to dream of the cloud 
when it is gone. She looked upon 
him kindly, but like the cloud was ever 
far, far away. 

"Would Miss Walker go with him to 
the refreshment room ? She was sor- 
ry, but had promised to go with Mr. 
Morse. Mr. Morse appeared at this 
moment, and led the young lady away. 
An hour later Edgar was sitting in the 
south room, with his head against the 
cabinet, when he heard low voices on 
the opposite side, which he knew at 
once. Before it occurred to him that 
lie was eaves-dropping, he had forgot- 
ten himself in the interest of what he 
heard. 

"It was the picture of the "Dying 
Hercules," you said, Mr. Morse, that 
won you so high a place in the Acad- 
emy. Why did you choose so violent 
and gloomy a subject?" 

"It is one that has always wrought 
upon my sympathy," was the response. 
" The old Greek mythology is every 
where full of eternal truth, which like 



Proteus appears in a thousand forms 
where you look for it least. It seems 
to be the fate of every heroic person, 
who, like Hercules, sacrifices himself 
for his race, to suffer and die upon 
some mountain height, like Hercules, 
alone. Even the consciousness of his 
own dignity seems to stead him little 
in the death-struggle of his last agony. 
Vet he has his reward with the gods." 

"Ah," and there was a wondrous 
wistfulness in the tone, " I can never 
believe that all greatness must die. 
Can no one live to defy, in this world, 
the hopelessness of death?" 

"Death is not hopeless," he replied. 
" even though we do not look beyond 
this world. We live and pass away, 
but we leave our spirits behind us, 
which never die ; and that is our re- 
ward." 

"Vour own hopes are high, Mr. 
Morse, and your eyes are fixed upon 
the stars. I know you will climb the 
mountain before you. but do you never 
shrink when you look up the steep 
ascent?" 

"I shrink when I think of looking 
down : so long as one looks upward he 
is safe. What I can accomplish I do 
not know : no one can give more than 
himself, and only the end can prove 
the work. Death comes swiftly on. 
And yet," and the voice grew deeper, 
" and yet, with some one to cheer him 
with sympathy, and brighten his dark 
days with love, a man might almost 
hope to bid defiance to the specter of 
death. But it is only a woman's ten- 
derness i hat can make man immortal." 

"And herself. It would be a wo- 
man's noblest life," was the low re- 
ply. 

The voices sank lower, and were in- 
audible. It occurred to Edgar Som- 
erton, for the first time, that he was tres- 
passing on the grounds of confidence, 
and he walked moodily to the door, 
hardly knowing what he did. From 
there he could see Miss Walker sitting 
with downcast eyes, and Mr. Morse 
looking at her without a word. Sud- 
denly she looked up with a radiant 
face, and Edgar knew that the story 



Ho 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



was told. He went home, but not to 
sleep. 

nr. 

The dew sparkled upon the grass 
the next morning, in the beams of the 
warm vernal sun, as Edgar Somerton, 
baring his hot brow, strode rapidly 
along the Hopkinton road. After a 
walk of fifteen minutes he turned aside 
upon the slope where less than a fort- 
night before he had rambled with Miss 
Walker among the May-flowers. The 
season was early this year, and the 
white or pink blossoms, now wilted, 
had given room to a host of variegated 
flowers, cinque-foils and violets, but- 
tercups and strawberry flowers, winter- 
green berries and frail innocents, car- 
peted the hills with the most pleasing 
hues. But Edgar found little delight 
in this outspread gorgeousness. Na- 
ture takes her mood from the mind ; 
she laughs with a May-day dancer, but 
her face clouds when the mind is shad- 
owed with grief, and though the petty 
annoyances of life may yield to her 
soothing art, the deep-seated sorrows 
are beyond her skill, unless she call to 
her aid that more potent wizard, — Time. 
So it came about that the young man 
wandered sorrowfully on through wood 
and meadow-side, until he entered the 
bed of an ancient water-course, with a 
tiny rivulet still trickling through the 
hollow. The sides were thinly wood- 
ed, with large rocks here and there, 
covered with mosses or vines. Edgar 
seated himself upon a mossy stone 
that was crowned by a yellow blos- 
somed bush-honeysuckle. It was a 
cool, shady spot, and the low murmur 
of the brook blending with the soft 
love-notes of the quiet birds made the 
silence musical while the new green 
leaves and the bursting buds seemed 
ready to join in the song as they were 
touched by the warm gold of the sift- 
ing sunshine. " Ah," sighed the dis- 
consolate youth, " every thing is happy 
in this world but I. The breeze 
caresses the blossoms, and the leaves 
hold out their lips to the gales ; the 
birds talk of love to one another, and 



I. only I, am alone and forsaken. 
Alas, can it be but a year since I 
thought that in the path of duty no 
shade could cloud my happiness? 
But ah ! it is easy to gaze only at the 
stars when the earth is dark, but when 
some bright illusion of this frail, but 
too beautiful, world gleams upon 
the sight, the stars quickly lose their 
celestial charm. Yet it is sheer mad- 
ness in me to love such a being as 
Miss Walker : she is an angel from 
another planet, walking across the 
Milky Way in heaven — a spirit to be 
worshiped by an humble student rather 
than loved." ' 

Whether it was that the purling 
brook stole his senses away, or that his 
calmer reason regained its sway, cer- 
tain it is that he felt more and more 
satisfied that his love for Miss Walker 
was not such as the heart requires for 
its sovereign joy, but only a kind of 
exalted reverence, which, in this earthly 
life, could never even hope for its due 
reward. He would love her still as he 
loved the clouds or the sunshine, and 
her memory should shed a luster over 
his whole life ; and was not that 
enough? Love withers unless watered 
with the dew of hope, and hope was 
gone for ever. Amid such thoughts, 
therefore, his soul grew calmer. The 
rill seemed to say, " Never mind, 
never mind," and the birds talked in 
very plain words, which he understood 
perfectly well, though for his life he 
could not have told what they said. 
There were some blue violets under a 
little bank which actually smiled at 
him, though they were so very modest 
that when he looked again their down- 
cast eyes were quite sober. The woods 
here were full of the largest and most 
dewy pure May-flowers, which linger in 
the shade for weeks when their rash 
sisters of the sunny hills have perished. 
Surely this was the green valley of 
happiness where all evil things turn to 
good. The drowsy hum of the bees 
about the bush-honeysuckle over his 
head, the murmur of the brook beside 
him, the twitter of the birds and the 
whispers of the windy leaves blended 



MAY-FLOWERS. 



with his thoughts until he could not 
tell one sound from another. 

A faint rustling noise caused him to 
turn his head, and he started up, or 
thought he started up, wide awake. 
Not ten yards from where -he sat. 
white and pure as the (lowers them- 
selves, knelt a young girl, who, with- 
out noticing him in the "least, seemed 
to be kissing and caressing a cluster of 
the largest blossoms. Her soft white 
dress fell in spotless folds about her. 
and rested upon the leaves. Edgar 
Somerton remained spell-bound, won- 
dering at the soft beauty of her dark 
flowing hair, with only a little bunch of 
May-flowers for adornment, wondering 
at the milky whiteness of her graceful 
neck and the paleness of her trans- 
parent cheek, wondering still more 
who she could be, and how she had 
come so near without disturbing him. 
At last she raised her head : she did 
not seem at all startled to see him. 
But as she gazed at him, a little sadly, 
as he thought, out of her soft brown 
eyes, he felt a sudden rapture thrill 
his veins such as he had never before 
known. Here was nothing distant and 
repelling, nothing haughty and unap- 
proachable ; oh. no : her whole face 
and bearing diffused a gentle spel! of 
tenderness that fell upon Edgar Som- 
erton's wounded heart like dew. 

''Then you have really come ?" she 
said, with a questioning wistfulness in 
her voice, which charmed his ear like 
music ; " I have waited so long, so 
long." 

"Oh, tell me who you are. and what 
you mean," cried Edgar impetuously, 
springing forward and kneeling on one- 
knee close before her ; " how did you 
come here, beautiful girl, all alone?" 

" Oh, J am Linda." she said, mod- 
estly, as if her presence were the mo^t 
natural thing in the world ; " I am 
Linda, and I was sure you would come." 

'' Why, who is Linda? What is the 
rest — Linda who !" he cried. 

" That is all," she said. 

" But what are you doing here in the 
woods, so far from any house, you 
angel child?" 
vii — G 



" Oh, I am always here ; it isn't so 
far away as you think, and no body 
would l^urt me. Hut i can not stay 
long, so you must tell me quickly what 
you do in the great world?" 

Eager as he was to question her,, 
Edgar felt compelled to do whatever 
she asked : " I am soon to be a ministe" 
of the gospel," he said. 

" The gospel?" she asked doubtfully.. 

• v To tell people about God," he- 
explained. It did not seem strange, 
for some reason, that she should be 
ignorant of the simplest things. , 

"Ah, yes. he gave you your souls,'' 
she said musingly. 

" He gave us all our lives," returned 
Edgar devoutly : " but will you not te • 
me where you live, and how you came 
here ?" 

" Wait, wait, have patience," she- 
said ; " the time is too short to waste, 
for I must go very soon." 

"Oh, Linda, Linda, if that i^ the 
only name that I am to know," he 
cried with sudden passion, " do not 
leave me ; it is you I have been waiting 
for all my life, though I never knew it 
till now. Linda, do not leave me. " 
For it seemed to him that she might: 
slip away at any moment as quieth 
and quickly as she had come. 

" See, the sun is sinking : it is grow- 
ing late ; but I will come again." 

Edgar noticed that it was indeed 
near sunset. How in the world it 
came to be so late Edgar could no; 
conjecture, and indeed he had little 
time to solve the riddle, for suddeniy 
a shrill voice rang through the woods : 
" Lindalin, Lindalin," it cried ; " Lin- 
dalin." 

"There, I must go now. You will 
come again," she said. 

" A thousand times : but I will no* 
let you go so. You shall not pas:; 
through the woods alone," and he 
arose to accompany her. But she was 
already many steps away ; she seemed 
to be walking leisurely enough, but 
Edgar felt himself utterly unable to 
follow her, and could only stretch out 
his arms imploringly, as she disap- 
peared behind a hazel copse, waving 



S2 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



her hand as she went. He seemed to 
see her white scarf still, but when he 
made his way to the spot, htfesaw that 
it was. only a dead sycamore bough. 
Edgar explored the woods and cop- 
pices, but it was all of no avail ; there 
was no sign of human habitation. 
Half despairing, though not without 
hope for the future, he sat down at 
last on the stone where he had seen 
Linda first. Suddenly a voice cried 
again, as it seemed, " Lindalin, Linda- 
}in." He started up, and looked about, 
rubbing his eyes, but he soon per- 
ceived that the sound was only the 
note of a whip-poor-will, and he almost 
wondered if the first call had been 
any thing more. 

Oh, Mr. Somerton. I am so glad 
to see you again," exclaimed his good 
hostess, Mrs. Odlin, when he knocked 
at the door long after dark ; " I have 
been so worried about you. Where 
have you been ; and only look, what a 
mess your shoes are in, and your 
stockings, too. You must go right off 
up stairs, and change your clothes, and 
then come down, and I will have a 
good cup of coffee for you, and some 
nice porridge that I saved for you 
from dinner, and you shall have a mug 
of some fine hard cider that old Reu- 
ben Abbott just sent down to-day. 
But come, what are you waiting for?" 
■and she bundled the young man up 
stairs.- Edgar felt for the first time 
that he was ravenously hungry, a fact 
that it had not occurred to him to 
•notice. before. He slept soundly until 
the following morning, notwithstanding 
the mixed thoughts that thronged his 
memory. 

IV. 

The duties of the morrow, which 
was the Lord's day, gave little room 
for reflection, and kept him constantly 
busy from morning to night. One or 
two ladies, it is true, did wonder a lit- 
tle at his absent answers to their ques- 
tions about the new Sunday-school in 
West Parish Village. His thoughts 
were far away in a woodland glen ; but 
he was unable that day to follow them 



in the body ; and whom should he 
meet the next morning, when he strode 
out of the gate, but Miss Lucretia, who, 
wiser than Ponce de Leon, knew that 
the phantom island of Bimini lay at 
her own door, and had risen thus early 
to drink a cup of Nature's own elixir. 
Mr. Somerton must walk with her. She 
had been reading about the river Gan- 
ges, and would he tell her something 
about the pagans who lived there, as 
she knew he had read a great deal 
about India, having, indeed, at one 
time, contemplated going thither as a 
missionary. He could not refuse ; but 
the day was so bright that Miss Walker 
could not bear to think of the poor, 
half-dead Hindoos, and would talk of 
the birds and flowers instead. She 
seemed to him as beautiful as ever this 
morning, but he no longer felt the 
same dejection in her presence. She 
was fair like a Grecian goddess, fair 
like marble, and he felt that Pygma- 
lion's art was not for him to warm the 
cold heart of stone to life ; she might 
be responsive to others, but he was no 
Pygmalion, and he felt that her disturb- 
ing spell had fallen away from him. 
And yet his walk with her had a strange 
influence upon him ; it seemed, after 
he left her, that he had been walking 
in a land of illusion for the two days 
past, and that he was now brought 
back to the common light of day. 
The strange circumstances of his meet- 
ing with Linda on Saturday came to 
him with their full force for the first 
time, and his reason sought to unfold 
the riddle. It fell upon his heart, all 
at once, like lead that the occurrences 
which lingered in his memory could 
have been no more than a dream. 
P'very thing pointed to that conclusion ; 
the vision had begun after a fit of 
drowsiness, and had ended by his be- 
ing aroused from a brooding study, 
and he now recollected that in his 
childhood he had often been unable 
to separate reality from dream. That 
was long ago, but a man's nature is an 
inveterate thing, and faculties long 
dormant often work again. The irre- 
sistible conviction filled him with de 



MAY-FLOWERS. 



>juir, for Linda surely seemed a reality : 
had lie given his heart to a being that 
would ever float only in the wavering 
mists of dream, more unattainable than 
his former ideal, whom at least he 
could see ? The thought was madness,, 
and he strode back in bitter grief to 
the rock where the vision of bliss had 
visited him. " Ah," he cried wildly. 
" the glow of Pygmalion's desire could 
never have been fiercer than this ; but 
even Pygmalion had a stone to clasp, 
and I can clasp nothing but vacant 
air." He threw himself violently upon 
the ground in a transport of despair. 
There were the very flowers that she 
had seemed to kiss, and he could al- 
most see the white folds of her virgin 
dress on the leaves. i4 Oh, Linda, 
Linda," he cried, " shall I never see 
you again I" and he buried his face in 
the moss and leaves, moaning griev- 
ously. 

A soft hand touched his shoulder; 
he looked up ; it was Linda. Thrilled 
with an awful rapture, like one who 
sees a lost darling brought back from 
beyond the gates of the grave. Edgar 
Somerton struggled to his feet and 
looked at her with a wild light in his 
eyes ; yes, it was truly she, and with- 
out a word he held out his arms, and 
<:lasped the white-robed maiden to his 
bosom. Instead of struggling, Linda 
laid her beautiful, fair head upon his 
convulsed breast, and he held her, oh, 
so close in his arms, till he felt the 
quick heaving of her gentle bosom, 
and the pulses of her fluttering heart. 
*' Oh, darling, darling," his voice was 
almost drowned in an agony of pas- 
sion, — ' : I thought you were lost, that 
I should never see you again," and he 
pressed her head closer to his breast 
with his hand. 

Oh, why did you not come yester- 
day?" she said, turning up her face 
so that he saw the bright tears upon 
her eyelashes and her cheek. 

,; Oh, you will never, never leave me 
again," he cried. 

" I would not," she replied tearfully, 
-as she nestled in his arms, " but the 



time is short, the flowers are growing 
brown already." 

" Yes, but you shall show me where 
you live : you shall go with me, and 
never, never leave me again." 

" I do not think you understand," 
she said. " but I will come again." 

" Why do you say again?" he cried 
reproachfullv : "you shall never gu at 
all." 

"' Ah, you know I must, the flowers 
fade so soon," she said wistfully. 

" But our love need never fade," he 
said, and kissed her again and again. 

They sat down upon a mossy stone, 
and talked a long time, though it would 
have been hard to say what they talked 
about. A voice rang through the wood, 
" Linda, Linda." I must go," she 
said ; " I can not come again until to- 
morrow, you know." 

;i If you go, I will go with you," he 
said. 

'•No, no, you don't understand: 
come to-morrow." She pressed into 
his hand the cluster of May-flowers 
that had adorned her hair, and was 
gone. Edgar wished to follow, but he 
did not know which way to turn ; his 
limbs seemed to fail him, and he sank 
to the ground in a half-stupor. After 
a while he rose despondently : but hope 
came back with the thought of the 
morrow. He had dropped the flowers 
that Linda had given him, and now he 
looked for them a long time in vain. 
They could not be lost, lie thought ; he 
had not moved a step since she left 
him, and the ground was clear and 
even about him. It began to grow 
dusk, and he was forced to abandon 
the search. A sudden thought made 
him shudder : " Is this, too, a dream?" 
he muttered, but the feeling quickly 
passed away, for he knew now that 
Linda, however mysterious, was at 
least a reality. 

v. 

A storm had been gathering in the 
warm May air, and when Edgar Som- 
erton awoke the next morning, he 
found the day cold and rain}. Too 
eager, however, to heed wind or 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



storm, he dressed himself hastily, and 
started for the rendezvous of the pre- 
vious day. The wind was high, and as 
he passed the Capitol, which was then 
in process of building, a sudden gust 
loosened a piece of scaffolding which, 
as ill luck would have, must fall plump 
on the young man's head, stretching 
him senseless upon the ground. He 
was carried home again, but it was 
some hours before he recovered his 
senses. When consciousness returned 
it was broken and disturbed by fre- 
quent fits of delirium, which left him 
so weak that for a fortnight he did not 
rise from his bed ; and even then the 
doctor forbade him to leave the house 
for a week to come. Two or three 
days after this admonition had been 
given, good Mrs. Odlin went up stairs 
in the morning to call Mr. Somerton to 
breakfast, when, to her consternation 
and alarm, she found an empty room. 
Edgar, in fact, was by that time far on 
his way to the wood that he knew so 
well. It was now past the middle of 
May, and when he came to the rock- 
where he had met Linda before, he 
found the May-flowers brown and 
withering, with hardly a suggestion of 
their primal beauty. He looked about 
him, but nothing was to be seen save 
the rocks and trees. He called Linda 
several times by name, but the only 
answer was the discordant scream of 
an angry jay. Not knowing what to 
do next, but unwilling to sit idle and 
inactive, he began to explore the sur- 
rounding woods, hoping that, perhaps, 
notwithstanding his previous unsuc- 
cessful efforts, he might be able to find 
some indication of the way where 
Linda had gone when she left him : 
but it was all of no avail. After wan- 
dering up and down for some hours, 
he returned at last to the glen, where, 
oh. wonderful, there she stood — Linda 
herself — in all her angel mildness, gaz- 
ing sadly at the vacant rock. She did 
not see him at first, and he noticed 
that her face had grown paler, and that 
a settled sadness rested upon her 
features. When she saw him she 
sprang to meet him, and sank almost 



fainting in his arms. " Oh. I knew 
you would come," she said. k ' before 
the flowers were all dead and I was 
gone : but oh, where have you l>een 
all these long tired days?" Edgar- 
explained why he had not come 
before, and he now determined once 
for all to solve the mystery that seemed 
to clothe the girl like a mantle. He 
drew her down upon the rock beside 
him, but all his tender questions were 
of no avail. " You will know soon/* 
she answered in a half pitiful way, or 
" You can't understand yet." " Lin- 
da," he cried passionately, at lasL 
" who and what are you ; I will not 
let you go until you tell me," and he 
clasped his arms about her yielding 
form, and drew her head down upon 
his breast. Her great brown eyes 
were filled with tears. Ah me 1 for a 
touch of holy fire, that I might tell of 
the rapture of the tears of love. What 
are sighs and what are kisses, when the 
heart is bursting, though not with 
grief : where joy is so wild that it joins 
hands with agony ; when self is lost in 
an ocean of forgetfulness. Time was 
no more, and all things were drowned 
in an eternal now. The hand-stroking, 
the gleam of her cloud-like hair, the 
breast rising and falling with the music 
of her breath, the two hearts beating 
in accord, seemed to them both like 
the dream of some wild enthusiast, 
who has overleaped the bounds of this 
contracted world, ami melts away in 
the ocean of what might be. The 
young man seemed to feel his soul 
growing to a giant size, and thrilling 
the wide world till it grew like him- 
self. At last Linda rose to her feet 
and said slowly : 

" We each have our term of life, and 
I go and come with the May-flowers. 
We are not like you, for you live for 
ever. Though you seem to die, your 
souls live on. But now you have 
made me like yourself ; your soul has 
kindled itself in me. 1 shall go with 
the flowers, but my new-born soul will 
live for ever. Do not seek me here again, 
for I can not come, but I will come- 
again with the bloom of the flowersj* 



MAY-FLOWERS. 



85 



u Oh, Linda, Linda, 1 do not under- 
stand a word of all you say. You 
must go with me, and never, never 
leave me." 

" Ah. you will see it all as I do after 
awhile. Do not mourn for me, only 
hope." And with one List lingering 
kiss she was gone. Edgar fell sense- 
less to the earth. 

It was midnight when he awoke. 
He saw lanterns gleaming through the 
wood, and heard voices calling him by 
name. The town's people, who had 
turned out to search for him, shook 
their heads significantly when they saw 
his wild and disordered look. The 
blow that he had received on his head 
a few weeks before was obviously 
responsible for his strange behavior. 
So without needless questions they 
constructed a kind of litter on the 
spot, and carried him home, for he 
was altogether too weak to walk. He 
was put in bed again, where he 
remained for several days. 

VI. 

When at length Edgar was able to 
sit upon the piazza, an odd-looking 
letter was brought to him one day, 
marked *' Official," and sealed with a 
great black seal. Edgar opened it 
wonderingly, and found a letter written 
on brown fibrous paper, which read as 
follows : 

"To his Excellency, Edgar Somer- 
ton, S. II . — Your duty respectfully 
required at the rock in the glen, on the 
28th of May, by the reckoning of the 
sun. Your servant in grief, ." 

The signature appeared like a mere 
tangle of chance lines and angles, 
from which Edgar could make no 
meaning. On Thursday, the twenty- 
eighth, however, he was so far recov- 
ered that he undertook to carry out 
what seemed to be the request of the 
mysterious billet. The thought of 
Linda drove from his mind any fear 
that such a strange message might well 
have caused, and when he arrived at 
the familiar glen he looked eagerly 
around him in hope of seeing some 
sign of.Linda. But she did not come. 



and even the last vestige of the May- 
flowers that she had loved was gone. 
Suddenly a discordant noise caused 
him to turn quickly: "Since your 
excellency has seen fit to come so 
early," it said, " we will proceed at 
once." The speaker was a thick little 
man, in black dress coat and small 
clothes, and with a high sugar-loaf hat 
upon his head. Beckoning Edgar to 
follow, he lead the way a hundred 
yards or so into the woods, to a little 
square stone house, at which Edgar 
stared in amazement, for he^believed 
that he had searched every square foot 
of that part of the forest, and here 
stood a house looking as old as the 
crags themselves. Indeed it looked 
very like a huge bowlder, with a door- 
way in one side, and it might have 
been that very resemblance, Edgar 
thought, that had caused him to over- 
look it. Leaving him beside the trunk 
of an oak-tree, his guide entered the 
low door- way. Presently an old man 
and an old woman walked slowly out 
of the door, side by side, followed by 
another old, old man, in a long black 
robe, who carried a ponderous book 
under his arm. Twelve men came 
next, bearing what looked like a bier, 
with an ominous black covering. Last 
of all marched twenty sable-clad men, 
some with spades, some with pick- 
axes, among whom Edgar recognized 
his guide. The whole train moved 
mechanically forward, with measured 
steps, passing within a few feet of him 
without noticing him in any way. In- 
deed they did not seem to notice any 
thing, but walked straight forward with 
faces expressive of nothing but utter 
vacancy. They struck into the road at 
last — it was the Hopkinton road, — 
and followed it until they came to a 
grave-yard — the Millville cemetery — 
which at that time contained but few 
graves. Edgar, though unbidden, fol- 
lowed as a matter of course, and he 
observed with wonder that several per- 
sons whom they met upon the road, 
passed them by without bestowing even 
a glance upon the extraordinary pro- 
cession. The pall-bearers entered the 



86 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



cemetery, and set the bier upon the 
ground, while the pickers and spades- 
men quickly dug a grave in one corner 
of the inclosure. A great foreboding 
filled Edgar's heart, but the automatic 
movements and the continued silence 
of the strange people held him spell- 
bound. The black covering still lay 
upon the bier. The solitary old man 
took his place at one end of the grave, 
opened his book, and, in a hard, ex- 
pressionless voice, began to read, while 
the rest stood about the grave with 
fixed and vacant countenances. The 
words of the priest, for such he seemed 
to be, were an unintelligible jargon to 
Edgar ; the separate words were dis- 
tinct enough, it is true, but they were 
jumbled together in hopeless confusion. 
A crow flew by. overhead, with a hoarse 
" caw;, caw," which sounded singularly 
like the voice of the priest. Not a leaf 
stirred upon the trees ; the very air 
seemed laid and dead. At length the 
priest stopped, and the pall-bearers 
drew back the black covering of the 
bier. There lay Linda, pale and dead, 
with a ehaplet of green vines wreathed 
in the gleam of her hair. With a great 
cry Edgar Somerton threw himself upon 
the bier, and clasped her lifeless form 
in his arms. A frightful tumult of an- 
gry voices arose around him. A noise 
like the rush of a hurricane sounded 
in his ears, and his senses forsook him. 

VII. 

" It is plain that his reason was 
shaken by that unfortunate blow on the 
head," said Mr. Morse to Miss Walker, 
who held in her hand a roll of papers 
from which she had just been reading. 
" It is plain that his reason was shaken : 
such cases are very common." 

Edgar Somerton had returned to his 
lodgings that night as pale as a ghost. 
He sat in his room all night writing as 
fast as his pen would move. The next 
morning he paid his account with Mrs. 
Odlin, in spite of her grief and wonder, 
and went away by the early coach, 
leaving nothing behind him but a roll 
of manuscript, which he requested 
Mrs. Odlin to deliver into the hands 



of Miss Walker. In this roll she found 
a clear though impassioned narrative 
of all that had befallen him since he 
had gone a- Maying with her more than 
a month before. " I do not expect 
ever to see you again." the manuscript 
concluded, " for I bear in my heart a 
pain that can never know relief. What 
I shall do with the remnant of my life 
I do not yet know." 

Miss Walker shivered a little when 
she had finished it, but like a wise 
woman she carried the mystery to her 
betrothed for solution. It is plain 
that his reason was shaken," Mr. 
Morse explained. " This Mr. Somer- 
ton seems to have been of a melan- 
choly and romantic cast of mind, just 
the temper that is most susceptible to 
hallucination. The first meeting or 
two which he imagines he had with 
the young girl were probably dreams, 
as he himself seems to have suspected,., 
and all the others have happened since 
he received the unfortunate injury upon 
his head." 

" I suppose your explanation is the 
true one," said Miss Walker, 4 - and 
they did say that he behaved himself 
very oddly at the last. But I can not 
help feeling that it is all very weird and 
strange." And with a little shudder 
she laid the manuscript in an old chest, 
when she went up stairs again, where- 
she never ventured to disturb it after- 
ward.* 

Miss Walker became Mrs. Morse in 
September, and lived in New Haven 
for seven years, when she died, bitterly 
lamented by her husband. Edgar 
Somerton passed the winter in Boston, 
giving himself heart and soul to a mis- 
sionary work that was being carried on 
in the poorer quarter of the city. 
April came round once more, and Mr. 
Somerton one day informed his friend 
and fellow-worker, Arthur Blake, that 
he wished to make a brief visit to 
Concord. Mr. Blake, who had noticed 
some eccentricities in his friend's con- 
duct, during the past week, and who- 

*See note at the beginning of the nar- 
rative. 



THE DREAM OF A RHYMER. 



had heard some reports of his strange 
adventures in Concord, was unwilling 
to let him go alone, and Edgar was 
forced, though against his will, to take 
Mr. Blake in his company. They 
reached the hotel late at night, and in 
the morning Edgar declared his inten- 
tion of taking a long walk over the 
country. " Perhaps we shall find some 
May-flowers, to reward our pains," said 
he, when he found that Mr. Blake in- 
sisted upon walking with him. Mr. 
Blake assured him they would nut be 
out for a week at least. Edgar led the 
way to the wood he knew so well, and 
sat down silently upon the familiar 
stone, while a host of memories, sweet 
and painful, came thronging on his 
heart. He began to turn over the ever- 



green leaves upon the ground, where 
he had seen Linda for the first time. 

" Is it here that you come to look 
for May-flowers?" said Mr. Blake, hail 
contemptuously ; " why, they are not 
in blossom yet in the sun, and it will 
be a month before they are out in this 
gloomy wood." 

Edgar did not answer, but went Ton 
turning over the leaves. Mr. Blake 
went to the other side of the glen, and 
was looking up the bank, when he 
heard a quick, joyous cry. He turned 
and hastened to the spot. There, his 
face buried in a great cluster Of fra- 
grant white May-flowers, that almost 
hid his head from sight, lay Edgar 
Somerton — dead. 



THE DREAM OF A RHYMER. 



TO M. L., A POETESS. 



I. 

First was shadowed in my dream 
A maiden, seated by a stream. 

Bending o'er a book. 
And she read aloud a song 
That did softly glide along. 
In the music of the metre, 
Ju the rhythm, sweeter, sweeter. 
Than the gliding. 
Shadow-hiding, 

Currents of the brook. 

ii. 

Then within a palace olden. 
Where, on tape-tries, the golden 

Ages pictured were 
In a palace old was seen. 
One. who wore the look of queen. 
And, behold, it was a page 
Of the same book did engage 
All her fancy. 
Since her t*ye 

Did not from it stir. 

in. 

Next upon a vessel far. 

Steering toward the Northern <tar. 

Thro' God's ship- of ice, 
'Mid the sunless solitudes, 
Where but seldom man intrudes, 



In my vision I did hear. 
Thro" the mist of many a tear. 

With loving heed. 

The captain read 
From the same book thrice. 

IV. 

Then beneath a Western wood. 
Where the tree-, for aye. have stood. 

Birth of primal tire. 
In the wood of eld I heard, — 
And the solemn music stirred. 
Of the wind within the pines. — 
Heard a hunter read the lines 
Which had been 
Meet to win 

Captive queen's desire. 

v. 

Last, wise Time, gray, keen-eyed, came 
With a stainless wreath of fame 

From the laurel tree. 
And he eagerly did look 
For the writer of the book. 
Which the hearts had won of ill 
Who in hut or haughty hall 
Must love and live : 
Wise Time did give 

The laurel crown to thee! 

(ji. \\. 1V.TTKKS0N-. 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 
NEW HAMPSHIRE MEN IN MICHIGAN— No. 4. 



HON. C. C. 

Chari.es C. Comstock was born 
March 5, 1S18, in Sullivan, Cheshire 
<:ounty, N. H. He is the youngest of 
the family of a respectable farmer of 
moderate means. At an early age he 
manifested remarkable business tact 
and enterprise ; was very successful, 
.mid by industry and economy (so 
common among New England people), 
at thirty-five years of age, had accu- 
mulated a property of about $10,000, 
and was considered one of the most 
thrifty farmers of that region. He had 
also built and operated two saw-mills 
there. In 1853 he removed to Grand 
Rapids, Michigan, with his family, and 
soon became one of the foremost men 
in the place, in the lumbering and 
wood manufacturing enterprises in that 
then young but vigorous city. The 
financial crash of 1 85 7-60, temporarily 
checked his business ; but with re- 
doubled energy, strong will, and reso- 
lution which knew no failure, he ral- 
lied, and, in a short time, was at the 
.head of one of the most flourishing 
-manufactories of cabinet wares in that 
region. He had also increased his lum- 
bering operations, and several branches 
of lumber manufacture, many fold ; be- 
side investing largely in real estate, 
which was hugely increasing in value, 
.he built up and operated one of the 
■largest pail and wooden ware factories 
in the West ; and in many other pri- 
vate and public enterprises, has taken 
an active part. His strong point is 
to push things. With unflagging energy, 



COMSTOCK. 

tireless industry, indefatigable perse- 
verance, great power of endurance, 
thorough business integrity, prompt- 
ness and punctuality, strong judgment, 
managing even in detail heavy and 
various interests, he has built up a 
handsome fortune, and is esteemed 
one of the wealthy citizens of the state. 
A worker himself, he has given em- 
ployment to thousands, and thus, and 
by the interest he has taken in munici- 
pal affairs, has contributed greatly to 
the progress and material growth of 
his city and county. Though deeply 
absorbed in business, he always re- 
sponded freely to calls for religious, 
benevolent, and public purposes. Mr. 
Comstock has served ably in different 
official positions ; was mayor of Grand 
Rapids two terms — in 1863-4. In 
1870 he was the 1 )emocratic candidate 
for governor of the state, receiving the 
full vote of his party, and in his own 
county running ahead of his party 
ticket. In the fall of 1873 ne received 
a nomination as the people's candi- 
date for representative in congress, 
from his district, to fill the vacancy 
caused by the death of Hon. W. 1). 
Foster, and at the special election held 
for that purpose, he had an unprece- 
dented run, reducing the majority of 
the dominant party, from 8,000 to 1 14. 
Mr. Comstock may be regarded as a 
prominent representative of the suc- 
cessful business men of the West. 

Mary M. Culver. 



COUNCILOR PAUL WENTWORTH. 



BY JOHN WENTWORTH. 

1 have read with great interest the portion of it relating to Councilor 

contribution of Levi W. Dodge to the Paul Wentworth. of whom so little is 

October number of the Granite known. Since the publication of the 

Monthly, and more particularly that Wentworth Genealogy, by Little, Brown 



MY MOTHER'S "GOOD NIGHT." LIFE'S DAY. 



89 



& Co.. of Boston, Mass.. I have come 
to the conclusion that he was a native 
of Barbadoes, or at least came from 
that place to New Hampshire, where 
he could have remained but a short 
time. I find no official note of him 
until the administration of Gov. John 
Wentworth. On December 31, 1771, 
Gov. Wentworth granted two townships 
of land to the same parties. One he 
called Maynesborough (now Berlin), 
and the other Paulsburgh (now Milan). 
John Farmer, in the A r . H. Gazetteer 
of 1S23, says Maynesborough was 
granted to Sir William Mayne and 
others, of Barbadoes. He says the 
same of Paulsburgh, named for Paul 
Wentworth. Now in both the name 



of Paul Wentworth occurs ; but there 
is no residence of any one given, ex- 
cept of William Wentworth, who is 
called of Barbadoes, probably to dis- 
tinguish him from the many other 
Wentworths in Old and New England. 
I find that a William Wentworth was a 
prominent man in Barbadoes, in 1764, 
who may have been a brother of this 
Paul. It looks as if all the grantees 
were Barbadoes men, whose acquaint- 
ance Paul had there formed. He was 
not a descendant of the emigrant an- 
cestor of New England, and all tradi- 
tion represents him as coming from 
some of the West India Islands — 
probably from liarbadoes. 



MY MOTHERS "GOOD NIGHT." 



BY MKS. ELLEN" SI. MASON'. 



Erst-while there bent above my boil 
A mother's precious, golden bead. 
And she dear words of comfort said, 

That gave peace nothing could destroy : 
WhateVr had been the clay's annoy. 
She said God bless my darling boy!" 

Tis long and many year- ago: 
Ami now my head i- white as snow, 
L>ut still I hear that voice so low. 



Though long since numbered with ihe 
dead. 

My mother leans above my bed: — 
I feel her blessing o'er me shed. 

Her presence brings me sweet release, 
And carking cares and worries cease. 
And settle on me passing peace. 

The vision is my greatest joy ; 
My greatest good without alloy 
Trie praver. — "(iod bless mv darling 
boy !" 



LIFE'S DAY. 



BY ANNA L. LEAK. 



At Morn — 
Two lovers walked for their pleasure 

Under the morning dawn : 
Happy with love and with leisure 

While the bright day sped on. 

At Noon — 

Two cheerful workers together 
Toiled neath the noon-day sun,— 

Heeding not hardship nor weather 
-Since thev wen* both as one: 



At Eve— 
A peaceful couple, at evening 

Watching the sinking sun. 
Thought not of grumbling or grieving, 

Since all their work was done. 

At Night— 
Down where the tall willows, weeping, 

Make the day dim at noon. 
Two forms are quietly sleeping 

Under the silent moon. 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



HON. DAVID ATWOOD. 



BY C. W. 

The name Atwood appears as early 
as 1638, on the records of Plymouth 
colony. The subject of this sketch 
traces his ancestors on his father's 
side (six generations in America), to 
Herman Atwood, who immigrated from 
Sanderstead, about fifteen miles from 
London, and settled in Boston, Mass., 
in 1642. The family was of pure Eng- 
lish descent. More than a century 
later Isaac Atwood, a descendant of 
Herman, came to Bedford, N. H., 
with his wife, whose maiden name was 
Hannah Chubbuck, and from whose 
family Mrs. Adoniram Judson, the last 
wife of the missionary of that name de- 
scended. Of their nine children David, 
the father of David, junior, was one. 
His mother was Mary Bell, a descend- 
ant of John Bell, who was born in Ire- 
land, came to this country, and settled 
in Bedford, N. H., in 1736. It may 
be of interest to the many families of 
that name in the country, to be in- 
formed of its origin. The legend runs 
thus: " John Austin, of pure Norman 
extraction, a native of Glasgow, Scot- 
land, invented the tulip-shaped bell, 
for which he was knighted by Queen 
Elizabeth, and took the name of •'Bell." 
He was a staunch Presbyterian, and 
during the religious controversy of that 
period was obliged to flee, and went 
to the north of Ireland. From thence 
a large family of brothers immigrated to 
the United States, one of whom came 
to New Hanpshire. David Atwood, 
senior, and Mary Bell, were both born 
in Bedford, the former. March 24th, 
1779, the latter, April 12th, 1781. 
They married, Sept. 21st, 1802, and 
settled at once on the farm where, they 
remained through their long, quiet and 
useful lives. 

David, who received the name of his 
father, was the seventh child and fourth 
son. He was born in Bedford, Dec. 
1 5th, 1 815, and was brought up on the 
farm. As soon as he was old enough 



WALLACE. 

he went to the field to perform such 
labor as his slight and delicate frame 
would permit. He was not a strong 
boy (one of those who spring to man's 
estate before they pass half through 
their teens), yet he was no shirk. One 
more willing and industrious never 
toiled on our New Hampshire hills. 
David, in his early youth, enjoyed such 
privileges of education as the common 
schools of his native town afforded. In 
his district, however, the advantages 
were very meager. Before he was old 
enough to be of service in the field, he 
might have attended a few weeks in 
the summer ; but after that, it was only 
the winter school, a term of ten or 
twelve weeks, that afforded him any 
educational advantages. This contin- 
ued until he was sixteen years of age. 
He then graduated from the same old 
school-house, guiltless of paint or shade 
tree, standing by the common high- 
way, where Horace Greeley had just 
before studied and graduated. With- 
out the privilege of a single day'sstudy 
in an academy or high school he went 
forth to engage in the work of life and 
carve for himself a name among those 
of his generation. 

We may add. he was no more gifted 
with gold or influential friends to aid 
him in winning the favor of the public, 
than he was with classical lore. He 
literally went forth alone, with none to 
help, none but his equals to cheer, as 
he toiled with other laborers in life's 
great battle-field. 

At the age of sixteen, in 1832, he ac- 
companied an older brother to Ham- 
ilton, N. Y., where he at once entered 
upon a five years' apprenticeship to 
the printing business, in an office ex- 
clusively devoted to the printing of 
law books, and not untii he had at- 
tained his majority did he return to the 
home of his chilhood to behold his 
parents, then passing into the vale of 
years, and again meet his brothers and 



HON. DAVID ATWOOD. 



9 1 



sisters. Returning to Hamilton, for 
three years he was engaged in the sale 
of law books published by his former 
employers. During this period he 
traveled extensively in the states of 
New York, Pennsylvania. Maryland, 
Virginia; Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illi- 
nois, Missouri, Kentucky, and the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. During these years 
he gained much knowledge of pioneer 
life, and often was amazed at the wide 
contrast between the luxury and ease 
found in the older states, and the self- 
denial and struggle found in the new. 
When Mr. Atwood first saw Chicago 
he found it in a swamp, with a main, 
muddy street almost impassable, and 
the business of the town gathered 
about a forlorn wooden hotel. De- 
clining tempting offers to engage in 
business elsewhere, he returned in 1S39 
to Hamilton, and undertook, in com- 
pany with his brother, the publication 
of the Hamilton Palladium, a weekly 
newspaper. This paper was political 
in its character, and devoted to the 
old Whig party. It was continued 
through two Presidential campaigns ; 
that of Harrison and Van Buren in 
1840, and of Clay and Polk in 1844. 
At the close of the latter, on account of 
failing health, Mr. Atwood withdrew 
his interest from the paper, thinking 
that out-door employment might be 
beneficial. In company with a friend 
he purchased a tract of land in Ste- 
phenson county in Illinois, and stocked 
it with sheep. His farming enterprise 
for two years was not a pecuniary suc- 
cess, but it brought a return of his for- 
mer vigorous health. Having disposed 
ofhis farm he commenced life anew, 
and in the business to which he had 
given many years, and for which he 
was best prepared. Mr. Atwood at 
once proceeded to Madison, Wiscon- 
sin, and within an hour after his arrival 
he was placed in editorial charge of 
the Madison Express, then published 
by W. W. Wyman. During the first 
year ofhis residence at Madison, he 
purchased The Express, changed the 
name to the Slate Journal, and within 
•five years he bought out The Daily 



State Journal, with which he is still 
connected. Soon after Mr. Atwood 
located in Madison the constitutional 
convention of 1847-8 convened in that 
place ; he took his seat in it as a re- 
porter, and during every moment that 
body was in session, he was present, 
and furnished a report of its proceed- 
ings. He has continued to act as a 
reporter of legislative bodies ever since 
he commenced. Either by election or 
appointment Mr. Atwood has held 
many offices, both civil and military, — 
justice of the peace, village trustee, 
chief clerk of the assembly, member 
of the assembly, assessor of internal 
revenue four years, mayor of Madison 
two years, and member of the forty- 
first congress. He was commissioned 
by Pres. Grant as centennial commis- 
sioner from Wisconsin. He has also 
held many local positions in different 
associations, such as the City School 
Board, State Agricultural Society, State 
Historical Society, the Madison Mutual 
Insurance Company, the Madison Gas 
Light and Coke Company, Hospital 
for the Insane, and several railroad 
companies. 

In early life, while in New York, he 
was commissioned as adjutant on the 
staff of Col. James W. Nye, in 1841. 
The next year he became major of the 
regiment, and the next, colonel. In 
Wisconsin, he was quarter-master gen- 
eral, and afterward major-general. 

In politics, Mr. Atwood was a Whig, 
and labored actively to promote the 
interests of that party, until it died in its 
attempt to unite liberty and slavery. 
He was on the committee that reported 
the first Republican platform, and has 
ever since been a most zealous sup- 
porter of the principles advocated by 
that party. 

In the review of such a life as that 
above noticed, there is much to excite 
interest and awaken inquiry. In an 
age and a country like ours, where 
every attainment is possible, and yet, 
where there are so many life failures, it 
is pertinent to inquire what are the 
conditions of such pre-eminent suc- 
cess. It is evident that with Mr. At- 



9- 7 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



wood they were not in any circum- 
stances of birth or education. He 
entered upon the struggle of life as 
one of the great commonwealth. He 
had no influential friends to push him 
upward to positions of trust, or fur- 
nish him with funds with which to pur- 
chase the public favor and its emolu- 
ments. In all respects he is a self- 
made man. Not only as it regards 
education, but in respect to business, 
and every position he attained, no 
friendly hand was stretched forth to 
assist him. It is evident that Mr. At- 
wood must be a man possessed of 
superior natural abilities. Xo man 
could accomplish what he has without. 
But as a boy, he was not especially 
precocious : nor as a young man was 
he more brilliant than many others 
who fail in life's struggle. What he 
gained was the result of patient, per- 
sistent labor. In him was fulfilled the 
words of Scripture, " Seest thou a 
man diligent in business? He shall 
stand before kings ; he shall not stand 
before mean men." What he did was 
always done to the best of his ability ; 
whether it was learning his lesson in 
the district school, driving his father's 
cows to pasture, serving as an appren- 
tice, acting as a reporter, or seated in 
the councils of the nation. The 
thought never entered his mind that a 
dollar was to be put into his hand un- 
til it was first earned by his own honest 
labor. This idea, received in his boy- 
hood, and abiding with him in his after 
years, doubtless had much to do 
with his success. He was never 
found waiting for something to turn 
up, but was ever in earnest, bending 
circumstances to his control. Those 
who wait for the shoes of dead mm 
often wait in vain, and if the coveted 
prize is secured, sometimes the fit is 
not a good one. In every office he 
has filled he has expected nothing 
through the gift of others ; nothing 
till he had fitted himself for the posi- 
tion, and won the confidence of those 
who sought a man to fill the post of 
honor and trust. It is a trite saying 
that "The boy is father of the man." 



Pre-eminently was this true of Mr. 
Atwood. I remember him well when 
eight, ten, twelve years of age — the 
quiet, persevering, studious boy — for I 
sat with him in that old wood-colored 
school-house. 

The subject of this notice, through 
all his life, has been an honest man. 
I do not mean merely that he has been 
honest in his commercial transactions, 
but in all his intercourse with men. He 
has been a man much in political life, 
and a man having the courage of his 
convictions ; a man identified with a 
political party, — a party which shaped 
the legislation of our country during a 
most stormy period of its history. 
Vet he has never been charged with 
chicanery, nor with under-handed 
management that would not bear the 
light of day. The remark of a distin- 
guished reformer that a politician was 
a man who would serve the Lord just 
so far as he could without giving 
offence to the devil, would not apply 
to him. 

Mr. Atwood has been a temperate 
man. Though so much of his life 
has been spent in public, where. I re- 
gret to say, there is far too much of 
indulgence of the appetite, he has 
reached, unscathed, nearly to the scrip- 
tural limit of human life. So far as I 
know, he has never identified himself 
with any branch of the visible church, 
but he has n- A departed from the faith 
of his venerated parents. From 
youth to old age they were members 
of the Presbyterian church of their 
native town. 

On the whole I think the life 
and character of my friend are well 
worthy of the thoughtful considera- 
tion of every young man, as he steps 
out to take part in the struggle which 
stands between him and success, 
especially that large class of young 
men whose only inheritance is a pair 
of naked hands, and whose royal 
birth-right is a virtuous ancestry. 

August 23. 1849, Mr. Atwood 
was married at Potosi. Wiscon- 
sin, to Mary Svveeney. They have 
had four children, — two sons and two 



MY LESSON. 93 

daughters, the eldest of whom, a son. year of his age. The remaining three 
died in 1878, in the twenty- eighth reside in Madison, Wisconsin. 



MY LESSON. 



BY LAURA GARLAND CAKU. 

k4 Oh. cease your foolish arts and wiles! " 

Our wise male friends are ever preaching, 
i% Be natural ! There ? s naught beguiles 

Like simple ways of Nature's teaching! " 
And so I've watched, with careful eye, 

The motions of this praised old mother. 
Learning from her as you and I 

Oft' gather hints from one another. 

I saw her, in the early spring. 

Array herself in robes of beauty. 
And every blossom she could bring 

To add its charms was placed 011 duty. 
While leafy plumes and fringy sprays. 

And dainty things that sway and flutter. 
Combined to form in many ways. 

What artists paint and poets utter. 

In summer, though her cares increased. 

She ne'er became a drudge or slattern. 
But, working at the harvest feast. 

Still kept her rubes a princely pattern. 
And while she rounded fruit and grain. 

And all good things for use intended. 
With them, o'er forest, field and plain. 

Neatest uf fancy-work she blenued. 

At last 1 saw her clothes look frayed: 

A little faded— somewhat dusty: 
And thought — will Madam be dismayed 

To find she's getting old and rusty V 
Ah! While I stood noting each change, 

Saying no art could mend or hide them. 
O'er all her skills — startling and strange — 

Came brilliant hues ! Madam had dyed them ! 

Hut dyed o'er goods are always frail; 

These soon wore out and fell in pieces. 
And Nature's face without a veil, 

Showed brown and old and full of creases. 
And then I saw this artless dame 

In robes of snowy white enshroud her. 
And her old, withered face became 

Fair as a babe's — "neatli pearly powder. 

With icy gems that Hash and gleam 

She decked herself in rich profusion : 
And thus she stands — cold as a dream — 

The queen of art — a fair delusion ! 
This is my lesson, brother man : 

Beauty *s a gift direct from heaven. 
Then keep its charms long as you can, 

Making the most of all that's given. 



94 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



EARTHQUAKES FROM 1638 TO 1883, IN THE NEW ENGLAND 



STATES AND IN THE 
THE UNITE D STATES 
TAINS. 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS NORTH OF 
AND EAST OF THE ROCKY MOUN- 



BY JOSIAH EMERY. 



[continued.] 



1 / - / 

most 



October 
quake of 
ticc. For 
count and 
to Joshua 
bury, a work now 
though I think hi., . 
courtesv I am much indebted, has 



27. The 

deserves 
of the 
quotations I 
Coffin 



great earth- 
special no- 
following ac 
am indebted 
History of New- 
nearly out of print, 
daughter, to whose 
a 



few copies. " As the great earth- 
quake," says Mr. Coffin, which hap- 
pened in October of this year 
(1727), was one of the most violent 
that ever happened in New-England, 
and as, according to Hutchinson and 
other writers, the shock was greater 
at Newbury and other towns on the 
Merrimack river than in any other 
parts of Massachusetts, I shall be a 
little more minute in my extracts from 
accounts written in Newbury at the 
time. From the records of the Epis- 
copal church in Newburyport. kept by 
the Rev. Matthias Plant, the rector, I 
make the following extract : October 29, 
1727, being the Lord's day, at forty 
minutes past ten the same evening, 
there was a most terrible, sudden, and 
amazing earthquake, which did dam- 
age to the greater part of the neighbor- 
hood, shook and threw down tops of 
chimneys, and in many places the earth 
opened a foot or more. It continued 
very terrible by frequently bursting and 
shocking our houses, and lasted all that 
week (the first being the loudest 
shock, and eight more that immediately 
followed, louder than the rest that fol- 
lowed), sometimes breaking with loud 
claps six times or oftener in a day, and 
as often in the night, until Thursday of 
the said week, and then somewhat 
abated. 

Upon Friday, in the evening, and 
about midnight, and about break of 



day, and on Satuday, there were three 
very loud claps. We also had it on 
Saturday, the Sabbath, and on Monday 
morning, about ten, though much abated 
in the noise and terror. Upon the 
Tuesday following, November 7th, 
about eleven o'clock, a very loud clap ; 
upon every day and night more or less, 
three, four, or six times each day or 
night, and upon the twelfth, being the 
Lord's day, twice from betwixt three 
to half-past four, in all of which space 
of time some claps were loud, others 
seemingly at a distance and much 
abated. L'pon Monday, two hours 
before day. a loud burst, and at half- 
past two in the afternoon another 
burst was heard, somewhat loud. On 
the nineteenth, about ten at night, a 
very loud shock, and another about 
break of day, somewhat abated ; but at 
Haverhill a very loud burst, making 
their houses rock, as that over night 
did with us. It was the Lord's day, in 
the evening. It has been heard since, 
much abated. The very first shock 
opened a new spring by Samuel Bart- 
let's house, in the meadow, and threw 
up in the lower grounds in Newbury 
several loads of white sand. After that 
some loud claps, shaking our houses. 
Another about four the next morning, 
much abated." 

The following account is from the 
journal of Stephen Jaques, of New- 
bur) : 

"On the 29th day of October( 1 727), 
between ten and eleven, it being Sab- 
bath day night, there was a terrible 
earthquake. The like was never known 
in this land. It came with dreadful 
roaring, as if it was thunder, and then 
a pounce like great guns, two or three 
times, close, one after another. It 



EARTHQUAKES IN NEW ENGLAND. 



95 



Listed about two minutes. It shook 
down bricks from the chimneys — some 
almost all the heads. 

"All that was about the houses trem- 
bled, beds shook, some cellar walls fell 
partly down. Benjamin Plummer's 
stone without his door fell into his cel- 
lar. Stone walls fell in a hundred 
places. Most of the people got up in 
a moment. It came very often all the 
night after, and it was heard two or 
three times some days and nights ; 
and the Sabbath day night of the 
twenty-fourth of December following, 
between ten and eleven, it was very 
loud, as at any time except the first, 
and twice that night after, but not so 
loud. The first time it broke out in 
more than ten places in the town, in 
the clay lowlands, blowing up the sand, 
some more, some less. At one place, 
near Spring Island, it blew out. as it 
was judged, twenty loads, and when it 
was cast on the coals in the night, it 
burned like brimstone." 

The following is a copy of a letter 
written by Henry Sewall, of Newbury, 
to Judge Sewall, of Boston, and pub- 
lished at the time in the Boston News 
Letter. 

"Newbury, Nov. 21. 1727. 

Honored Sir: — 

Through God's good- 
ness to us we are all well, and have 
been preserved at the time of the late 
great and terrible earthquake. We 
were sitting by the fire, and about half 
after ten at night our house shook and 
trembled as if it would have fallen to 
pieces. Being affrighted we ran out 
of doors, when we found the ground 
did tremble, and we were in great fear 
of being swallowed up alive ; but God 
preserved us and did not suffer it to 
break out till it got forty or fifty rods 
from the house, where it broke the 
ground in the Common, near a place 
called Spring Island : and there is from 
sixteen to twenty loads of fine sand 
thrown out where the ground broke ; 
and several days after the water boiled 
out like a spring, but is now dry and 
the ground closed up again. I have 
sent some of the sand that you may 

(To be < 



see it. Our house kept shaking about 
three minutes." 

Mr. Brigham puts the beginning of 
this earthquake Nov. 8 (which corre- 
sponds with Oct. 29, old style), and 
its direction from north-west to south- 
east. 

Rev. Benjamin Colman says : "The 
earth opened and threw up many cart- 
loads of fine sand and ashes, mixed 
with some small remains of sulphur, 
but so small that taking up some of it 
in my fingers and dropping it into a 
chafing-dish of bright coals in a dark 
place, one in three times the blue 
flames of the sulphur would plainly 
arise, and give a small scent, and but a 
small one." 

Dr. Dudley, in his account sent to 
the Royal Society, says : " Persons of 
credit do also affirm that just before or 
at the time of the earthquake, they 
perceived flashes of light." 

Mr. Brigham doubts the smell of 
sulphur, yet to me, even apart from 
the evidence, it seems probable. 

ki Several springs of water." I quote 
from Mr. Brigham, " and wells that 
were never known to be dry or frozen, 
were sunk down far into the earth, and 
while some were dried up, others had 
their temperature so altered as to freeze 
in moderate weather. Some had their 
water improved, but others were made 
permanently bad. Some farm land was 
made quagmire, and marshes were 
dried up." 

Mr. Dudley says further, in his ac- 
count : "A neighbor of mine that had 
a well thirty-six feet deep, about three 
days before the earthquake, was sur- 
prised to find his water that used to be 
very sweet and limpid, stink to that 
degree that they could make no use of 
it, nor scarce bear the house when it 
was brought in ; and imagining that 
some carrion had got into the well, he 
searched to the bottom, but found it 
clean and good, though the color of the 
water was turned wheyish and pale. 
About seven days after the earthquake 
the water began to mend, and in three 
days more it returned to its former 
sweetness and color." 



96 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



HYMN. 

To th( Seamen" j< Friend Societt 



Written in J S3!). 



BY GEO. KENT. 



Ye, who o'er ocean roam. 
Shut out from joys of home 

Far on the* deep ; 
Sport of the winds and waves. 
That from JEolus' 1 eaves 
O'er men. their willing slaves. 

Stern vigils keep : 

Ye, who the works and ways. 
All glorious in praise. 

Of God behold- 
As fearless ye pursue 
The waste of waters through. 
"Mid scenes for ever new. 

Your journey hold : 

W hen "to the heavens ye mount, 
His wondrous deeds recount 
Hi< praises sing ! 



When "to the depths go down" 
"Mid angry ocean's frown ti'JL'H 
Still do Ills mercies crown 

Each living thing. L-LTEIi 



His Word then for your CHART !J 
Bind it to every heart. 

And by it steer — 
Wide o'er the pathless sea. 
The Cross your pole-star be. 
And ne'er to icind or Ice 

Departing veer. 

The halcyon calm of peace. 
Then o'er you ne'er shall cease 

Its due control : 
Onward, at Heaven's behest. 
With crew for ever blest. 
The ship to port of rest 

Glorious shall roll. 



TO 



I send you flowers. 

To make the hours 
Pass pleasantly and sweetly 

When flowers decay. 

We know that they 
Have duty done completely. 

They never cloy. 
Nor lessen joy. 
liur, add thereunto often : 



And many know 
That pain and woe 
Their presence serves to soften. 

The flowers I send 

Full soon will blend 
Their beauty with the dead dust: 

But that which gives. 

For ever lives, — 
My love, esteem, and trust. 

G. W. Pattfrsox. 



Washington, D. C, 
Dec 15 th, 1883. 
John N. McClintock, Esq.; 

Dear Sir: — In looking over the list 
of portraits named in your last num- 
ber, as being in the State House, I was 
pleased to see that it embraced the 
name of my old college classmate, at 
Norwich University, Col. Jesse A. Gove, 
" the gallant Jesse, ,; than whom a more 
genial companion never lived. I was 
also pained to see that you had omitted 



from the list my first army commander 
Col. E. E. Cross, of the fighting 5th 
and my army associate. Maj. Edward 
Sturtevant. the first soldier in New 
Hampshire to enlist in 1861. There 
is no need of any portraits to perpet- 
uate the memory of either, so long as 
brave deeds arc remembered by our 
people. 

Your.-, truly. 

G W. B ALLOC PL 



THE 



GRANITE MONTHLY, 

A NEW HAMPSHIRE MAGAZINE 
Devoted to Literature, Biography, History, and State Progress. 



Vol. VII. 



MARCH, 1884. 



]STo. 4. 



ASA McFARLAND. 



BY GEO. E. JENKS. 



The portrait given in this number 
has a more stern expression than was 
habitual with its subject ; still it is so 
exact a likeness as to be at once re- 
cognized as that of Asa McFarland, 
the veteran editor and publisher of the 
New Hampshire Statesman. Of the 
■contributors to the Granite Monthly, 
which was established in June, 1877, 
he was the first to pass the boundary 
line of time. To the date of his death, 
he had held longer connection with the 
printing business in Concord than any 
other man, and he had filled a quarter 
century of service as editor and pub- 
lisher of the Statesman. His pen was 
in use to the last, contributing to this 
magazine in 1879 articles entitled ' ; Il- 
legible Manuscripts in Printing Offices," 
" Early History of the Concord Press," 
and " Hymnology of the Churches." 

Asa McFarland was born in Con- 
cord, May 19, 1804, and died in the 
house where he was born, December 
13, 1879. He was of the fourth 
generation in descent from Andrew 
McFarland, who came from Scotland 
(where the name is usually McFarlane) 
and settled in Worcester, Mass. His 
father, Rev. Asa McFarland, d. d., was 
a native of Worcester, the son of a 
farmer, and a graduate of Dartmouth 
College in the class of 1793- After 
graduation the father was for two years 
vii— 7 



principal of Moore's Charity School in 
Hanover, and then for two years a tu- 
tor in the college, which he also served 
later (1809-182 2) as a member of the 
Board of Trustees. His portrait hangs 
in the art gallery of the college. 

He was called to and installed in the 
pastorate of the First Congregational 
Church in Concord, March 7, 1798, 
and remained in that connection until 
1825. He married, September 5, 1803, 
Elizabeth Kneeland, of Boston, a 
woman of rare excellence and strength 
of character, who bore to him eight 
children. Of these three sons and 
four daughters were reared and edu- 
cated to positions of honor and great 
usefulness in there several spheres of 
life. A brother in Illinois, and a sister 
in Ohio, are the survivors of the fam- 
ily. The parents both died at the age 
of 58 years. 

Asa was the first-born of the family, 
and his early education was superin- 
tended by his parents. His subsequent 
educational privileges were such as the 
schools of Concord could afford, sup- 
plemented by a brief period of study 
at Gilmanton Academy, where, among 
his classmates, were the late Hon. Wm. 
H. Y. Hackett, of Portsmouth, and 
Hon. Ira A. Eastman, of Manchester. 
Further opportunities for study and re- 
flection were furnished by that poor 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



boys' college, the printing office, and 
by quite an extensive course of read- 
ing. 

Both of his parents were of a liter- 
ary turn of mind, and employed their 
pens steadily, the father in preparation 
of his Sunday discourses and other 
productions ; the mother in managing 
a correspondence partly in connection 
with her husband's, and other religious 
work, and in keeping a diary. 

On June 2, 1S08, Dr. McFarland 
preached an " Election Sermon " before 
His Excellency Oov. John Langdon, the 
Honorable Council, Senate and House 
of Representatives of New Hampshire, 
— a custom of those days. The great 
truth which he sought to present was, 
" The Christian dispensation more than 
any other system of religion, is favor- 
able to the true end of civil govern- 
ment." In part he thus addressed the 
Governor : " Your Excellency will be 
pleased to accept our cordial congrat- 
ulations on this new proof of the pub- 
lic confidence and esteem. The prov- 
idence of God has placed you in an 
elevated station, where your influence 
and example will have great weight in 
recommending to the regard of others 
that religion from which, we have the 
happiness to believe, you derive your 
own principles and hopes. It can not 
have escaped your observation that the 
light in which the gospel exhibits a 
Christian magistrate, ruling over a 
Christian and free people, is such as 
reflects great dignity on his office. 
His authority is derived from the high- 
est source, and will have commanding 
influence over the reason and con- 
science of every good man. He is a 
minister of God for good, and there- 
fore ' holdeth not the sword in vain.' 

" But while this gives great weight to 
his office, his responsibility to the Su- 
preme Ruler is proportionately great. 
The abuse of power so sacred, and de- 
rived from such a source, will be fol- 
lowed by consequences greatly to be 
deplored." 

In May, 1820, having become fascin- 
ated by the printing business, and pre- 
ferring to engage in that, rather than 



pursue a collegiate course of study (as 
was desired by his parents), the son of 
whom we are writing was sent to Bos- 
ton to learn the "art preservative of all 
arts " under the tutelage of Nathaniel 
Willis, publisher of the Boston Re- 
corder, and afterward to John YY. Shep- 
ard of the New Hampshire Repository , 
a religious newspaper of Concord. 
Then he served George Hough, the 
first printer of Concord, and Isaac Hill,, 
who was commencing to make the 
New Hampshire Patriot hot and vigor- 
ous. From February 11, 1826, to De- 
cember 31, 1833, he was interested in 
the publication of the Statesman, with 
several partners who were not so con- 
stant as he in the ownership. They 
were Moses G. Atwood, George Kim- 
ball, George Kent and George \V. Ela. 

In October, 1834, Mr. McFarland 
opened a printing office for the execu- 
tion of book and mercantile work ex- 
clusively. This establishment gained 
early a celebrity for correct and tasteful 
productions, and was probably as suc- 
cessful as any other in the interior of 
New England, some of the books from 
this press being of so creditable a ty- 
pographical character as to excite the 
surprise of Boston booksellers, when 
placed on their shelves. Among these 
were a goodly number of law books, — 
the " Justice and Sheriff," the "Probate 
Directory." the " Town Officer," "Gil- 
christ's Digest." and many volumes of 
" Reports of Cases argued and deter- 
mined in the Superior Court." The 
machinery of the office increased from 
one hand press to three, when, in 1846, 
its owner was chosen State Printer. From 
July 1844 to July 1850 Mr. McFarland 
was the political writer for the States- 
man, then published by Geo. O. Odlin 
& Co., which service he accomplished 
in hours not absolutely necessary to the 
supervision of his own business. 

In July, 1850, George E. Jenks, of 
Newport, N. H., who had served as 
apprentice and journeyman in his of- 
fice, became his partner, and leaving 
the business in his associate's hands, 
Mr. McFarland visited Europe, writing 
thence a series of interesting letters to- 



ASA McFARLAND. 



99 



the Statesman and Congregational 
Journal, which were afterward gath- 
ered in a duodecimo volume. 

In July, 1851, Messrs. McFarland 
and Jenks purchased the Statesman, 
and under the imprint of that firm it 
continued to be published until Sep- 
tember 30, 1S71. Henry McFarland 
had joined the firm in January, 1858, 
and Asa McFarland retired in Decem- 
ber, 1867, by reason of failure of 
health. He, however, often contrib- 
uted to its columns, and assumed con- 
trol for brief periods in vacation sea- 
sons. 

As printer, publisher, editor and cor- 
respondent, Mr. McFarland held, as 
we have before stated, longer active 
service at the printer's art than any 
other man of Concord. This length of 
service has been exceeded in only a 
few instances, if by any, in the history 
of the craft in New Hampshire. Those 
whose terms of service most nearly 
parallel his are John Prentiss, of Keene, 
Richard Boylston & Son, of Amherst, 
Isaac Hill, of Concord, Charles YV. 
Brewster, of Portsmouth, George YVad- 
leigh, of Dover, and Simeon Ide, of 
Claremont. 

Contemporary with him as editors 
of leading political journals at Concord 
were Isaac Hill, George G. Fogg, and 
William Butterfield, all eminent in their 
profession. 

In what we have written, the origin, 
education, calling and business life 
of Mr. McFarland have been outlined 
— the record of an industrious and use- 
ful career. His life as an employer, 
citizen, leader of public opinion, and 
Christian gentleman, remains to be 
given. A third of a century going in 
and out with him — as a member of his 
household, apprentice, journeyman, 
partner for twenty years, in social rela- 
tions for a longer period — leads the 
writer to essay this privilege. 

Having chosen the art of printing, 
he sought to reach it in a high degree 
of excellence. He became an expert 
compositor and workman at the hand 
press, while as a proof-reader he at- 
tained the head of the profession in 



the state, and stood there so long as 
he followed the business. He always 
retained a fondness for the manual la- 
bor of composition, and frequently put 
his thoughts in type without the usual 
preliminary writing. His eye was 
trained to appreciate a well designed 
title, a correctly proportioned page, or 
an artistically arranged book or news- 
paper. As a business man he was 
noted for directness and decision of 
purpose, for promptness, industry, 
economy in methods, and integrity. 
He required promptness and diligence 
from his employees, and set an exam- 
ple to be followed. No business ap- 
pointment was ever lost through his. 
lack of punctual attendance. 

He had a taste for local historical 
affairs, and became a member of the* 
New Hampshire Historical Society ia 
June, 1 S3 7. In August of that year 
he delivered an address before that 
society at the dedication of the Bradley 
monument, near St. Paul's School — 
erected to commemorate the massacre 
by Indians, in August, 1746, — which 
was published in the collections of the 
Society. He was almost continuously 
an officer of this Society from 1840 to 
1 868, serving as treasurer, recording 
secretary, and vice-president. He had, 
however, no liking for that historical 
writing which involves a search in 
musty records, or the compilation of 
statistics ; but his reminiscences of 
historical and biographical events oc- 
curring within his own observation 
were highly interesting, and constituted 
a feature of the Statesman very wel- 
come to New Hampshire people at 
home and abroad. In 1836 he com- 
piled a volume of favorite poems, en- 
titled "The Gift," 272 pages. But 
few copies of this book are now in ex- 
istence. On the fly leaf of one of 
them he wrote, in 1873, as follows: 
" This volume was printed by me at a 
time when I was without much busi- 
ness, in a book and job printing office 
which I had just established. The se- 
lections are mostly my own ; George 
Kent furnishing a few. It is a volume 
on which I look with satisfaction, for 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



most of its contents obtained a per- 
manent place in English literature. 
The Gift was printed when my office 
was in a wooden building standing 
where is now Eagle Hall." 

It was as the editor of the Statesman 
that Mr. McFarland attained the high 
estimation in which he was held by his 
fellow-citizens, and it was not until just 
past the meridian of his years that he 
undertook that responsibility. In July, 
1844, at the outset of a memorable 
presidential campaign, the Whigs rally- 
ing around their great standard-bearer, 
Henry Clay, the Statesman became 
the property of Geo. O. Odlin & Co., 
and Mr. McFarland undertook its po- 
litical control. He was also made 
chairman of the Whig State Commit- 
tee, which place he filled three 
years — i844~'46. Into this cam- 
paign he threw all his energy, 
with little hope, however, of the 
success of the Whig electors in New 
Hampshire : and to his deep disap- 
pointment Mr. Clay lost the Presiden- 
cy, because of the votes of a factional 
party in the state of New York. The 
Statesman, when it came under 
Mr. McFarland's control established 
as its platform the " American doc- 
trine," as promulgated and championed 
by Henry Clay, — " the protection of 
American industry, judicious internal 
improvements, economical expendi- 
tures, strict accountability of public 
servants, equal and exact justice to all 
men, liberty without license, no exten- 
sion of slavery into new territory, and 
by all proper means its extinction 
where existing;" — a noble political 
platform. As to its local purposes, the 
editor averred that, so far as controlled 
by him, the Statesman " should not be 
a medium for mischievous men to wan- 
tonly attack, or utter ill-will against, 
others ; that it should exert a healthful 
moral influence, be kept clear of the 
isms, crotchets and humbugs of the 
day, and that its aims should be sanc- 
tioned by an enlightened patriotism." 

From this time onward the States- 
man led the other journals in the state 
in advocacy of all proper enterprises. 



It pleaded for the " right of way " for 
public thoroughfares, and the granting 
of inducements for foreign"* capital to 
develop the resources of the state by 
railways, canals and factories. As 
early as 1853 it championed railway 
communication to the Pacific. It 
also urged an appropriation by the 
commonwealth for an accurate map of 
the state to exhibit its water-power. 

Mr. McFarland was earnest in urging 
a city charter for Concord, and a la- 
borer in securing its adoption. He 
was of the committee to divide the 
town into wards, — a work so justly ef- 
fected that it has stood for thirty-five 
years, and Concord (alone of our cities) 
has never tinkered the outlines of its 
wards. He wrought for the best educa- 
tional facilities — material and mental ; 
the public library, and a library build- 
ing ; steam fire-engines, street lighting, 
sewerage, good public buildings, and a 
picturesque cemetery. Notable among 
his efforts for the benefit of the city 
were those for the introduction of 
Long Pond water. This project was 
discussed for years, amid many dis- 
couragements, until to his and every 
citizen's great gratification, the city has 
an abundance of water, superior to 
that of any other municipality in the 
state. It is confidently believed that the 
primary honor for this great blessing 
belongs to Asa McFarland. For his 
zeal in every like good work, he was 
often spoken of as the most progres- 
sive man north of " Smoky Hollow." 
He was always interested in the erec- 
tion of substantial church edifices, or 
the improvement of existing ones, with 
complete outfit of organ and conven- 
iences. He delighted to seek an emi- 
nence overlooking the city to admire 
its church spires and listen to the mu- 
sic of the bells. The sound of the 
church-going bell was a delight to him 
— as the muezzin is to the faithful Mo- 
hammedan — a notification of the hour 
of prayer and worship. He was a lover 
of sacred melody, and entered with 
zest and the spirit of true worship into 
sacred song, led by the grand tones of 
the organ. 



ASA McFARLAND. 



101 



He also did the city and " the state 
some service, and they know it," in 
upsetting a theory at one time in vogue 
with jurors, that public highways should 
be so perfect that no accidents couid 
occur to travelers. Concord (and 
other places to a less extent) had been 
burdened with damages in all sorts of 
suits from accidents on the highway. 
Mr. McFarland attacked this theory 
with so much vigor and success that it 
was demanded by counsel that he be 
summoned into court to " purge him- 
self of contempt." These vexatious 
suits came to an end about that time, 
and suitors have since been taught 
from the bench that they must be 
without fault themselves, in cases of 
accident on the highway : but jurors 
held not to this wisdom of common 
sense until the Statesman had aroused 
public opinion. 

The penmanship of the editor was 
singularly easy, and the labor of writ- 
ing never seemed to task him. His 
autograph, open and firm, a revelation 
of character, easy to be read of men 
(see frontispiece), was worthy of a 
place on the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, following that of John Han- 
cock. 

The opinions of the Statesman were 
never bartered for pelf or patronage. 
Conducted in this high-minded and 
unselfish way, the newspaper attained 
due influence in the state, while its 
mercantile printing department became 
widely and favorably known, and a 
goodly measure of prosperity followed. 

Mr. McFarland was state printer in 
1846. 1859, and i860, and a member 
of the legislatures of 1858 and 1859 ; 
but he had no thirst for office, and 
courted no public distinction. 

His family consisted of his wife, 
Clarissa Jane Chase, of Gilford, whom 
he married in 1830, and four children, 
all but one of whom are living. 

Mr. McFarland was of a large-hearted 
nature. He believed that men should 
do good with their means while living, 
as circumstances might permit. Dis- 
tress and sorrow appealed to him with 
intensity ; so he was kind to the poor, 



helping without ostentation, and giving 
freely to charitable, religious and pub- 
lic objects — sometimes to an extent 
seemingly unwarranted by his re- 
sources. He had the tenderest in- 
stincts, and was merciful to every 
creature. It pained him to see any 
living thing suffer, and life was not al- 
lowed to be taken about his premises. 
He loved the birds, and encouraged 
their dwelling in his cheerful grounds. 
Even a predatory woodchuck. which 
came from the Merrimack interval and 
took up a residence in his garden,, 
found in him a steadfast friend. 

In certain moods, or when earnestly 
at work, he was rather unapproachable ; 
but in leisure no man was more genial. 
Though born of a worthy parentage, 
he felt no pride of ancestry, and was 
eminently democratic in the proper 
meaning of that term. But he never 
" crooked the pregnant hinges of the 
knee, where thrift might follow fawn- 
ing." Slight acquaintances misunder- 
stood him because he did not always 
hasten to offer salutations in the street, 
and this was attributed to an eccentric 
or aristocratic habit, while it was 
nothing but mental preoccupation. 

He had an" abiding love of home and 
natural scenery. Looking on a large west- 
ern river and its attractive environments, 
he was asked, " Is it not beautiful?" 
" Yes," he said, " but not equal to the 
Merrimack. That is the most beauti- 
ful river in the world to me. I wish I 
could look upon it this minute." So 
it was in boyhood, he often proposed 
to school associates that they go to 
44 Wattanummon brook," the " Fan," 
the " Eddy," or to " Sugar Ball." He 
was fond of a good story, well told, 
and when he laughed it was with an 
intensity that made merriment conta- 
gious. 

On September 2, 1S42, Mr. McFar- 
land became a member of the South 
Congregational church, in Concord, of 
which Rev. Daniel J. Noyes was pas- 
tor. From that date to the time of his 
departure, his course of life was emi- 
nently God-ward and progressive. A 
year later he was chosen a deacon of 



IC2 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



that church, and held that relation for 
twenty years. He was absolutely loyal 
to his denomination, but was no bigot, 
being in full fellowship with all men, of 
every denomination, who believe in 
the Son of God. The modifying in- 
fluences of Christianity had a lofty ex- 
emplification in his life. An imperi- 
ous nature took on gentleness. He 
sought to "add to faith virtue ; and to 
virtue knowledge, and to knowledge 
temperance, and to temperance pa- 
tience, and to patience godliness, and 



to godliness brotherly kindness, and to 
brotherly kindness charity." 

This well-rounded, cheerful and 
useful life ended December 13, 1S79, 
at an age greater by seventeen years 
than was reached by either of his pa- 
rents. He had been conscious for 
some months that his end was ap- 
proaching, and wrote in a letter, dated 
October 13 : " My health is becoming 
more and more feeble ; but ' goodness 
and mercy have followed me all the 
days of my life,' and surely I shall not 
complain at the end." 



THE DOW BLO OA'S. 



The strip of land in Concord east of 
the Stickney block and Eagle Hall, south 
01 Free Bridge street, west of the North- 
ern Railroad and north of the Eagle Hotel 
stable, was bought of one of the Stickney 
heirs, in December, 1881, for §10,000, by 
Samuel H. Dow, a citizen of Warner. 
On this piece of property, which includes 
about one acre of land, Mr. Dow pro- 
ceeded to erect a block, 155 feet long 
and .'36 feet wide, of four stories, imme- 
diately in the rear of Eagle Hall. It was 
finished in April, 1883, at a co>t of 
$15,000, and immediately occupied by 
tenants. Roberts, blacksmith, took one 
division of the basement ; Porter Blan- 
chard"s Sons, two divisions ; Ben j. C. Ste- 
vens, machinist, two divisions. The first 
story is occupied by Lorenzo Dow, car- 
penter; James Moore & Sons, hardware: 
Porter Blanchard's Sons, churns; and 
B. C. Stevens. The second story is oc- 
cupied by W. C. Patten, furniture; 
James Moore & Sons; Porter Blanchard's 
Sons; and B.C.Stevens. Porter Blan- 
chard's Sons occupy the third story. 

On the site of the old Stickney store- 
house, formerly occupied by Mr. Sibley, 
0. J. Connor, and Savage Brothers, and 
more lately by J. C. Tilton, as a carriage- 
shop, Mr. Dow next erected a building, 
i02 feet long and GO feet wide, of - three 
.stories, with a wing toward Main street, 
o'J by 40 feet, of three stories, at an ex- 
pense of about £25,000. 

Wood worth, Dodge & Company, im- 
mediately upon its completion, January 1, 
1884, occupied the whole of the main 



building, carrying an immense wholesale 
stock of grain and groceries. Connected 
with the building to the south is a wing, 
in which is a steam-engine of 35 horse- 
power, furnishing power for a grist-mill 
in the building. 

The upper story of the west wing has 
been fitted and furnished for a room for 
the Concord Reform Club. The first 
floor and basement have not yet been 
leased. 

In the north-west corner of the lot the 
third block is in process of completion. 
It is Q.*3 bv 30' feet, of three stories, which 
will cost about §10,000. 

This building, when finished, will be 
eagerly sought by tenants. 

Mr. Dow, the constructor of these 
elaborate and useful buildings, deserves 
much of tliL' city of Concord for turning 
this waste place to such advantageous 
uses, and adding to the wealth of the 
city. He is a quiet, modest gentleman, 
born in Hopkinton, June 10, 1818. In 
1838 he settled in Warner, and has been 
an active, driving business man all his 
life. His principal business has been 
lumbering, farming, buying bark, and ac- 
cumulating money, which he expends 
judiciously. 

Mr. Dow married early, and His four 
children are settled in life. 

Such men as Mr. Dow are of incalcula- 
ble advantage to our city. His wealth 
is expended where it does the most good, 
beautifying the city, giving employment 
to its citizens, and furnishing very at- 
tractive business buildings. 



THE PHILOSOPHY OF EXPRESSION. 



*°3 



THE PHILOSOPHY OF EXPRESSION. 



BY PROF. E. D. SANBORN, LL. D. 



"The voice of nature," says Plato, 
<c is always to be heard and obeyed in 
teaching." In educating the young it 
.is specially important to understand 
fully their constitutional tendencies, 
their idiosyncrasies both mental and 
physical. We need the same kind of 
-knowledge to judge discreetly of men 
-as they move and act in society. An 
accurate estimate of what a man is by 
nature, is the only safe guide in our 
intercourse with him. Education may 
modify, regulate and guide the consti- 
tutional faculties of the soul, but it 
-can not re-create or regenerate them. 
Human character results from the 
•combined agency of innate tendencies 
and those complex influences which 
we denominate education. Apart from 
the efficacy of divine grace, every man 
will prove essentially true to his native 
instincts ; or, as it is commonly termed, 
his natural bent." In the savage and 
the philosopher, hereditary tendencies 
predominate. In the former, they 
♦constitute nearly the whole character ; 
in the latter, they furnish the substratum 
••upon which all the refinements of in- 
tellectual and moral culture are super- 
induced. No process of training, 
however, will free the soul from its in- 
nate appetencies. Says the Roman 
poet : "Naturam expellas furca, tamen 
usque recur ret." 

* l For Nature, driven out with proud dis- 
dain, 

-All-powerful goddess, will return again." 

Nature will continue to plead and en- 
force her rights, in despite of every 
temporary restraint. Manners are 
conventional ; dispositions are consti- 
tutional. The first are the gift of so- 
ciety ; the last, of nature. It is often 
asked whether successful heroes, states- 
men and artists, owe more to circum- 
stances or to endowments. Horace 
answered that question with great 
judgment nearly 2,000 years ago : 



" 'Tis long disputed whether poets claim 
From art or nature their best right to 
fame ; 

But art, if not enriched by nature's vein. 
And a rude genius of uncultured strain 
Are useless both; but when in friendship 
joined 

A mutual succor in each other find." 

A fertile soil and the genial influences 
of the sun and air are both essential 
to a rich harvest. The golden grain 
does not wave over stony places or 
bow its modest head in worship by the 
way-side. In the time of the Ameri- 
can Revolution there were many wise 
counselors and able commanders, but 
there was but one Washington. An- 
other man can not be named who 
could have been his substitute ; and 
yet all these patriots were trained in 
the same school and subjected to the 
influence of the same circumstances. 
Washington was born to rule, "To gov- 
ern men and guide the state." In his 
boyhood he was always selected to be 
the umpire in the disputes of his 
school-fellows. His veracity was never 
questioned. His judgment was never 
successfully impugned. Had he been 
educated in a Turkish seraglio, he 
would have enacted a very different 
part upon the theater of life ; still his 
character would have possessed essen- 
tially the same elements. He would 
have been the same serious, sagacious, 
prudent man he was at the head of 
the American armies. In any country 
on earth he would have been selected 
as state councilor. In Turkey or 
Russia he would have been the prime 
minister of the realm, and yet he 
seemed all unconscious of his own 
superior endowments. When John 
Adams nominated him to be com- 
mander-in-chief of the revolutionary 
forces, he was taken entirely by sur- 
prise, and left the hall in the utmost 
trepidation ; and when the thanks of 
Congress were tendered to him for 



104 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



his successful generalship, he lost his 
presence of mind and was entirely un- 
able to reply. He was not the man, 
therefore, to assert his own supremacy. 
His services were needed and he 
waited for the summons of the nation. 

It is supposed by many that there 
are multitudes of great men who are 
never developed. Their talents are 
hid because they are unknown. Ad- 
dison remarks, " The philosopher, the 
saint, or the hero, the wise, the good, 
or the great man, very often lies hid 
and concealed in the plebeian, which a 
proper education might have disin- 
terred and brought to light." He also 
compares education to the art of the 
statuary ; the statue lies hidden in the 
block of marble and the artist only 
cleaves away the superfluous matter 
and removes the rubbish. " The fig- 
ure is in the stone ; the sculptor only 
finds it." The poet Gray has embod- 
ied the same sentiment in the following 
beautiful stanzas : 

"Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid 
Some heart once pregnant with celestial 
fire; 

Hands that the rod of empire might have 
swayed 

Or waked to ecstacy the living lyre. 
Full many a gem of purest ray serene, 
The dark, unfathomed caves of ocean 
bear ; 

Full many a flower is born to blush un- 
seen 

And waste its sweetness on the desert 
air." 

According to this theory, if all men 
were educated, we should have Homers, 
Piatos, Shakespeares and PVanklins 
in every village ; but the extreme 
rarity of such men among the most 
highly cultivated nations, renders it 
probable that such gifted minds seldom 
make their advent upon our earth. 
U 'A mute, inglorious Milton" is almost 
an impossibility. It is the nature of 
genius to become conspicuous ; and 
you might almost as easily put out the 
light of a beaming star as to hide the 
glory of intellect in a plebeian. Mind 
will make itself known and felt, wheth- 
er it exist in the savage or the sage. 
True it is, education must develop it ; 



but true genius never consents to inac- 
tion and supineness. It seeks culture 
where it is not offered. Look at the 
Corsican lieutenant in the streets of 
Paris. Violence and anarchy are tri- 
umphant. Every man's hand is against 
his neighbor. All are at their wits' end- 
A young officer appears at the head of 
the broken columns of infantry, orders, 
with the authority of a monarch, the 
cannon to sweep the street, and with 
great presence of mind assumes the 
command and restores order. This 
was the beginning of a new state of 
things for France. The man was equal 
to the occasion. He was qualified by 
nature for the post he assumed. There 
was not probably another man among 
all the great men who figured during 
the reign of terror, who could have 
enacted successfully the same part. 
Napoleon was fitted for the place. 
The circumstances were such as to 
call into action his highest powers. 
They stimulated but did not create 
them. A multitude of instances might 
be cited from the world's history, show- 
ing that such executive energy is the re- 
sult of clear conceptions of the under- 
standing, outrunning the deductions of 
logic and prompt decisions of the judg- 
ment when under high excitement. 
Such conduct is the highest outward ex- 
pression of mind in action. It is the best 
test of superior endowments. When- 
ever such gifts are bestowed by the 
Creator, they generally show themselves 
early in life. Turn out a company of 
children upon a common to seek re- 
creation, and very soon the voice of 
some one boy will be heard above the 
shouts of the many giving orders for 
some favorite game ; and, by acclama- 
tion or silent compliance of the crowd, 
he is at once installed dictator of the 
play-ground. Let a company of little 
girls hold a tea-party ; and some one 
of them will soon be found personating 
the school-mistress or the housekeeper., 
and summoning others to her side to 
receive her commands or listen to her 
rebukes. Let a company of emigrants 
assemble at a common place of ren- 
dezvous from every town in the state ;. 



THE PHILOSOPHY OF EXPRESSION. 



and within one hour after their union 
they will be found hanging with breath- 
less interest upon the lips of some 
strange orator, and before they part he 
will be unanimously selected as their 
leader. Thus mind shows itself in ac- 
tion. Character is manifested by 
works. This is the only unerring cri- 
terion of a man's ability, both mental 
and physical. By their fruits ye shall 
know them. 

But in all ages, men have been anx- 
ious to judge of their fellows at sight. 
They can not wait for the tardy testi- 
mony of experience. They often ask, 
with the poet : 

" Is there an art 
To find the mind's construction in the 
face ?" 

It has ever been a desideratum with 
philosophers to determine the true 
method of discovering mental and 
moral qualities from external signs. It 
has ever been the prevailing opinion 
that both the mind and affections 
stamp their own image upon the feat- 
ures. Especially in the human counte- 
nance have the inquisitive sought to 
read the secret workings of the soul. 
Aristotle seems to have been the first 
philosopher who attempted to reduce 
physiognomy to a science, and to es- 
tablish it upon fixed and undeniable 
principles. Hedefines it as ''thescience 
by which the dispositions of mankind 
are discoverable by the features of the 
body, especially those of the counte- 
nance." This philosopher has treated 
the subject more rationally than any 
of his successors of higher pretensions. 
This science was much cultivated 
among the Romans. Cicero often 
availed himself of its admitted princi- 
ples, whenever he could bring con- 
tempt, suspicion or hatred upon a 
criminal by pointing out the rogue in 
his face. A judge upon the bench 
once said to an eminent barrister, who, 
in his plea, was evidently making the 
worse appear the better reason : "Ah, 
man, I see the rogue in thy face." 
" Indeed," replied the advocate, " I 
was not aware that my face was a mir- 



ror." The countenance, however, is 
by no means an unerring index of the 
internal emotions. In some persons 
the face has nothing peculiar in its 
conformation ; in others, expression is 
but slight or evanescent ; in others, 
the true character is revealed only 
under strong excitement. Others, by 
a long course of hypocrisy, have re- 
pressed or changed the natural indices, 
and substituted those which have no 
corresponding types in the soul. Some 
men have so disciplined their emotions 
as never to betray them in their looks. 
The most scrutinizing gaze of Napo- 
leon could not disturb the fixed com- 
posure of Talleyrand. Having heard 
that his minister was planning his own 
aggrandizement in case of Bonaparte's 
defeat in his Northern campaign, the 
Emperor said to him, on the eve of his 
departure : " I have given orders for 
your immediate arrest, in case my ex- 
pedition fails." The courtier replied, 
with imperturbable gravity : " I shall 
pray for your majesty's success." 
Such was the man who affirmed that 
language was made to conceal thought ; 
and he might have added the human 
face was made to mask emotions. 
But apart from such execeptions, there 
is so much significance in external 
signs as to render them available aids 
in estimating character. They are not 
confined to the face merely. They 
exist in the whole organization of the 
man. Nor are they peculiar to man. 
They are common to all the animated 
creation. The characteristics and 
qualities of animals are known by their 
conformation ; and even by their phys- 
iognomy. Dr. Lemercier says : " The 
ears of a horse may be called indices 
of his mind. Intelligent animals prick 
up their ears when spoken to ; vicious 
ones throw their ears back. A blind 
horse directs one ear forward, and one 
backward, and in a deaf horse the ears 
are without expression." Celerity and 
timidity are visible in the form and 
countenance of the roe ; dignity and 
strength in those of the lion ; surliness 
and sluggishness in those of the bear. 
The faces of dogs differ as much as 



io6 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



those of men, and are equally expres- 
sive of their natural dispositions. We 
make the lamb and the dove emblems 
of innocence and purity. Defenceless 
and timid animals are provided with 
slender limbs for speed, with ears 
turned backward to catch the sound 
of the pursuer. Such are the fawn 
and hare. Savage beasts of prey like- 
wise exhibit their true character in the 
figure and face. Herdsmen and jock- 
ies distinguish the temper of animals 
from their natural expression. So, 
throughout nature, the characteristics 
of the animal are uniformly exhibited 
in his organization. Man is no excep- 
tion. The conformation of the head, 
.the features and expression of the face, 
the volume and tension of the muscles, 
the size and length of the limbs, all 
testify, in their place, of the indwelling 
spirit. In a word, the whole physical 
structure is designed for the soul that 
inhabits it. The constitutional tenden- 
cies of the mind and body modify and 
limit each other reciprocally. They 
are both governed by immutable laws. 
The intellectual system may be devel- 
oped at the expense of the physical, 
and the reverse ; then that living har- 
mony which is produced by the regu- 
lar operation of nature's laws is inter- 
rupted, and disease ensues. The in- 
tellect and affections of men are 
undoubtedly revealed by external signs. 
We speak of an intelligent and stupid 
countenance, and we instinctively 
judge of character by this mark. The 
passions also write their history legibly 
in the face. Says the poet of his mor- 
tal foe : 

" I touched him once, 
lie turned as he had felt a scorpion; fear 
And 16atr.ing glared from his enkmdled 
eyes, 

And paleness o'erspread his face like 
one 

Who smothers mortal pain. Subtle, 

dark, tierce, 
Designing and inscrutable, he walks 
Among us like an evil angel." 

Some men wear perpetual sunshine 
in their looks ; others never show a 
gleam of benevolence from their per- 



petually clouded brows. Children and 
even animals read these signs, and in- 
stinctively attach themselves to the 
gentle and avoid the morose. Philos- 
ophers and poets have acted and writ- 
ten upon the same principles. It has 
been admitted by all students of nature 
that vigor and strength of intellect are 
intimately associated with the size, ten- 
sion and form of the brain. This is 
no novel opinion. Painters, poets and 
sculptors, in all ages have taken this for 
a postulate. Their ideals, whether of 
gods or men, have been designed in 
accordance with this notion. Physiol- 
ogists concur in the same opinion, 
though they differ widely in the con- 
clusions and inferences drawn from 
this generally admitted fact. " Inde- 
pendently of phrenology," says Sir 
Charles Bell, " it has, of old time, been 
acknowledged that fullness of forehead 
(combined with a corresponding devel- 
opment of the features of the face) is 
an indication of intellectual capacity, 
and of human character and beauty. 
All physiologists have agreed in this 
view, while they are equally confident 
in affirming that anatomy affords no 
foundation for mapping the cranium 
into minute subdivisions or regions. 
As nature, by covering the head, has 
intimated her intention that we shall 
not there scan our neighbor's capaci- 
ties, she has given us the universal lan- 
guage of expression." Whether phren- 
ology be true or false it is not my ob- 
ject now to inquire. I wish to confine 
my remarks to the record of that lan- 
guage of expression which nature has 
so fully enstamped upon every feature, 
limb and muscle of the human form. 
Assuming what all admit, that the 
brain is the organ through which mind 
manifests itself, it is by no means un- 
philosophical to regard its size, tension 
and form, as indicative of intellectual 
power. The skull is supposed to be 
conformed to the shape of the brain. 
The position of the bony structure of 
the cranium produces a marked differ- 
ence between the faces both of men 
and brutes. The jaws of the latter 
project so as to form a more acute an- 



THE PHILOSOPHY OF EXPRESSION. 



g]e with the forehead ; those of men 
recede, till in the best modeled heads 
the organs of respiration and mastica- 
tion fall beneath the overhanging brow. 
The forehead, more than any other 
part, characterizes the human counte- 
nance as the seat of thought, the tab- 
let where intellect has set her seal. 
* ; Ft oils homhiis" says Pliny, %i tristi- 
ti<z\ hilaritatis, dementia, severiiatis 
index est." The old painters and 
statuaries were acute observers of 
nature. In the best specimens of an- 
cient art, particularly in purely ideal 
representations, the cranium is elevated 
and brought forward so as to give pe- 
culiar fullness and capacity to the fore- 
head. The other features are suffi- 
ciently prominent to give dignity and 
manliness to the countenance. Some 
physiologists contend that the promi- 
nence of the central and lower organs 
of the face indicates no moral likeness 
to the brutes. ''There is nothing in 
common," says Sir Charles Bell, " be- 
tween the human nose and the snout 
of a beast. The latter has reference 
only to the procuring and mastication 
of food ; while the mouth and nostrils, 
in man, have reference rather to the 
functions of respiration and speech." 
This is not confirmed by observation. 
As a general rule, large features indi- 
cate strength and force of character ; 
small and contracted features indicate 
acuteness and penetration, but in pro- 
portion as the central organs of the 
face approach the type of the brute, 
they reveal brutal propensities. The 
man to whom nature has given a low 
and depressed brow, with extended 
jaws, projecting teeth, and a capacious 
mouth, will not ordinarily make a very 
favorable impression upon strangers. 
These features are not, to be sure, cer- 
tain evidences of brutality, still they 
are associated in the popular belief 
with such qualities. The hooked nose 
and gray eyes peculiar to Jewish land- 
sharks, are selected by novelists to 
portray the miser. It is said that no 
great achievement was ever performed 
by a man with a nose ritroussL The 
voluntary turning up of the nose is the 



index of pride and hauteur. In a word 
the nose is a very important and signif- 
icant feature of the face. I saw a 
man once who had lost his nose, and 
I mentally exclaimed, " Oh, how 
changed ! " No accurate observer of 
men will confide in a stranger, whose 
brain, like that of a cat, lies mostly 
behind his ears. During the last cen- 
tury, Prof. Camper, of Leyden, an em- 
inent physician and naturalist, invented 
a method of determining the intellec- 
tual capacity of men by what he de- 
nominated the facial angle. This an- 
gle is formed by lines drawn as follows : 
the one through the external orifice of 
the ear to the base of the nose, hori- 
zontally : the other, perpendicular to 
it, from the center of the forehead to 
the most prominent part of the upper 
jaw bone, the head being viewed in 
profile. By the opening of these two 
lines, the author thought he could 
measure, as by a sliding scale, the ca- 
pacities of inferior animals and men. 
The heads of birds display the smallest 
angle. The angle always increases in 
size as the animal approaches the hu- 
man type. In the lowest species of 
the ape, the facial angle is 42 degrees ; 
in those more nearly resembling man 
it is 50 degrees. Between the heads 
of Africans and Europeans there is an 
average difference of 10 degrees — the 
angle of the former being 70 degrees, 
that of the latter So degrees. On this 
difference " the superior beauty of the 
European certainly depends, while that 
high character which is so striking in 
some works of ancient statuary, as in 
the head of the Apollo Belvidere, and 
in the Medusa of Sisocles, is given by 
an angle of 100 degrees." This the- 
ory was supposed to afford a criterion 
for estimating the degree of intelligence 
and sagacity bestowed by nature on 
all those animals possessed of a skull 
and brain. Like all theories which at- 
tempt to read the complex characters 
of men or beasts from the development 
of any one portion of the vital ma- 
chinery which manifests the mind that 
governs it, this ingenious device 
claimed too much for itself; and, of 



io8 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



course, failed to accomplish its mag- 
nificent promises. This test of char- 
acter, however, is not without its value. 
As one of the indices of mental ca- 
pacity, it may aid us in judging of hu- 
man character ; but like all the specif- 
ics of empirics, it should be used 
with caution. Phrenologists, biologists 
and mesmerisers, by pretending to 
demonstrate what is only matter of hy- 
pothesis, subject themselves to the 
charge of imposture. Notwithstanding 
all the specific rules which craniologists 
and physiognomists have given to lov- 
ers for the choice of companions for 
life, I have never known a wife or hus- 
band to be chosen from a measure- 
ment of the head or the facial angle. 
Despite the warnings of pretended 
science, passion still triumphs, and 
the blind lover finds attractive charms 
even in the base defects of his idol, 
exclaiming with Pope — 

" 'T is not a lip. an eye. we beauty call. 
Rut the joint force and full result of all." 

The old Greeks were distinguished 
for their finely developed forms and 
beautiful faces. The ideals of their 
divinities were copied from nature. 
Blumenbach has described a Greek 
skull in his collection, which agrees 
perfectly with the finest works of Gre- 
cian art. The philosopher describes 
this skull as possessing " a forehead 
highly and beautifully arched, the su- 
perior maxillary bones, under the aper- 
ture of the nostrils, joined in a nearly 
perpendicular plane, straight nose, the 
cheek bones even and turning moder- 
ately downward." If this be a true 
type of the old Grecian head, it is rea- 
sonable to suppose that the size and 
configuration of the head had some 
connection with the superior intellect- 
ual endowments of that gifted nation. 
Dr. Pritchaid, author of the Physical 
Researches, does not admit that the 
manifestation of mind depends at all 
upon the size and form of the brain, 
and yet his work furnishes incidental 
proof of the truth of this theory. In 
speaking of the British nation, he ob- 
serves : "The skulls found in old bury- 



ing places in Britain, which I have 
examined, differ materially from the 
Grecian model. The amplitude of the 
anterior parts of the cranium is very 
much less, giving a comparatively small 
space for the anterior lobes of the 
brain. In this particular the ancient 
inhabitants of Britain appear to have 
differed very considerably from the 
present. The latter, either from the 
result of many ages of intellectual 
cultivation, or from some other cause, 
have, as I am persuaded, much more 
capacious brain cases than their fore- 
fathers." This fact seems to indicate 
a gradual improvement of the physical 
organization corresponding to the ad- 
mitted mental and moral advancement 
of the same nation. It is written in 
the apocryphal book entitled Eccle- 
siasticus : "The heart of a man changes 
his countenance, whether it be for 
good or evil. The envious man has a 
wicked eye, he turns away his face and 
despises man. A man may be known 
by his look and by his countenance 
when thou meetest him." All the vi- 
olent passions write their own biog- 
raphy upon the faces of their victims. 
" When we consider that," says Dr. 
Reid, "on the one hand, every benevo- 
lent affection is pleasant in its nature, 
is health to the soul and a cordial to 
the spirits ; that nature has made even 
the outward expression of benevolent 
affections in the countenance pleasant 
to every beholder and the chief ingredi- 
ent of beauty in the human face divint ; 
that, on the other hand, every malevo- 
lent affection, not only in its faulty ex- 
cesses, but in its moderate degrees, is 
vexation and disquiet to the mind, and 
even gives deformity to the counte- 
nance, it is evident that by these signals 
nature loudly admonishes us to use the 
former as our daily bread, both for 
health and pleasure, but to consider 
the latter as a nauseous medicine, 
which is never to be taken without ne- 
cessity, and even then in no greater 
quantity than the necessity requires." 
This accords with universal experience. 
Men do not often mistake the assassin 
for the philanthropist, or the coward 



THE PHILOSOPHY OF EXPRESSION. 



for the hero, or the dunce for the sage. 
We not only presume to read the char- 
acters of men from external marks, but 
when the histories of men, good or bad, 
debased or exalted, are recited, the 
imagination of the hearer creates for 
itself a corresponding physical consti- 
tution. An artist or a poet would not 
represent a saint and an outlaw with sim- 
ilar features. No one ever supposed that 
Judas the traitor, and John the beloved 
disciple, had the slightest personal re- 
semblance. Even the name of Judas 
has been banished from Christian so- 
ciety. Sterne represents Capt. Shandy 
as saying to his friend, " Your son, 
your dear son, from whose sweet and 
open temper you have so much to ex- 
pect — your Billy, sir — would you for the 
world have called him Judas?" "I 
never knew a man," adds the author, 
" who was able to answer this argu- 
ment." We never assign similar forms 
and features to men of dissimilar moral 
and mental habits. The heroes of 
Homer are no where minutely de- 
scribed. There are occasional allu- 
sions to personal qualities by the ap- 
plication of a single descriptive epithet. 
Their armor, dress, words and deeds, 
are graphically delineated. From these 
data we form a distinct notion of the 
men, as they moved and acted. We 
are as strongly impressed with the 
marked difference in personal appear- 
ance between Achilles and Paris, or 
Nestor and Diomedes, as with the cor- 
responding difference of character as- 
signed to them by the poet. Writers 
of fiction are keen observers of men 
and manners. They usually draw 
their pictures from life. They are not 
apt to mistake in assigning to ideal 
characters an appropriate ideal form. 
The mere mention of some of the fine 
moral portraits of Scott awakens pleas- 
ing emotions, like the recollection of 
an old friend. The slightest allusion 
to others will as quickly excite loathing 
and disgust. With the names, the 
ideal forms return. Every intelligent 
reader of poetry or fiction has in his 
mind's eye the characters described. 
If they seem worthy of his affection, 



he bestows it upon them. After Rich- 
ardson had published the first four vol- 
umes of his Clarissa, which were de- 
voured with the utmost eagerness by 
the famished crowd, it was reported 
that the catastrophe in the forthcoming 
volume would be unfortunate. The 
public had become so interested in his 
imaginary beings, that they could not 
bear to part with them in a tragical 
manner. Remonstrances were poured 
in upon him from all quarters. " Old 
Abber," says Scott, " raved about it 
like a profane bedlamite ; and one 
sentimental young lady, eager for the 
conversion of Lovelace, one of the 
novelist's heroes, implored Richardson 
to save his soul, as though there were 
a living sinner in peril, and his future 
destiny depended upon the author." 
All who have read Ivanhoe, Scott's 
most celebrated novel, will remember 
with interest the Jewess, Rebecca. 
Her angelic loveliness and patient be- 
neficence never fail to win the heart of 
the reader. With the utterance of her 
name, that beautiful form in which 
such heaven-born charity resided, arises 
before the mind's eye. Who hears 
the name of Waverly without recalling 
the raven locks, the marble brow, the 
pensive eye and stately form of the 
high-souled, generous Flora Maclvor, 
or that elegant little personage that 
forms so fine a contrast with Flora, the 
Scotch beauty of sweet sixteen, " with 
a profusion of hair of paly gold, and a 
skin like the snow of her own moun- 
tains ? " Who that has read the " Tales 
of my Landlord," does not remember 
the round face, plump form and mod- 
est mien of Jennie Deans? And who 
does not associate with her rustic man- 
ners and tidy dress those homely Christ- 
ian virtues that so adorned her charac- 
ter, and have made her, though a mere 
creation of genius, a model for imita- 
tion. Compare Jenny Deans with 
Becky Sharpe, of Thackeray. Homely, 
or home-like, ought never to be a term 
of reproach. The word only indicates 
a fondness for domestic life. Says 
Milton — 



I TO 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



It is for homely featuresto keep home : 
They had their name thence." 

In one of the best of Scott's ficti- 
tious works, is a man of tall, ungainly 
form, of taciturn and grave manners, 
with a long, sallow visage, goggle eyes, 
and a jaw which appeared not to open 
and shut, by an act of volition, but to 
be dropped and hoisted again, by 
some complicated machinery within 
the inner man. His voice was harsh 
and dissonant. When he walked, his 
long, misshapen legs went sprawling 
abroad, keeping awkward time to the 
play of his immense shoulder blades, and 
they raised and depressed the loose and 
thread-bare black coat which was his 
constant and only wear. No kinder 
heart ever beat than that which kept 
in motion this awkward and repulsive 
microcosm of vital machinery. A tall, 
gaunt, bony figure, a homely face and 
a thread-bare coat are no evidence of 
depravity. Such an outer man has 
often been the tabernacle of a soul of 
which the world was not worthy. 
Contrast this ungainly form with the 
muscular, strong, thick-set figure of 
Capt. Dirk Hatteraick, with his bronzed 
face and satanic scowl, and you will 
see at once that the "Great Magician" 
has not mistaken his man. He knew 
in what sort of body the soul of a pi- 
rate would embark on its long and 
perilous voyage of infamy and crime. 
It seems a kind provision of Provi- 
dence that men of huge anatomy and 
gigantic strength are usually gentle 
and pacific in temper ; while persons 
of very diminutive stature are apt to 
be jealous of their rights, and by con- 
sequence, peevish, irritable and some- 
times snappish. No man understood 
the tortuous and many windings of the 
human heart better than Scott; and 
he has with a fidelity and accuracy 
never before equaled, drawn ideal per- 
sonages to represent every shade of 
human character, from the .heights of 
angelic loveliness to the depths of 
satanic malice. He was a perfect 
master in the delineation of the odd, 
grotesque and ugly. Monkbarns, Edie 
Ochiltree, the Black Dwarf, Meg Mer- 
riles ; and Noma of the Fitful Head 



can never be forgotten by tho.-^e whs) 
have once made their acquaintance. 
Compared with similar creations in 
Dickens, they are more true to the re- 
ality. They possess verisimilitude. 
Those of Dickens are overdrawn so as 
to become monstrous. Quilp, Fagin 
the Jew, Sykes, Dennis the hangman, 
Barnaby Rudge and Uriah Heep are 
of this description. Compare his 
school-masters, old Squeers, Creakle, 
and Choakumchild, with the kind- 
hearted old Dominie Sampson, and 
you will say at once it is enough to 
represent teachers as terribly awkward 
without making them abominably 
ivicked. It has been often said that 
every passion gives a peculiar cast to 
the countenance. " The bas-reliefs," 
says Mr. Isaac Taylor, " and bronzes 
of the age of Roman greatness have 
brought down for our inspection the 
form and visage of the Roman soldier, 
such as he was under Numa, Trajan, 
Aurelian and Domitian. The con- 
tracted brow declares that storms of 
battle have beat upon it often ; the 
glare of that overshadowed eye throws 
contempt on death ; the inflated nos- 
tril breathes a steady rage ; the fixed 
lips deny mercy ; the rigid arm and 
the knit joints have forced a path to 
victory through bristled ramparts and 
triple lines of shields and swords. 
And withal, there is a hardness of text- 
ure that seems the outward expression 
of an iron strength and vigor of soul ; 
a power as well of enduring as of in- 
flicting pain ; and the one with almost 
as much indifference as the other." 
With such brazen faces and iron sin- 
ews ; with such living, moving engines 
of war, is it wonderful that Rome en- 
slaved the world ? It is a law of phys- 
iology that all the flexible portions of 
the face may be essentially modified 
by internal emotions. The indulgence 
of the malignant passions clothes the 
countenance with gloom, imprints upon 
it a scowl of defiance, and gives to the 
eye a wild and unnatural glare. On 
the other hand, the habitual exercise 
of the benevolent affections makes the 
countenance radiant with joy and hope, 
diffuses over it the sweet smile of con- 



THE PHILOSOPHY OF EXPRESSION. 



1 1 1 



tentment, and causes the eye to beam 
upon all with benignity and love. To 
those who covet good looks here is 
presented a secondary motive for the 
cultivation of good feelings. The Rev. 
Leonard Wellington, in his advice to 
married ladies, says : " I have no hes- 
itation in saying it is your duty to be 
handsome. But what? Can we con- 
trol a quality which is the gift of na- 
ture ? Yes ; you can ; for the ugliest 
face that ever deformed the workman- 
ship of God, comes from some bad 
passion corroding in the heart. I say 
again, it is your duty to be handsome ; 
not by paint and artifice ; but by be- 
nevolence and good nature — a face ar- 
rayed in smiles and an eye that spark- 
les with love — the beauty of expression 
which is the best of all beauties." 
When we recollect that the beauty 
which we most admire and which can 
alone make an impression on the heart, 
consists in those significant looks which 
reveal the emotions of the soul, rather 
than in the force of regular features 
and fine complexion, this advice of the 
antiquary seems to be the dictate of 
true wisdom. One of our own poets 
has drawn a pleasing portrait of a lady 
whose beauty consisted not in mere 
form, features and complexion, but in 
the sprightliness and animation which 
an active intellect and a kind heart 
give to the expression of the face, to 
the tones of the voice, and the move- 
ment of the limbs : 

''She was not very beautiful, if it be 

beauty's test 
To match a classic model when perfectly 

at rest : 

And she did not look bewitchingly, if 

witchery it be 
To have a forehead and a lip transparent 

as the sea. 

The fashion of her gracefulness was not 
a followed rule, 

And Iter effervescent sprightliness was 
never learnt at school, 

And her words were all peculiar, like the 
fairy's who spoke pearls, 

And her tone was ever sweetest, 'mid the 
cadences of girls. 

Said r, she was not beautiful'.' Her eyes 
upon your sight 

Broke with the lambent purity of plan- 
etary light, 



And an intellectual beauty, like a light 
within a vase. 

Touched every line with glory, of her an- 
imated face.'* 

The plainest features become inter- 
esting when they are made the indices 
of indwelling virtues. 
4i Beauties in vain their prettv eyes may 
roll, 

Charms strike the sight, but merit wins 
the soul." 

Socrates is said to have resembled 
Silenus in the face. He was exces- 
sively ugly. Plato compares him to 
the gallipots of the Athenian apothe- 
caries, which were painted on the ex- 
terior with grotesque figures of apes 
and owls, but contained within a pre- 
cious balm. This repulsive counte- 
nance was the true index of his natu- 
ral tendencies. When charged with 
sensuality by a physiognomist of his 
own times, he confessed that the charge 
was true, so far as propensities were in- 
dicated, but that he had subdued them 
by the study and practice of philoso- 
phy. This is the man who, by his 
persuasive eloquence and virtuous life, 
won the love of the most cultivated 
men of his own age, and the admira- 
tion of all succeeding ages. Homer, 
in one instance, has described a malig- 
nant buffoon, showing by it his convic- 
tion of the correspondence of the 
physical and mental constitution in 
men. This picture is nearly 3000 
years old : 

" Thersites only clamored in the throng, 
Loquacious, loud and turbulent of tongue ; 
Awed by no shame, by no respect con- 
troled, 

[n scandal busy, in reproaches bold ; 
With witty malice, studious to defame ; 
Scorn all his joy and laughter all his aim. 
But chief he gloried, with licentious style, 
To lash the great and monarchs to revile. 
His figure such as might his soul pro- 
claim, 

One eye was blinking, one leg was lame, 
His mountain shoulders half his breast 

o'erspread, 
Thin hairs bestrewed his long, misshapen 

head. 

Spleen to mankind his envious heart pos- 
sessed, 

And much he hated all, but mott the best." 
(To be continued.) 



112 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



WHO ARE THE DEAD ? 



BY W. C. STUROC. 

And do the dead all sleep below the sod, 
Or 'neath the wave, or on the battle-plain? 

Must all who die, have laid aside the load 
Of human frailty? Do there none remain 

On earth alive, and yet so dead in soul. 

That o'er their hearts Benevolence hath no control? 

Not half so dreary or so desolate 

A human form in marble stillness laid, 
Where eves have ceased to beam, with joy elate, 

And pale, dumb lips their parting prayer have said, — 
Where all that once was lovely, has become 
Food for the worms, a mold'ring tenant for the tomb. 

Xot half so dismal as when life still lingers 
Bright in its currents round a callous heart, 

Yet all untouched by soothing angel fingers 
Slumbers the mute soul ; having no sweet part 

In that deep joy which goodness can bestow 

On virtue's votaries, while they wander here below. 

Shines not from Heaven the glorious orb of day? 

Blooms not the earth with choicest, fairest flowers ? 
Ring not the woodlands with a long array 

Of happy voices, mingling music's powers? 
While roiling rivers in sweet concert glide, 
Wave after wave, to join old Ocean's heaving tide. 

Yet there are eyes, 'mid all this light from Heaven, 
See not the flowers that strew the lap of earth, 

And ears to which the forest-song is given 

In vain. They have not known the spirit-birth, 

That wakes the soul to all that \s good and true. 

And lends to life a charm which nothing can subdue. 

Oh, 't is a humbling, sad and solemn sight 

To look upon a shriveled worshiper 
Of mammon, love-forgotten 'neath the might 

Of a darksome dream, — a waking nightmare, — 
A weight that crushes in its icy thrall 
The fondest hopes which brighten life terrestrial. 

And when upon the darkness of the soul 

The light of Mercy hath not power to shine ; 

And aspirations seek no higher goal 

Than narrow self — thun moral death doth twine 

Its withered wreath, and spirit-life hath fled; 

And Faith is voiceless to the parched and lone and dead. 

But where is found a heart attuned to love, 

To sympathize, to pity and to feel, 
And a kind hand, not slow t;ut prompt to move 

From the crushed soul the poison of its weal, 
And pour sweet balm upon the wounded heart, 
There deathless life is found, and there of Heaven a part. 



ACTS OF THE APOSTLES OF ANTI-SLAVERY. 



ACTS OF THE APOSTLES OF ANTI-SLAVERY. 



BY HENRY P. ROLFE. 



There is living with us one of whom 
the present generation — until recently 
— has heard little, and knows less. 
We frequently meet him in our daily 
walks, and his light, buoyant step, his 
keen, dark eye, his marked, observing 
countenance — at an age verging upon 
four score years — would point him out 
to a stranger as no ordinary man. 
His eye is hardly dimmed with age, 
and his natural force is but little abated. 
His friends can not fail to notice in 
this description, Parker Pillsbury, who 
from 1840 to 1863 was known, in New 
England, at least, as the Boanerges of 
the cause of Anti-Slavery, — of imme- 
diate and unconditional emancipation 
of all the slaves in this land. He 
dates his beginning " in that sublime 
enterprise " at the commencement of 
the year 1840. He was then a li- 
censed preacher of the gospel in the 
Congregational denomination ; and he 
at once enlisted, soul and body, in the 
cause of the down-trodden slave, and 
never abated one jot or tittle of his 
industry or his zeal till he saw the 
manacles fall from the limbs of four 
millions of his fellow-beings ! During 
the few years past he has been engaged 
in writing a book, entitled, "Acts of 
the Apostles of Anti-Slavery ; " and 
most ably and faithfully has he done 
his work. A book of five hundred pages, 
recently published, attests to his ca- 
pacity and to his fidelity. There is no 
one living, except Parker Pillsbury, 
who can bring before the eyes of the 
present generation a correct, minute, 
comprehensive and entertaining record 
of the times when certain patient, 
courageous, self-sacrificing men and 
women laid aside all seeming present 
good, and every prospect of future 
advantage, and " went every where 
preaching the word," and every where, 
in the name of the Prince of Peace, 
demanding " deliverance to the cap- 
vn— 8 



tive." Like the ancient historian,, 
he can say I have written a history, 
" part of which I saw and part of 
which I was." tlis life mission is suc- 
cessfully completed, and " he has seerv 
the travail of his soul and is satisfied." 
" Heaven has bounteously lengthened 
out his life that he might behold the 
joyous day " of the emancipation of 
four millions of slaves, whose rights 
he had advocated and whose wrongs 
he had portrayed with a power and; 
eloquence never surpassed by any one- 
of his able contemporaries. 

Nathaniel P. Rogers, in October, 
1842, soon after he entered the lecture 
held, wrote as follows of him : 

" The abolitionists of the country 
ought to know Parker Pillsbury better 
than they do. I know him in all that 
is noble in soul, and powerful in talent _ 
and eloquence. The remote district 
school-house in New Hampshire, and 
the old granite county of Essex, Mas- 
sachusetts, where he was born, would 
bear me witness to all I could say. 
He is one of the strong men of our 
age. ***** We passed the soli- 
tary school-house a few days since, 
where he was allowed the few weeks' 
schooling of his childhood ; but thanks 
they were so few ! He was educating 
all the better for humanity's service on 
the rugged farm. He there taught 
himself to be a man. A great lesson 
he had effectually learned before he 
came in contact with seminaries and a 
priesthood. These proved unequal, 
on that account, to overmatch and 
cower down his homespun nobility of 
scul. They tied their fetters round 
his manly limbs, but he snapped them 
as Samson did the withes, and went 
out an abolitionist, carrying off the very 
theological gates with him upon his 
manly shoulders." 

There were Nathaniel P. Rogers and 
Stephen S. Foster of New Hampshire, 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phil- 
lips, Henry C.Wright, James N. Buf- 
fum, Charles Remond, Frederick Doug- 
las and Theodore Parker, of Massachu- 
setts, all men of great power on the 
Anti-Slavery lecture platform ; but for 
thrilling denunciation of the wicked- 
ness of American Slavery, and in the 
narrative of the wrongs and curses in- 
flicted upon the African race through 
two hundred years, no one of them 
all could sound the depths of human 
woe or reach the sublime of freedom like 
Parker Pillsbury. The writer of this 
has heard all these distinguished men, 
most of them many times, and this is 
the impress which remains in his mem- 
ory. 

Such is the man who has written 
"Acts of the Anti-Slavery Apostles." 
It is a marvelous book, and should be 
read by every well-informed, thought- 
ful American citizen. The Jews can 
never escape the history of the cruci- 
fixion of our Saviour ; the Romish 
church the horrors of the Spanish In- 
quisition ; the Church of England the 
fires of Smithfield : the Puritans of 
Massachusetts the persecutions of the 
Baptists and the Quakers, nor the judi- 
cial murders of those innocent women 
who were accused as witches ; nor can 
the American Church or State escape 
the great crime and abominations of 
two centuries of American Slavery. 
The only thing left for them to do now 
is to atone for that which can not be 
recalled. 

The Acts of the Apostles of our 
Lord and Saviour can all be read in 
one brief hour, but the Acts of the 
Apostles of Anti-Slavery can not be 
read in twice as many days. And it 
is necessary that they should be read 
and pondered now by every American 
citizen who feels an interest in the 
welfare of his country. 

It was in 1842 that N. P. Rogers 
wrote of the merits and position of 
Parker Pillsbury among the abolition- 



ists ; but he very soon after became 
better known, and was fully ap- 
preciated by his abolition friends ; — so 
much so that in 1846, after a five days 
Anti-Slavery convention at New Bed- 
ford, in Liberty Hall, he was reserved 
as the great gun to close the meeting 
on Sunday, and a closely packed au- 
dience remained till after ten o'clock at 
night, on the very tip-toe of expecta- 
tion, to hear " the son of thunder " from 
New Hampshire make the closing 
speech of the evening ; and no one 
went away disappointed or dissatisfied. 

In the winter of 1 860-6 1 he deliv- 
ered an address in Eagle Hall in this 
city, in which he pictured the sins and 
iniquities of this nation, in enslaving 
the black man. He rolled up a moun- 
tain of crimes and laid it at the doors 
of the American Church and the/ 
American State, — and then the Salva- 
tion of the Union was the excuse for 
this "Sum of all villainies S" O, how 
he launched the thunderbolts of his 
denunciation against the Union Savers ! 
The following is one of his illustrations, 
not easy to be forgotten : 

" I tell you God is ripening this na- 
tion for his judgment. How much 
longer will he forbear? The cup of 
his anger is nearly full, and when he 
begins to reveal the terrors of his wrath, 
what do you suppose the cries of all 
these Union Savers will amount to? 
They will be of no more avail than the 
feeble wail of an infant, when all the 
fire department of New York goes 
thundering up Broadway." 

Only too soon, alas ! did he begin 
to reveal "the terrors of his wrath !" 
Only too soon did his judgments de- 
mand the frightful sacrifice ! "And 
the blood of half a million young men, 
brave and beautiful," was claimed to 
wash away and wipe out the guilt and 
stain of Southern Slavery ! Who so 
competent, who so deserving, to record 
the Acts of the Apostles of Anti-Slav- 
ery as Parker Pillsbury? 



THE BOSTON TEA PARTY. 



1*5 



THE BOSTON TEA PARTY. 



BY C. L. I 

How many of the young people of 
the present, as they quaff their fragrant 
tea, the beverage which is said to 
•cheer but not inebriate, can tell 
about the famous tea party, unless, 
perchance, they have picked up some 
rare old history, or book, where, with 
its quaint engraving, in old time fashion, 
is depicted the scenes of the heroes, 
disguised as Indians, throwing over- 
board the ship load of tea that had 
been sent from England to the 
Colonies, thereby showing their detes- 
tation of the odious Stamp Act, which 
was being enforced upon them ; or, 
may be, from the lips of some aged 
person have they heard the story, as 
they sipped together their favorite tea, 
and gossiped of Ye Olden Times. 
In childhood's day, with childish 
curiosity did we read and ponder 
over the pictures, and think of 
the patriots — for they were such. In 
these days it would be called a mob, 
men taking action like that ; but even 
mobs are justifiable sometimes, and its 
members heroes. I have wondered 
how many, and who they were, but that 
will never be known ; or who was the 
brave spirit that marshaled his forces 
that eventful eve o r December 16. 
1773, under whose orders the artificial 
redskins acted while making tea. 
However hastily the plot to seize and 
throw overboard the cargo may have 
been concocted, for which we have 
conjecture only, we can but admit that 
the act was heroism, and the motive 
true patriotism. In all demonstrations 
for the: public weal, there is and has 
been a master mind, both to conceive 
and execute the move, which in after 
time the grateful people delight to 
honor in some way, to commemorate 
their appreciation of their service. 
That act showed Old England that the 



Colonists were in earnest, and was one 
of the first acts in the drama of Inde- 
pendence which followed. For less 
than this have arisen over the graves of 
men 

" Costly monuments and storied urn 
while the roster of the names of that 
fearless few may be unknown, that of 
the leader is ; and the fact that, buried 
in a pauper's grave, and no stone 
marks the spot where, for over seventy 
years, brave Mcintosh has slept, in a 
little grave-yard in New Hampshire, 
unhonored and unknown, save to a 
few. It was the writer's privilege, a 
short time since, to converse with an 
aged gentleman who distinctly remem- 
bers Captain Mcintosh and the funereal 
day. That he was the leader of that 
party there is undoubted proof, and the 
fact that this proof and knowledge is 
confined to but a few aged people, 
should hasten the movement to erect, 
at an early date, a suitable monument 
in the quiet church-yard which con- 
tains his remains. Let it be of a na- 
tional character. Let East, West, 
North and South, respond. Let all 
that love a brave act give their mite ; 
and we call upon the press to head 
and set the ball rolling. 

Captain Mcintosh died an aged 
man, in Haverhill, Grafton county, 
New Hampshire, in the vicinity of 
1 8 10 or 1 Si [, upon what is now known 
as the poor-farm, an inmate of the 
family of a Mrs. Hurlburt, to whose 
care he was bid off as a pauper, by 
auction, according to the usage 
of that day. In passing along the 
highway, a mile or so above the pretty 
little village of North Haverhill, the 
traveler will come to a little cemetery, 
or ancient burial-place, where rest the 
dead of ye settlers of the Horse Mead- 
ows settlement, as formerly called. 



u6 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



Here, in the pauper lots. Mcintosh 
was buried. The exact spot of the 
grave may not be distinctly remem- 
bered by the aged people who wit- 
nessed the burial. Over seventy years 
have the flowers bloomed and the 
winds chanted a requiem through the 
pines of the adjacent forest over all 
that was mortal of brave Mcintosh. 
And here, where in full sight of the 
passing traveler in riding along the 
route of the Passumpsic and B. C. & 
M. Railroad, let there be a monument 
erected worthy of the man and the 
deed. Of slight build, sandy com- 
plexion, nervous temperament, says our 
informant, we can easily imagine that a 
person like our hero would find irk- 
some the restraints of city life, and like 



the more active frontier life, in Graf- 
ton county, as known in those days., 
where declining years found him in 
poverty and a pauper. If an active 
move is made, much information can 
be gleaned that would throw light upon 
the history of the man by those who 
recollect him in their childhood days, 
when he was known as " the Captain," 
and always addressed as such by other 
members of the party, who, living in 
an adjoining town, occasionally visited 
him ; and at times, when nerved up 
and enlivened by a hot punch of rum 
and molasses, the black strap of old, 
he would tell of the doings of, not of 
the Indians, but his chickens, as he 
facetiously called them. — Mountaineer. 
Island Pond, Yt., Nov. 13, 1883. 



PISCATAQUOG RIVER. 



BY JAMES M. ADAMS. 



Thy song has ne'er been sung, O River! 

Silver streamlet seeking the sea ; 
'Hie joy to praise thy wandering ways 

Is a joy that is left to me. 

Thy name abroad has ne/er been known. 

Or famed in ancient story; 
Thy tide may flow and never know 

The golden light of glory. 

But more to me than other streams, 
Thy charms will ever hind me 

With chain* of gold,, while I behold 
The happy days behind me. 

Behold in fancy, not in fact, 

The days that are no more, 
When I, beside thy rippling tide, 

Dreamed dreams that now are o'er. 

Fair dreams! sweet dreams! that even now 

Come back again to cheer, 
When at my feet in music sweet 

Thy murmuring voice I hear. 



Along thy mossy banks I stray, 
And watch thy wayward dances ; 

Each word, unheard by other ears, 
Enwreathed among my fancies. 

I see the golden sunbeams fall, 
And kiss each wave in turn; 

Each wavelet's crest upon thy breast 
A jewel seems to burn. 

1 see thee 'neath the moonbeam's light,.. 

A mass of silver shining; 
Thy rocky banks, in stately ranks, 

The oaks and maples lining. 

Fare-thee-well, O rippling River! 

That flows through my heart as well 
As between the banks where in stately 
ranks 

The oaks and maples dwell. 

O River! now thy song is sung! 

Would that fitter hand than mine 
Had chose thy name to give it fame; 

But then — 't is no other's shrine. 



IN NEW QUARTERS. 



"7 



IN NEW QUARTERS. 



A leading wholesale house of this city 
■and stite, Messrs. Wood worth, Dodge & 
•Co., begin the year 18SI most auspi- 
ciously by opening their new business 
home in the Dow building on Free 
Bridge street. What the change signi- 
fies, the general public may little realize ; 
but to this popular and successful firm 
•and their many patrons it means a great 
<leal. It means a change from quarters 
which were much too small for the busi- 
ness the firm was doing, to as convenient 
and commodious ones as any wholesale 
grocery house in New England can L oast 
•of. For the city it means that there is- 
now located in it, and identified with its 
business interests, probably the best ap- 
pointed wholesale grocery store in New 
England, when all its facilities are taken 
into account. Of the building in general 
we spoke at length some time since. In 
■a word, it is in every way adapted for 
the purpose to which it lias been de- 
voted. 

To begin with, its location upon the 
railroad is such that no trucking what- 
ever is required, thus effecting an impor- 
tant saving at the outset. From a side 
track on the east side of the building 
three cars can be unloaded at the same 
•time, directly into the basement, through 
three large entrances, while from the 
south end are two more for the delivery 
•of goods. At the lower end of the build- 
ing grain is shoveled from the car into 
the hopper, whence it is carried to the 
upper story, which is fitted for its recep- 
tion with bins holding 10.000 bushels, 
and a conveyer lor its delivery at any 
point in the room. A second conveyor 
will carry it back as it may be wanted 
below. In the lower story are two port- 
able corn mills, with a capacity of fifty 
bushels an hour. These will enable the 
firm to grind the meal to supply their 
wholesale trade, of which flour and grain 
■are important features. Separated from 
the main building is an engine-house 
•containing a 35-libfse power engine and 
boiler, made by Nathan P. Stevens, of 
this city, and which furnishes ample 
power to run the mills, elevator, etc. 
The remainder of this door is used lor 
2Lhe storage of lime and cement, and also 



contains a spacious pork, lard, and fish 
cellar. 

The second floor, which is reached 
through two entrances on Free Bridge 
street, is devoted to the grocery depart- 
ment, and also contains a packing room, 
sample room, and a fine oliice. The lat- 
ter is in the north-east corner, is hand- 
somely finished in stained basswood, is 
light and pleasant, and is in keeping 
with the store in general. Out of it 
opens the sample room, which is conven- 
iently fitted with tea table, etc. The 
grocery department is admirably ar- 
ranged for the display of goods. The 
floor above, which is really the second 
story of the building, is devoted entirely 
to flour and sacked feed, the capacity for 
flour alone being 5,0CK) barrels. An ele- 
vator of improved pattern almost makes 
the four floors as one, furnishing safe 
and speedy communication from base- 
ment to attic. 

Even from this hurried and incom- 
plete description it can be seen that 
Wood worth, Dodge & Co. have, in their 
new establishment, every facility for car- 
rying on their large and constantly in- 
creasing business. Eight years ago, 
when tlie firm began the wholesale busi- 
ness here, they encountered on all sides 
predictions of failure. The generally ex- 
pressed opinion was that a wholesale 
grocery business could not be made to 
pay in Concord. To-day they carry a 
stock so large and complete that they 
can stock a grocery store entire, and 
they are doing this all through this state 
and Vermont, for their many customers 
include the leading grocers in both these 
states. The firm is composed of three 
wide-awake, square-dealing business men, 
A. B. and E. B. Woodworth, and 11. E. 
Dodge, who have been successful in spite 
of the discouragements they encountered 
at first, because they have deserved suc- 
cess. While the firm is to be congratu- 
lated upon having such a fine business 
home, the man whose enterprise has fur- 
nished them with it, Samuel IT. Dow, of 
Warner, should also be remembered, for 
to him the credit for the addition of 
such an establishment to our city is due, 
in part, at least. — Concord Monitor, Jan. 1, 
1884. 



n8 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



WINDHAM, N. H. 

BY LEONARD A. MORRISON. 
Author of the " History of the Morrison Family, " and " History of Windham, N. H." 



CHAPTER I. 

Like all places settled by Scotch 
people, this town has an instructive 
history, and the characteristics and 
sterling qualities of its early occupants 
still find manifestation in the worthy 
lives and high character of their de- 
scendants and successors. A halo of 
romance always clings to this strong, 
peculiar, rugged race, whose strength 
and tenderness are harmoniously 
blended. The recording pen loves to 
linger in delineating them, their works, 
their high purposes and lofty aims. 
All these will be briefly touched upon in 
this and succeeding articles. 

SITUATION. 

The location of this town is like that 
of the hub in a wheel, the Merrimack 
river being two thirds of the circum- 
ference. It is bounded on the north 
by Londonderry and Deny, on the 
east by Salem, on the south by Salem 
and Pelham, and on the west by Lon- 
donderry and Hudson. It lies thirty- 
five miles north-west from Boston, 
Mass., and thirty-three miles south- 
east from Concord, N. H. ; Manches- 
ter and Nashua, N. H., and Lowell, 
Lawrence and Haverhill, Mass., being 
the close surrounding cities and mar- 
kets, and all within the distance of a 
few miles. 

The area is 15,744 acres ; and seven 
ponds and lakes lie wholly or partially 
within its limits. 

The most important are Cobbett's 
and Policy. The former is two miles 
in length and covers 1 000 acres. Its sit- 
uation is beautiful. The land on either 
side rises into swelling hills, whose sides, 
in places, are thickly covered with wood, 
and in others the pastures or well cul- 
tivated fields of the farms extend from 
the " Range " to the water's edge. It 



takes its name from Rev. Thomas-. 
Cobbett, of Ipswich. Mass., who had, 
in 1662, a large tract of land laid out 
upon its borders. 

Policy pond is two miles in length, 
covers 1017 acres, and is partially in. 
Salem. Its beauty can hardly be sur- 
passed, and the words of Quaker poet 
Whittier are very applicable : 

" O'er no sweeter lake 
Shall morning break, or noon-cloud sail ;. 
Xo lighter wave than thine shall take 
The sunset's golden veil." 

Gaentake or Beaver river is the prin- 
cipal stream, and flows from TsiennetO' 
lake in Deny and empties into the 
Menimack river at Lowell, Mass. 

One of the curiosities of the town is. 
Butterrleld's Rock. It is situated on a 
lofty eminence, and is a large bowlder- 
of granite or gneiss, and rises twenty 
feet in height, its sides measuring six- 
teen or eighteen feet. It rests upon a, 
small base and is almost a rolling stone. 
It came from a distant locality. On 
the ledge which supports it are frac- 
tures or distinct marks of the great ice 
sheet, which ages ago, in the glacial 
period, overspread the country, and of 
whose carrying force the rock is an 
exhibition, as it was brought to its 
present position by the glaciers, from 
its home miles away in the north-west. 

SCENERY. 

The scenery, like that of most New 
Hampshire towns, is varied and at- 
tractive. The diversity of the land- 
scape is such that the eye never tires 
in beholding its beauties. The grand 
old hills, " rock-ribbed, and ancient as 
the sun," the valleys, the lakes, the 
streams of water, or broken masses of 
granite promiscuously piled together, 
all have their fascination, and to native 
as well as to stranger eyes are charm- 
ing. From some of our lofty hiils the- 



WINDHAM, N. H. 



119 



eye can scan the surrounding country 
for many miles. 

Jenny's hill, named for a daughter 
of Rev. James McGregor, is a great 
swell of land, and is as high as any in 
town. The view from its summit takes 
in many towns, and many churches 
appear in the distance, with their spires 
of faith pointing to the heavens. A 
few rods from the summit of this hill 
stood the house in which was born the 
elder Gov. Samuel Dinsmoor, and his 
brother, the " Rustic Bard," Robert 
Dinsmoor. 

Dinsmoor's hill is next in impor- 
tance, and in close proximity to Jenny's 
hill. Richard Waldron, an early res- 
ident of New Hampshire, was once 
owner of a portion of this hill. 

The view from this place is hardly 
surpassed. A long range of mountains 
in the west stands out in bold relief 
against the sky. To the south the 
winding valleys, and Cobbett's pond, 
bright and sparkling in the sunlight. 
On the north the eye can sweep the 
country for many miles, and the 
church spire of Chester, the villages of 
Hampstead, Atkinson, and, looking 
eastward, churches and houses in Ha- 
verhill, Methuen, Andover and Law- 
rence, Mass., are all in view. No per- 
son with any poetry in his soul can see 
unmoved the grandeur of this scenery, 
but involuntarily exclaims, in the lan- 
guage of poetry : 

"Tell me, where'er thy silver bark be 
steering, 

By bright Italian or soft Persian lands, 
Or o'er those island-studded seas career- 
ing, 

Whose pearl-charged waves dissolve on 

coral strands ; 
Tell if thou visitest, thou heavenly rover, 
A lovelier scene than this the wide world 

over." 

CAUSES FOR SETTLEMENT. 

Windham, from lyro. to 1742, was 
a parish of Londonderry, a part and 
parcel of that historic Scotch settle- 
ment. It will be impossible to speak 
of the first settlements here, and the 
character of the settlers, without speak- 
ing of the causes which induced the 



immigration of our Scotch ancestors to 
these wild and inhospitable shores. 
They were of a politico-religious na- 
ture. During the reign of King James 
the First, of England, the larger por- 
tion of the six northern counties of 
Ireland fell to the king — being the se- 
questered estates of his rebellious Irish 
subjects. To hold in check the wild 
and turbulent spirits of his Irish sub- 
jects, he induced a large immigration of 
his Scotch countrymen to the province 
of Ulster, Ireland. This was in 161 2. 
The Scotch were stern Presbyterians. 
The native Irish were ignorant Roman 
Catholics. So on Irish soil dwelt two 
distinct races — differing in blood, iden- 
tity and religion. The Scotch dwelt 
on the land from which the Irish had 
been expelled. In consequence of 
this fact — the unlikeness of the two 
races, in manners, customs and religion 
— a bitter feud existed between them. 
Consequently there were no marriages 
between the races, and no commin- 
gling of blood. They remained as 
distinct as though impassable seas 
stretched between them. In 1641 the 
Catholics massacred more than 40,000 
Protestants. But a change soon oc- 
curred in the government. Royalty fell, 
the Protectorate was established, a man 
in the person of Cromwell was placed 
at the helm who was both able and 
willing to protect the Protestants from 
their enemies. In 1649 the strong arm 
of Cromwell bore an avenging sword. 
He waged relentless war against the 
Catholic Irish. Whole provinces were 
laid waste and large cities left without 
an inhabitant. The void he thus cre- 
ated he also filled by large bodies of 
Scotch and English immigrants of the 
Calvinistic faith. These colonists re- 
deemed the desolated and war-smitten 
provinces ; and by their thrift filled the 
markets of England with the products 
of their industry. . 

But a day black with darkness came 
with unwonted swiftness, and reached 
the colonists at the death of Cromwell. 
Then the Stuarts returned, and from 
that date till the end of the siege and 
defence of Londonderry, in Ireland, in- 



f 20 



Tim GRANITE MONTHLY. 



1689, the Scotch ancestors of the first 
settlers of Windham, either in Scotland 
or in Ireland, suffered persecutions un- 
paralleled. To .James Second the 
Scotch Presbyterians were the legiti- 
mate objects of hate. The fires of 
persecution were rekindled ; the sword 
was again unsheathed and bathed in 
the blood of thousands of slaughtered 
saints. In consequence of this perse- 
cution, thousands of Scotch fled from 
Scotland to the Scotch settlements of 
Ireland, and joined their countrymen 
there.' Among those who thus fled to 
Ireland for refuge, were the parents of 
many of the settlers of Windham. 

In 16SS-89 occurred the memorable 
siege of Londonderry, Ireland. Many 
Scotchmen from Scotland rallied to aid 
the Scotchmen then residing in that 
city. That defence has become im- 
mortal in song and story. On the 30th 
of July, 16S9, the city was relieved. 
Then the joy and gratitude of its 
starving inhabitants were unutterable. 
The watch-fires of a " hundred circling 
camps " made bright the night. The 
discharge of the enemy's artillery, fly- 
ing shot and screaming bombs, com- 
bined with the answering peals of joy- 
ous defiance sent forth by the ringing 
bells of the city, made that night one 
of awful grandeur, of fear, and of su- 
premest joy. On the 31st the enemy 
withdrew, and so closed the memora- 
ble defence of the city. 

Many of those persons who were 
young at the time of the siege were 
the sturdy men who, in 1719 and later, 
helped to found this settlement of 
Londonderry and Windham. They 
made a new departure, and for relig- 
ious liberty founded this settlement in 
the American wilderness. From those 
sturdy defenders are descended the 
Mc.Keens, Morrisons and Cochrans, 
and ' many others. They came in 
manhood's strength, prepared the rude 
habitations, broke the ground, scattered 
the grain which the rich and virgin soil 
would bring forth into abundant har- 
vests. 

Then iheoA/ people came — men who 
were stalwart and strong during the 



defence of the city — and shared with 
them the joys as well as the perils of 
the new life in the wilderness. Many 
settlers came direct from the bonnie 
blue hills of Scotland. Such was the 
nationality, and such the education 
derived in the school of war, trouble 
and adversity of the early settlers, and 
the characteristics thus developed en- 
abled them to triumph over all obsta- 
cles in the hard life in the wilderness. 
Probably no people who ever landed 
in America have been so much misun- 
derstood and misrepresented as the 
Scotch settlers of Windham, London- 
derry, and other places colonized by 
this same Scotch race. The ignorance 
of other classes in relation to them 
and their history has been unbounded. 
They were called " Irish " when not a 
drop of " Irish " blood flowed in their 
veins. They were called " Roman 
Catholics," when they hated that sect 
almost to ferocity ; when they had 
rolled back the papal forces, had en- 
dured the horrors of starvation, shed 
their blood in mountain fastnesses and 
on many battle-fields, to uphold the 
Protestant faith, and had " ventured 
their all for the British crown against 
the Irish Papists." They were of 
Scotch blood, pure and simple ; the 
blood of Erin did not flow commingled 
in the veins of the hardy exiles who, 
one hundred and sixty and more years 
ago, struck for a settlement and a home 
in this wintry land. 

Then let every descendant of the 
first settlers distinctly remember that 
his ancestors were Scotch, that he is of 
Scotch descent, and that the terms 
Scotch- English or Scotch- Irish, so far 
as they imply a different than Scotch 
origin and descent, are a perversion of 
truth and false to history. 



CHAPTER II. 

FIRS T SETTLEMENTS. 

Though Windham had been visited 
by white people as early as October, 
1662, when a grant of land was laid 
out to Rev. Thomas Cobbeti, of Ips- 
wich, Mass., — on Cobbett's pond — it 



WINDHAM, N. H. 



121 



had undoubtedly been traversed again 
and again by exploring and hunting 
expeditions before and after that date ; 
still it is doubtful if any permanent 
settlements were made till the advent 
of the Scotch in 17 19, in the London- 
derry colony. The first house in 
Windham was established on Copp's 
hill, south-east of Cobbett's pond, 
about 1720. Its occupant was John 
Waddell. 1111721 David Gregg, son 
of John Gregg, of Londonderry, Ire- 
land, and grandson of Captain David 
Gregg, a Scotchman, and captain in 
Cromwell's army, established himself 
in the west side of the town. He was 
the uncle of Andrew Gregg, member 
of the U. S. Senate from Pennsylvania, 
in 1806-7. 

This David Gregg was joined by 
Alexander McCoy from the highlands 
of Scotland. In 1723 John Dinsmoor, 
son of John Dinsmoor of Scotland, lo- 
cated near the Junction. 1111728 or 
'29 John Archibald settled in the north 
part of the town. 

About 1730 Lieut. Samuel Morrison, 
son of Charter James Morrison, of 
Londonderry, N. H.. and grandson of 
John Morrison, of Scotland, settled in 
the east of the town, in the " Range." 
He was the ancestor of the Morrisons 
of Windham. 

In 1733 Henry Campbell, of Lon- 
donderry, Ireland, and grandson of 
Daniel Campbell, of Scotland, settled 
in the west side of the town, on Beaver 
river, and where his descendants " live 
unto this day.'' About this same date 
Alexander Simpson and Adam Tem- 
pleton struck for settlement here. 

John Cochran, of Scotch blood, 
came in 1730, hewed his farm from 
the wilderness, and upon which his 
descendants have since lived. Alex- 
ander Park and John Armstrong ap- 
peared soon after. 

These are some of the pioneer fa- 
thers : William and Robert Thompson, 
Joseph Waugh, Thomas Quigley, Alex- 
ander and James Dunlap, John Kyle, 
John Morrow, Hugh Graham, John 
and James Vance, Samuel and William 
McAdams, James Gilmore, Andrew 



Armour, John Hopkins, Daniel Clyde, 
William Thorn, John Stuart, Hugh 
Brown, Samuel Kinkead, Francis Smilie, 
Alexander Ritchie, William Jameson, 
Nathaniel Hemphill, Tames Caldwell, 
who were here in early times, and, with 
the exception of William Thorn, not a 
single descendant of any of this list, 
bearing the family name, remains in 
town to-day. 

THE FIRST SETTLERS. 

Immediately after the first settlement 
had been made in Londonderry, near 
what is now the east village, individuals 
would go from home to the more dis- 
tant glebes to work in summer, and 
would return in the winter. Many 
young men lived in this manner several 
years, laboring thus to prepare a home 
for their future companions. When 
the home was provided they went or 
sent to Scotland, or to the Scotch set- 
tlements in Ireland, for the brave lass 
who had consented to cross the wide 
ocean to meet her stern lord in the 
wilderness, and by her presence to 
cheer, to brighten, and to bless his 
home and life. 

Land was cheap, and John Hopkins 
purchased a large tract for a web of 
linen cloth. Neighbors were far apart, 
oftentimes as far as three miles, and it 
was said, "we were obliged to go three 
miles to borrow a needle, not being 
able to buy one." 

There were no grist-mills nearer than 
Haverhill or Andover, Mass. ; so the 
grain was carried on poles trailed from 
the horse's back. They often broke 
their corn into meal by placing it between 
two revolving stones, this being a hand- 
mill called a cairn. They lived main- 
ly on what could be raised in the 
ground. They possessed but little 
wealth, for their lot was like their Fa- 
therland, Scotland, cast in a cold and 
wintry land, with a hard and rocky 
soil. 

Amid all their trials, their character _ 
stands out in bold relief. They were 
not illiterate people. They had re- 
ceived a fair education, many of them, 
in Scotland, or the Scotch settle- 



122 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



ments in Ireland, before their arrival 
here. 

They were stern, uncompromising 
Presbyterians, and held to their form 
of worship with great tenacity. They 
loved intelligence, liberty and their re- 
ligion. No sacrifices were too great 
for liberty, no sufferings too severe for 
religion, no hardships too extreme to 
win a home for themselves and their 
posterity, where liberty and true relig- 
ion, twin sisters, might dwell together, 
and where the domestic virtues might, 
undisturbed, shine forth with peculiar 
brightness. 

INCORPORATION. 

Up to 1742 the residents of the ter- 
ritory now known as Windham, and 
nearly one third of Salem, had been 
included in the town of Londonderry. 
They were placed at a great disadvan- 
tage. They were seven miles from 
either of the Londonderry churches. 
In order to remedy these difficulties, 
and to secure a more perfect union 
among themselves, forty-seven free- 
holders petitioned to Gov. Kenning 
Wentworth and the General Court for 
the erection of a new parish. The 
act of incorporation was assented to 
by the governor, Feb. 12. 1742. 

By the provisions of the charter 
Robert Dinsmoor, Joseph YVaugh and 
Robert Thompson, were authorized to 
call a meeting of the inhabitants, 
March 8, 1742. 

The sun which rose on the morning 
of February 12, 1742, ushered in a 
new and brighter day to the people. 
That day Windham became a town 
with a legal name, clothed with individ- 
uality, possessing the same rights, en- 
joying the same privileges, and subject 
to the same burdens and responsibili- 
ties of other towns in the province. 
Henceforth the people of this little re- 
public, in their Congress (town-meet- 
ing), where every man was a member, 
and could be heard, were to manage 
their domestic affairs in their own time, 
in their own way, and for their own 
good. 



FIRST TOWN-MEETING. 

The first town-meeting was held 
at 10 o'clock, March S, 1742. Robert 
Dinsmoor's name stands first on the 
list of committee. He probably called 
the meeting to order, and presided until 
the election of Lieut. Samuel Morrison 
as moderator. The latter presided in 
the meeting, and in twenty-nine subse- 
quent gatherings of the freeholders. 
The first officers chosen were Robert 
Dinsmoor, Joseph YVaugh, Robert 
Thompson, Samuel Morrison, William 
Gregg, selectmen ; William Thorn, 
clerk ; Thomas Morrison (ancestor of 
the Morrisons of Peterborough) and 
lohn Dinsmoor were chosen inspectors 
of " dears." 

It was " voted that the selectmen is 
to provide two staves, one for the con- 
stable, and one for the tything-man, 
and a town book." 

In this simple, plain, direct way, 
Windham commenced her career as a 
municipality. Her officers worked 
without pay. 

In March, 1744, the French and 
Indian War commenced, which lasted 
till October, 1748. This town escaped 
the ravages of the merciless foe, but 
she shared in the general alarm, and 
her sons aided in defending other 
towns in the state from the enemy, 
and William Smiley, William Gregg, Jr., 
and William Campbell, were scouting 
as soldiers in the Merrimack valley, in 
July, 1745, and other of our soldiers 
did good service in the war. 

The year 1752 was one of trouble. 
There was contention in their annual 
meeting, — one portion seceded and 
held another meeting, and two boards 
of officers were elected. The pro- 
ceedings of each meeting were de- 
clared illegal by the legislature. A 
new meeting was ordered, the van- 
quished became the victors, and so 
ended the dual government of the 
town. This year is noted as the one 
in which occurred the dismemberment 
of the town, whereby one third of its 
territory was annexed to Salem. 

Windham was so much weakened 
by this dismemberment that it could 



WINDHAM, N. H. 



123 



no longer support its minister, the 
Rev. William Johnston. 

THE LAST FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 

The treaty of peace signed between 
England and France, in October, 1748, 
was of short duration. 

In 1754 hostilities commened anew. 
It was the conflict of differing civiliza- 
tions, and did not cease till the French- 
Catholic supremacy was overthrown in 
Canada — that province subjugated and 
placed under the domination of the 
British government. As an integral 
part of the British empire, this town 
was called upon for sacrifice to con- 
tribute her share for the prosecution 
of the war. So her sons left the de- 
lights of home and fireside for the suf- 
ferings of the march, the duties and 
privations of the camp, and the perils 
of the battle-field. Among her sol- 
diers were Samuel Thompson, William 
Thompson, Hugh Dunlap, Daniel 
Clyde, Hugh Quinton. William Camp- 
bell, Richard Caswell, David Campbell, 
James Mann, Joseph Park, Matthew 
Templeton, James Gilmore. John 
Gregg, Robert Mann, John McConnell, 
John Kinkead, John Morrow, James 
Thompson, Samuel Thompson, Alex- 
ander McCoy, John Stuart. John Dins- 
moor, Robert Speer, Lieut. Samuel 
Morrison, John Morrison, James Dun- 
lap, Samuel Clyde, John McAdams, 
William McKeen, and James Cowan. 

In August, 1757, the French and 
Indians captured Fort William Henry, 
on the north shore of Lake George, in 
New York, and three thousand troops 
surrendered, when an infamous massa- 
cre of troops took place. In a New 
Hampshire regiment of two hundred 
men, eighty were killed. 

Windham's soldiers were there. 
Among them was Thomas Dunlap 
(whose home was on the shore of 
Simpson's pond), who was pursued by 
a savage, who caught him by his queue, 
and was on the point of braining him 
with his tomahawk, when Dunlap 
sprang away, tearing out a large part 
of the hair from his head, and escaped. 
He reached the fort, and was protected 
by the French. 



Some fifty-five different men, or the 
same men at different times, served 
during the course of the seven years' 
war. This was a heavy burden on the 
young settlement, and we can look 
with pride upon this military page of 
our local history, which shines so 
brightly with self-sacrifice, heroism and 
patriotism. 

The conflict drew to a close. Great 
Britain was triumphant, and French 
supremacy ceased upon this continent. 

The world advances, is educated 
and brought to a higher plane through 
conflict, suffering, sacrifice and blood. 

This war had aroused the martial 
spirit of our people, developed their 
manhood, strengthened their determin- 
ation and resolution, and fitted them 
for the greater conflict — the grander 
struggle of the Revolution, which was 
so rapidly approaching. 

In 1770 Windham helped colonize 
Belfast, Me. In that year, and a year 
or two previous, and several succeed- 
ing ones, citizens of this town moved 
to that place. Among the actual set- 
tlers were John Davidson, Dea. John 
Tuffts, Lieut. James and John Gilmore, 
sons of Col. James Gilmore. Among 
the proprietors were Alexander Stuart 
and Robert Mcllvaine. At a later 
date, John Cochran, Joseph Ladd and 
Andrew Wear Park became residents. 
( To be continued.} 



Lancaster, Dec. 30th, 1883. 

Mr. McClintock : 

Dear Sir : — In the November num- 
ber, under head of Portraits for Posterity, 
you have omitted Jnred W. Williams's 
portrait, presented to the state by his 
son, Jared I. Williams, in 1866. Painted 
by Franklin White. Jared W. Williams 
was governor in 1 84 7-8 ; state repre- 
sentative, 1830-31 ; president of sen- 
ate in 1834. In 1837, representative to 
Congress two terms ; and in 1853 filled 
a vacancy in U. S. Senate occasioned by 
the death of Charles G. Atherton. 

Respt. yours, 

JARED I. WILLIAMS. 



I2 4 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



GENEALOGY OF THE LATE HENRY DEARBORN OF 
PITTSTON, ME. 



BY VVM. H. SMITH* 



ki Like leaves on trees the race of man is 
found : 

Now green in youth, now withering on 
the ground ; 

Another race the following spring sup- 
plies ; 

They fall successive and successive rise." 

When I read the death of this aged 
citizen of my native town my mind 
went back fifty years. This seems a 
long period my young reader : to me 
it is like a dream. How the forms of 
the dead pass me as I write. They 
can not be placed on canvass by my 
mental effort, but they are near me in 
my thoughts, for the dear old town is 
precious to me. Its soil covers my 
ancestry, who sleep quietly in the place 
named "God's Acre." He came 
from good Anglo Saxon stock on both 
sides ; his mother had Dearborn blood 
in her veins, and no better can be 
found in any New England family. 
His ancestry is as follows : 

FIRST GENERATION. 

Godfrey Dearborn, born in Exeter, 
county of Devon, England. Immi- 
grated to America and settled in Exe- 
ter, New Hampshire, in 1639. There 
is no record of his first marriage, which 
took place in England, hence we have 
not the name of the mother of his 
children. He was the ancestor of the 
Dearborns in New England, if not in 
the whole country. He married for a 
second wife Dorothy, widow of Philo- 
men Dalton. There was no issue by 
this marriage. He lived in Exeter ten 
years ; then moved to Hampton, N. H. 
He was a prominent man, having 
served as selectman in both towns. 
He died Eebruary 4th, 16S6, leaving 
three sons, Henry, Thomas, and John. 
The subject of this sketch was a de- 
scendant from Henry, the oldest son. 



SECOND GENERATION. 

Henry, born in England in 1633. 
He was six years old when his father 
came with Rev. John Wheelwright to 
Exeter. He lived in that part of 
Hampton that was years afterward set 
oft* to be the town of North Hampton. 
When he removed there it was a wil- 
derness. He was a selectman in 1676 
and 1692. His house was standing in 
1848. He died January iS, 1725. 
His wife was Elizabeth Marrion. He 
married her January 10, 1666. 

THIRD GENERATION. 

Deacon John, son of Henry, born 
in Hampton October 10, 1666; died 
there November 22, 1750; married 
Abigail Bachelder November 4, 16S9. 
She was born December 28, 1667. 
Died November 14, 1 736. They were 
prominent in the church. The lengthy 
inscriptions on their tombstones record 
their virtues. They left four sons and 
six daughters. He was one of the pe- 
titioners for a division of the town, 
which was granted, and North Hamp- 
ton, N. H., was incorporated in 1742. 

FOURTH GENERATION. 

Jonathan, second son of Deacon 
John, born in North Hampton in 1691 ; 
died in Stratham, N. H., December 
29, 1 .7 79. He married Hannah Tucke, 
January 29, 17 15. She was born April 
10, 1697; died June, 1780. Here- 
moved early in life to Stratham, a dis- 
tance of seven miles. It took four 
days to accomplish it. They went 
through Kensington and Exeter by 
marked trees. He was noted for his 
wild pranks and practical jokes. He 
fired off an alarm gun which was kept 
to notify the people of an Indian invar 
sion ; it was answered from station to 
station, and aroused the people from 



HENRY DEARBORN. 



Stratham, N. H., to Salem, . Mass., 
breaking up a court. For this diver- 
sion he was sentenced to be stripped 
and run the gauntlet. But so great 
was his beauty that the women rose 
en masse and demanded his pardon, 
which was granted. He had a brother 
Simon, who was the father of Simon 
who settled in Monmouth, Maine, and 
a brother of Henry, twelfth and young- 
est child of Simon, who settled in that 
part of Pittston now Gardiner. He 
was one of the eminent military men 
of his time. 

FIFTH GENERATION. 

John, son of Jonathan, born in 
Stratham April 2, 17 18; died March 
226, 1807. He married (1) Mary 
Chapman ; (2) Mary Cawley. He 
lived and died on his father's farm in 
Stratham. He had three sons, Jona- 
than, James, and John. The latter 
lived on the homestead after his fa- 
ther's death. 

SIXTH GENE RATI O X . 

Jonathan, oldest son of John and 
Mary Chapman, married Abigail Leav- 
itt and settled in Chester, N. H. I 
have not the dates of their birth, mar- 
riage, or death. His farm was No. 17. 
O. H. In 1759 there was a road laid 
out upon his petition. He was a peti- 
tioner for the act which resulted in the 
incorporation of Raymond, N. H., 
May 8, 1764. At the first town-meet- 
ing he was chosen a highway surveyor. 
He was a soldier with many others of 
the Dearborn family in the war of the 
Revolution. He was in Capt. Runnels' 
company in the regiment commanded 
by Thomas Tasker. He had children. 
First, John, married Mehitable Cram; 
second, Abigail, married Simon Page ; 
third, Jonathan, married Sarah Page ; 
fourth, Nathaniel, married Mary'Crarn ; 
fifth, Sarah, married (1) Nehemiah 
Cram; (2) Josiah Brown; (3) John 
Moody. 

SEVENTH GENERATION. 

Jonathan, third child and second 
son of Jonathan and Abigail, born in 



Ravmond June 4, 1768 ; died in East 
Pittston, Maine, March 6, 1847. He 
married Sarah Page, who was the 
daughter of Robert Page, of Raymond. 
Her mother was Sarah Dearborn, fifth 
child of Simon, and a sister of Gen. 
Henry, the patriot statesman. Robert 
Page was born April 21st, 1732 ; died 
December 31st, 18 16. Sarah Dear- 
born, his wife, born November 25th, 
1735 ; died January 12th, 1821. Sa- 
rah Page, Jonathan's wife, was born 
December 3 1st, 1758 ; died December 
23d, 1 8 29. They left two children, 
Sarah and Henry. 

EIGHTH G EN E RATI ON . 

Henry, second child and only son 
of Jonathan and Sarah, was born in 
Raymond, N. H., February 9th, 1797 ; 
died August 21st, 1SS3. He married 
Pamela Bailey, of Pittston, March 3d, 
1822. She was the daughter of Capt. 
David P. Bailey, who married Mary 
Smith, daughter of Major Henry Smith, 
one of the earliest settlers in Pittston. 
Mrs. Dearborn's parents lived and died 
in the house occupied now by Capt. 
James Bailey, their oldest son. Sarah, 
the oldest child of Jonathan, married 
Jonathan Swain, of Epping, N. H. 
She died July 12th, 1873, an< ^ ^ tNV0 
children. Mary and Sarah. The eldest 
married Dudley L. Harvey, Esq., one 
of Epping's best citizens ; the other is 
unmarried. 

Henry, when a boy, went to Boston 
with his uncle Page, and visited Gen. 
Dearborn. He took quite a fancy to 
him and sent him to an academy in 
Milton, Mass. The General sent his 
carriage for him every Saturday, and 
he spent the Sabbaths under his roof in 
Roxbury. After he had completed 
his education he entered a wholesale 
grocery store, in Boston ; was there but 
a short time. He had a typhoid fever. 
The General sent him to his farm in 
Pittston, when he had fully recovered 
his health. He was started in business 
by the General with Rufus Gay, well 
known to your older readers. He mar- 
ried Mary Marble, a daughter of Dor- 
cas Osgood, who married Isaac Mar- 



126 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



ble for her first husband. Her sec- 
ond was Gen. Dearborn. She was his 
second wife. The firm of Gay & 
Dearborn did business in the store at 
the head of Bradstreet wharf, in Pitts- 
ton. It has been occupied since by 
several parties. John O. P. & Frank- 
lin Stevens traded there when I was a 
boy. Mr. Dearborn lived in the house 
on top of Togus hill. It is a ruin now. 

When Gen. Dearborn died, in 1S29, 
the property changed hands, and the 
firm of Gay & Dearborn was dissolved. 
Mr. Dearborn, not finding an opening 
at East Pittston that he wanted, moved 
to Windsor and went into trade there 
for about nine months. The place 
he had desired at East Pittston 
being for sale, he purchased it and im- 
mediately moved upon it, and lived 
there during the remainder of his life. 
The farm that Gen. Dearborn owned 
in Pittston is now partly occupied by 
Mr. Charles Bradstreet. There stood 
in my childhood a yellow house on the 
site where Mr. Bradstreet's now stands. 
His father, Joseph, died there April 23, 
1835. It was moved to make way for 
the present house on a lot near Capt. 
James Smith's. It was occupied by 
the late Trueworthy Rollins, who mar- 
ried Amanda, daughter of Capt. James 
Smith, of Pittston. Mr. Rollins and 
wife both died in it. It has long since 
been demolished. My impression is 
that it was moved first to the hill near 
Law's cove, and that Mr. Rollins lived 
there before the second removal. 

Rufus Gay, father of Rufus Marble 
Gay, lived in the old yellow house that 
Mr. Charles Bradstreet's father lived 
in. It used to be called the Gay 
house in those days. When Mr. Dear- 
born first went to Pittston, before his 
marriage, he no doubt boarded with this 
family. Gen. Henry Dearborn's son. 
Gen. Henry A. S. Dearborn, George 
R. and Julia C, who married Gen. 
Joshua Wingate, were children of his 
second wife, and Mrs. Rufus Gay, 
mother of Rufus Marble Gay, was a 
half sister to them. 

From my earliest childhood Mr. 
Dearborn's name was connected with 



every thing that makes a true man. 
More than sixty years did he walk 
among the people of the town of his 
adoption, and he has left a name 
worthy to be remembered. Such 
men as he is what has been the glory of 
our country. By the old arm chairs 
of New England mothers, have our 
youth in the past been fitted to main- 
tain those principles that are the 
foundation upon which rests the hope 
of our nation. Mr. Dearborn had not 
long been a resident of Pittston before 
his neighbors and townsmen demand- 
ed his services in conducting their af- 
fairs. Our town-meetings are the 
nurseries of our best legislators, and 
the corner-stone of our democracy. 
Corruption in a town is soon unearthed 
at its meetings. It is in cities that it 
can secrete itself, or stalk with brazen 
front, backed by ring power. The 
honors conferred by a town are sure 
tests of the confidence of the people. 
A man is entrusted with the property 
of his immediate neighbors. 

He was elected town-clerk and a 
member of the board of selectmen at 
the age of twenty-eight. 

He served as a clerk in 1825-26-2 7- 
2S,and selectman in 1825, 1835, 1848 ; 
treasurer in 1 830-1 and 1S34 ; moder- 
ator in 1 8 3 8 ; town representative in 
1 83 1 and 1S38. 

The old residents of that town 
will understand me when I say that 
for nearly thirty years, commencing in 
1825, no town was ever more divided 
by factional quarrels at their March 
meetings than Pittston. For years 
what was known as the Stevens and 
Williamson parties waged a hot war 
upon each other. It can be said with 
truth that Mr. Dearborn possessed the 
entire confidence of the people. He 
came from a family that was devoted 
to the principles of Thomas Jefferson. 
Like his great L T ncle Henry he sup- 
ported John Quincy Adams. 

For this offense Jackson removed 
his mother's cousin from the collector- 
ship of the port of Boston. It was 
an act of which no doubt Gen. Jack- 
son lived to regret, for it was the 



TWAS BUT THE RAIN. 



meanest act of his life, and he was 
not a man to commit a meanness 
often. Mr. Dearborn became an ar- 
dent Whig, and Pittston, under his 
influence, became one of the strong- 
est towns politically, of that party in 
Kennebec, which was a Whig strong- 
hold, noted all through the United 
States. When that party died he be- 
came a Republican, and found him- 
self in a Democratic town. This 
transformation is one of those singular 
events in human affairs that are hard 
to be understood. 

It was my fortune to meet this 
good man last winter and talk over 
the events of " Lang Syne." It had 
been forty-two years since we met. 
He could not recall me, for I had in 
that time from a boy become a man 
with gray hair. He had gone from 
bright and active manhood close to 
the setting sun. It had been a life- 
time since I was resident of his town. 
We went over its history, and it was 
pleasant to see the interest he took in 
all of the movements of the day. I 
looked upon him with reverence, for 
his person would command the high- 
est respect. 

'* The calm of that old reverend brow, 
The glow of its thin, silver locks — 
Was like a flash of sunlight in the pauses 
of a storm." 

He came of a race remarkable for 
its handsome men and women. He 



was, in his prime, one of the best look- 
ing men in Pittston. His ancestry 
had been noted for its longevity. 
The reader will notice the great age of 
his people. " What hast thou that 
thou didst not receive?" saith holy 
writ. 

That Mr. Dearborn's spiritual taber- 
nacle was well completed there can be 
no question. His path increased in 
brightness until the curtain was drawn 
aside and he entered the land of the de- 
parted and took up his abode with all 
lovers of their race — for such only 
love God. 

"Such was our friend, formed on the 

good old plan, — 
A true and brave and downright honest 

man. 

He blew no trumpet in the market-place, 
Nor in the church with hypocritic face, 
Supplied with cant the lack of Christian 
grace. 

Loathing pretense he did With cheerful 
will, 

What others talked of while their hands 

were still : 
And while " Lord, Lord," the pious 

tyrants cried — 
Who in the poor the master crucified — 
His daily prayer, far batter understood 
In acts than words, was simply doing 

good. 

So calm, so constant was his rectitude, 
That by his loss alone we know its 
worth. 

And feel how true a man has walked 
with us on earth." 

— Kennebec Reporter, 



T WAS BUT THE RAIN 



BY ANNA L. LEAR. 



I was dropping into slumber — 
Losing sense of can; and pain — 

When soft fingers without number 
Tapping on the window-pane — 

As it' keeping time to music 
Of a solemn, sweet refrain — 

Soothed me like a sound elysian, 
Tho' 'twas but the autumn rain 
Beating on the roof and pane ! 

Then I seemed to hear the voices 
Of the loved and gone before ; 

And T dropped my " daily crosses," 
As in happy days of yore ! 



When but joy was in night's vision, 
When life's troubles, quickly o'er, 

Passed with night and came no more ; 
And for me no mournful strain 
Sounded in the falling rain. 

"Oh! the lost — the unforgotten — 
In our hearts they perish not ! " 

And the joys on earth begotten 
By their lives, are ne'er forgot ! 

Still in dreams that half are waking, 
Oft to us they speak again, — 

Tho' no sound breaks on the silence 
Save the falling of the rain, 
And its rhythm on the pane ! 



128 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



EARTHQUAKES FROM 1638 TO 1883, IN THE NEW ENGLAND 
STATES AND IN THE BRITISH POSSESSIONS NORTH OF 
. THE UNITED STATES AND EAST OF THE ROCKY MOUN- 
TAINS. 



I continue Mr. Plant's account : 
"January 3, 172S, about nine at night 
an easy clap. Saturday night and day 
five claps. From about six at night to 
four Sunday morning some people said 
it continued for half an hour without 
ceasing, burst upon burst. Upon 
Wednesday, January twenty-fourth, 
about half an hour after nine at night, 
one loud burst, followed in half a min- 
ute by another, much abated. Upon 
Lord's day, January 28th, another easy 
burst, about half after six in the morn- 
ing, another about ten. same morning, 
easy. At the same night, about one 
o'clock, a loud burst. Monday, Janu- 
ary 29th. it was heard twice. Tues- 
day, the thirtieth, about two in the af- 
ternoon, there was a very loud clap 
equal to any but the first for terror, 
shaking our houses so that many peo- 
ple were afraid of their falling down : 
pewter and so forth was shaken off 
dressers at considerable distance. An- 
other shock, much abated, about half 
an hour afterward. February twenty- 
first, about half after twelve at midnight, 
a considerable loud burst. February 
twenty-ninth, about half after one p. m., 
another. Shocks occurred March sev- 
enteenth about three a. m. ; — March 
nineteenth, about forty minutes past 
one P. M.j and at nine the same night ; 
April twenty-eighth, about five p. m. ; 
May twelfth, Sunday morning, about 
forty minutes past nine, a loud and 
long clap ; May seventeenth, Friday, 
about eight p. >i., a long and loud clap ; 
May twenty-second, several claps in 
the morning, and about ten the same 
morning, a very long and loud clap ; 
another, May twenty- fourth, about 
eleven at night ; June sixth about three 
in the morning ; June eleventh at nine 
a. if. ; July third in the forenoon, and 



by. josiah emery, 
[continued.] 

and July twenty-third about break of 
day, a very loud clap." " Besides 
these times I have mentioned," says 
Mr. Plant, " it lias often been heard by 
me, but the noise was small so I for- 
bore to set them down." 

This last seems to have terminated 



Brigha 



the disturbance which began October 
twenty-ninth. The extent of this first 
shock is said to have been from the 
Kennebec to the Delaware, and to 
have been felt by vessels at sea, and in 
the most western settlements. 

I continue the record of earthquakes, 
as kept by Mr. Plant, adopting the ac- 
count sent by him to England, and 
published in the 43d volume of the 
Philosophical Transactions. For this 
I am indebted to the courtesy of Mr. 
i, of Boston. 
March 19, 1728-9, betwixt two and 
three p. m., an earthquake loud and 
long shook our houses, being repeated 
twice in an instant : and this was the 
loudest roaring and the greatest shock 
I ever heard, the first excepted, and 
that on the thirtieth of January. We 
had small shocks in the interim. 

September S. 1 729. about 3.30 p. m., 
it was long and loud. 

September 29, about 4.30 p. m., it 
was loud and long. 

October 29 I heard it twice in the 
night. One of the times was about 
the same time of night the first shock 
(Oct. 29, 1727, at 10.40 p. m.,) was. 

November 14, about eight in the 
morning, loud and long, attended with 
two bursts like unto two sudden claps 
of thunder ; shook our houses. 

November 27, about eight in the 
evening, a very great roaring and a 
great shock. It was heard at Ipswich 
about fourteen miles distant. 
( To be continued.) 



THE 

GRANITE MONTHLY, 

A NEW HAMPSHIRE MAGAZINE 

Devoted to Literature, Biography, History, and State Progress. 

Vol. VH. MAY, 1884. jSTo. 5. 

PROF. LUCIA A HUNT, A. M. 

BY J. N. McCLINTOCK. 



The names Hunt and hound both 
owe their origin to the same word — 
hundy which is a German word signi- 
fying dog, and is, without doubt, a 
name of great antiquity, existing among 
our Saxon ancestors in the woods of 
northern Germany or Jutland long be- 
fore their invasion of England. This 
is proved not only from its being de- 
rived from one of the oldest words of 
one of the oldest nations in Europe, 
but, also, from the wide prevalence of 
the name. The Smiths may be more 
numerous, — though that is doubtful, — 
but not so extensively scattered. 
Wherever the English language is 
spoken, there are found Hunts. In 
ever} 7 state of the Union they turn up, 
— whether among Southerners or North- 
erners, in Louisiana or Maine or Oregon. 
They are not wanting among the gentry 
of England, with armorial blazonry ; or 
among the squatters of Australia; and 
those acquainted with German litera- 
ture know that it is nothing unusual to 
meet the kindred name Hund in al- 
most any branch of their various read- 
ings. 

Another proof that the name is very 
ancient is the fact that the original race 
of Hunts branched off into various 
tribes and families so long ago that all 
trace of relationship between these sep- 
arate branches is lost. 
vii— 7 



But notwithstanding this, however 
separated, whether titled or poverty- 
stricken, it is evident they have all 
sprung from the same original Teutonic 
Hund or hound, long centuries ago, in 
the northern wilds of Europe, or possi- 
bly thousands of years since, before 
their emigration from the highlands of 
Armenia. 

Among the various branches of mod- 
ern days was the "Amesbury Line," so 
called from Amesbury, Mass., whence 
came three brothers and settled in New 
Hampshire. Two of these, Humphrey 
and William, went to Guilford, while 
the third, Philip, senior, removed to 
Sanbornton, into what was afterward 
called the " Hunt Neighborhood," 
about midway between the Square and 
Union Bridge. He had twelve children. 
Of these, the oldest, Philip, junior, re- 
mained on the homestead till his death. 
Eleven children were born to him, of 
whom Anthony Colby, the father of the 
subject of this sketch, was the seventh. 
When only eighteen years of age, he 
married Mary Chase, of Deerfieid, 
N. H., about two months younger than 
himself ; a woman of strong character, 
industrious, careful and conscientious. 
This union lasted above half a century, 
he surviving to the 75 th year of his age, 
and she to the 87th. 

One peculiarity may be noted here 



) 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



as common to the Hunts and Chases 
alike ; namely, an irresistible inclina- 
tion to rove. Hardly one in a hundred 
in the branches we speak of has re- 
mained permanently settled in the 
place where he was born. And this 
accounts in part, perhaps, for the fact, ' 
that generally, though hard workers, 
they have been able to accumulate so 
small a quantity of this world's goods. 
Whether these names originated in the 
far off ages on account of this tendency 
to a nomadic life, we will not attempt 
to decide. At any rate, the members 
of the two races, as represented in the 
family of Anthony C. Hunt, began to 
migrate very soon after their copart- 
nership was formed. After residing in 
Gilnianton, S.mbornton, and the Weirs, 
— a year or two in each, — the family 
with others took up its march in quest 
of a home in the wilds of a neighbor- 
ing state." 

Between two ranges of the Green 
Mountains, in the northern part of Ver- 
mont, lies the romantic town of Wood- 
bury, sparsely settled, hilly, yet with an 
excellent soil wherever the rocks allow 
it to be reached. Near the southern 
border, seme 400 feet in height, rises 
a perpendicular cliff called Nichols' 
Ledge. At its foot, much like the 
Man of the Mountain's Wash Basin, in 
Franconia Notch, only much larger, is 
spread out in circular form, with scal- 
loped shaped shores, one of the pret- 
tiest lakelets in New England. Between 
this and West Hill in Cabot, is a plain 
about a mile in width, on which some- 
what over fifty years ago occurred an 
episode in the towivs history now al- 
most forgotten, but of considerable 
consequence to our narrative. 

To this spot, then covered with 
primeval forest, there emigrated from 
Sanbornton, N. H., and vicinity, about 
the year 1 S 1 5, a colony of from twenty- 
five to thirty persons. There was 
Parker Chase, senior, the patriarch of 
the company, the third in direct de- 
scent from Aquila Chase, one of the 
three brothers who came from England 
to Newbury, Mass., and whose descend- 
ants for the last fifty years have claimed 



that a prodigious sum of money, — called 
the "Chase Property," — amounting to 
many millions, awaits them in England ; 
but the golden glitter of which they 
are probably never destined to see. 
There were with him his sons, — Parker, 
junior, Aaron, Hazen, James, Seth, — t 
mostly adults, married, and blessed 
with large families, — and several grown- 
up daughters, among whom were Mary, 
the wife of Anthony Hunt, who formed 
one of the colony, and her sister Lydia, 
who had married Jacob Nute, also a 
member of the company. There were 
Moses Rollins with his family, and 
others. They were joined also by sev- 
eral native families from other parts of 
that and the adjoining towns, some of 
whom were strange ' specimens of hu- 
manity. There was tough old Collins, 
of great but unknown age, still active 
as a cat, always wearing an exceedingly 
tall, cone-shaped woolen cap, in-doors 
and out ; which, with his harsh voice, 
savage aspect, and the tact that he was 
commonly freighted with a heavy cargo 
of liquor, rendered him a fearful object 
to the children, who always passed his 
door on the run. There were the bare- 
footed Farrs — barefooted all, old and 
young ; Kenistons — and among them 
one named Ben, a thin, weazened, dried- 
up dwarf, with a tremendous nose ; and 
several others, each with some striking 
peculiarity. 

Mr. Hunt at first built a log house, 
in which Lucian was born, a few rods 
south of the big ledge ; and a few 
years later, a framed house, still nearer 
the mountain — the birthplace of his 
daughter Almira. His eldest daugh- 
ter, Sarah, and his eldest son, Lucian, 
who died in his fifth year, before the 
birth of his second son, were both na- 
tives of Sanbornton. 

Their life here was such as was ex- 
perienced by first settlers generally in 
New England. Trees were felled and 
burned on the ground, and from their 
ashes a kind of potash, or salts, as it 
was called, was manufactured. This 
and maple sugar were the principal ex- 
ports, and their backs the only means 
of transportation. Tough old woolen- 



PROF. LUCIAN HUNT, A. M. 



capped Collins kept a whiskey distil- 
ler}', of which, however, it was said he 
was himself the most generous patron- 
izer. Hedgehogs were plenty, and 
during a thunder storm rabbits would 
occasionally rush into the house for 
protection, and bears were sometimes 
unpleasantly familiar. Lucian once had 
the privilege of a distinct view of one 
of large size which was standing on 
the top of the ledge, and which, after 
quietly surveying for some time the 
house and grounds below, passed down 
the nearer side of the hill into the 
woods. He also remembers how the 
family cow broke through the floor of 
the log house (then used as a barn) 
into the cellar, requiring the united 
force of the colony to raise her again 
to upper air. A wide scar on his head 
still forcibly reminds him of a scythe 
which fell from the attic, point down- 
ward, plump into his skull, hardly miss- 
ing, so the doctor said, splitting the 
head in two. Nor does he forget the 
big whipping he received for obstin- 
ately refusing to read the alphabet 
during his first week in school. 

Anthony Hunt was noted in those 
days for gre.it physical strength, and 
through life for almost perfect health, 
he never having been confined a day 
by ill health till his last sickness. Hi's 
stock of books was scanty, of course, 
yet, as the best read man of that region, 
he was selected to deliver the oration 
of a Fourth of July celebration, then 
and for years after famous in the tradi- 
tions of the town. 

The settlement seemed to flourish 
for a time, but what with hard labor, 
few and distant markets, the want of 
the necessaries — to say nothing of the 
luxuries — of life, discouragement crept 
in, and one by one the settlers sought 
other homes, Parker Chase, senior, 
leading off, until Mr. Hunt and family 
were left alone. He struggled man- 
fully a few years longer, but finally 
yielded like the rest and removed to 
Cabot ; whence, after having passed 
seventeen years in Vermont, he re- 
turned to Sanbornton. Thus ended 
the Sanbornton hegira. Not a house, 



no memento, except the old cellars 
scattered over what is now a broad 
pasture, remains to tell of the once 
bustling little New Hampshire colony 
of Woodbury, Vt. 

Lucian Hunt, the subject of this 
sketch, eagerly availed himself of the 
superior advantages for acquiring an 
education afforded by his residence at 
Sanbornton Bridge. Since his earliest 
years he had been an insatiable reader. 
Nothing in the shape of book or news- 
paper came amiss. And his teachers, 
fortunately, were persons who could 
appreciate and give a proper direction 
to this trait of his. He commenced 
the study of Latin under the instruc- 
tion of Rev. Enoch Corser, formerly 
one of the Boanerges of the New 
Hampshire pulpit, who, had he been 
bred a lawyer, instead of confining his 
efforts within the bounds of a small 
country parish, would have made his 
mark in the nation, and as a possible 
Member of Congress, have ranked as 
the peer of Benton, whom he some- 
what resembled : Dix, who was also his 
pupil in Latin : Cass, and others of that 
class. 

Boscawen may well be proud of its 
great men. Indeed, there is a district 
eight or ten miles square, embracing 
the old town of Boscawen and Salis- 
bury, that, we believe, has a right to 
boast of having produced more talent 
than any'other equal extent of territory 
and population in the L nited States. 
There were the Rev. Caleb Burbank ; 
C. C. Coffin, the author ; Rev. N. C. 
Coffin ; several of the Corser family, 
either native or of the Boscawen stock ; 
Hon. Moody Currier ; Governor Dix ; 
Senator Pitt Fessenden ; Nathaniel and 
Charles Greene, journalists ; Henry, 
Jacob and Arthur Little, all d. d.'s ; 
Prof. Shepherd : Master S. C. Stone, of 
the Sherwin School, Boston, an offshoot 
from the Corser stock : Prof. Justin H. 
Smith, one of the five who have ob- 
tained perfect marks in Dartmouth Col- 
lege, and a fine mathematician ; Judge 
Atkinson ; Missionaries French and 
Pinkerton ; President Bartlett, of Dart- 
mouth, and his brother, Rev. Joseph, 



I 3 2 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



not less distinguished for his scholarly 
acquirements ; Hon. Ichabod Bartlett ; 
Judge Wm. H. Bartlett j Joel Eastman ; 
Commissioner Eaton, and Rev. Horace 
Eaton, d. d., (if we may include the 
neighboring town of Sutton) ; and 
Daniel and Ezekiel Webster. The list 
might be greatly extended, had we 
room. 

Mr. Corser for several years had 
charge of the Congregational Church 
at Sanbornton Bridge and Northfield, 
then feeble ; preaching in the Old 
Meeting House at Northfield Centre, 
probably the oldest building in town, 
a spacious structure, whose windowless, 
doorless, fioorless shell yet stands, with 
galleries and pulpit sounding board still 
intact, and timbers as sound as they 
were nearly a hundred years ago. 

Under Mr. Corser's ministrations the 
church grew and prospered, and in 
time the Old Meeting House was ex- 
changed for an elegant edifice at the 
Bridge ; and then, for the first time in 
its existence, what is now Tilton heard 
the sound of the church-going bell. 

During the struggling days of the 
church, Mr. Corser used occasionally 
to take private students in the classics, 
and taught several terms in the Acad- 
emy. 

Under his tuition Lucian com- 
menced the Latin Grammar late in the 
spring and finished Virgil's JEneid dur- 
ing the fall of the same year. This he 
reviewed the following winter while 
teaching his first school. 

To the Rev. Mr. Corser more than 
to any other individual does Mr. Hunt 
consider himself indebted for encour- 
agement and direction in the classics 
— studies for which he has ever since 
cherished an especial fondness. Mr. 
Corser died a few years since, and his 
monument stands in the ancient cem- 
etery of Boscawen, on a rising ground 
overlooking the intervals and placid 
waters of the beautiful Merrimack. 

His son, Prof. S. B. G. Corser, blessed 
with an ample supply of railroad shares 
and a valuable interval faim on the 
Merrimack, still resides at the old 
homestead in Boscawen, intermingling 



farming with literary pursuits. After 
graduating at Dartmouth he engaged 
in teaching for several years, until his 
father's advancing age and the wants 
of the farm requiring his presence, he 
resigned the professor's chair, engaged 
in agriculture, combined the farmer 
and student, and while not neglecting 

? O CD 

his broad acres, pushed forward his 
studies in the modern tongues, and to- 
day stands in the front rank, if not him- 
self the first in linguistic scholarship in 
New Hampshire ; and his literary in- 
fluence, though unobtrusive, has oper- 
ated powerfully upon many a student 
and teacher in the Granite State. A 
similarity of tastes between him and 
Mr. Hunt has produced a similarity of 
studies, and an epistolary correspond- 
ence, which has continued uninterrupt- 
edly for over thirty years ; and the result 
has been the production of several bulky 
volumes of letters, a few of which have 
been published under the pseudonyms 
of Long and Short. This acquaintance 
has been to Mr. Hunt especially val- 
uable as regards his linguistic pursuits. 
Their studies in French and German 
have been nearly identical, and their 
book-shelves perhaps contain a larger 
collection of choice French and Ger- 
man works in the original than any 
other private library in the state. 

Another instructor was Prof. Dyer 
H. Sanborn, rather a famous teacher 
in his time, of no deep scholarship, 
but endowed with a wonderful faculty 
for gathering pupils. During his long 
experience, he had acquired many 
practical and curious ideas in regard 
to teaching, which he dispensed to his 
pupils with a liberal tongue, and by 
which many hundreds of teachers have 
profited. As he advanced in years he 
wearied of the work and retired to a 
small estate in Hopkinton, N. H., 
where in process of time he died at a 
good old age. 

But we must leave this part of our 
subject and hasten to speak of what 
afterward proved to be Mr. Hunt's life 
work. 

He commenced teaching in the Bay 
Hill District, Northfield, at the age of 



PROF. LUCIAN HUNT, A. M. 



*33 



sixteen. In after years he often men- 
tioned the peculiar sensations of shame 
he experienced, when on approaching 
the school-house the first morning, he, 
a mere boy of slight stature, heard the 
startling exclamation from the scholars, 
some of them young men and women, 
" The Master is coming." The honor 
seemed too great. He felt unworthy 
of so grand a title. And never before 
or since has such a sense of profound 
meekness possessed him, as when he 
entered that door and encountered the 
little sea of faces, upturned to his and 
silent as the grave. Doubtless other 
young pedagogues have had a similar 
experience on first assuming the duties 
of their office. 

He taught the school a second win- 
ter, when he had an application to take 
charge of the centre district of the 
same town, then and for many years 
previous considered especially difficult. 
Though warned against the attempt, 
he nevertheless accepted the invitation, 
and taught that school three winters in 
succession with an urgent invitation to 
continue the fourth. The influence of 
those three winters on that humble 
school was by no means small in 
moulding its sixty members into the 
teachers, matrons, professional men 
and substantial formers they afterward 
became, and whose reputation in many 
cases was not confined to their own 
town or state. 

Mr. Hunt next taught at Natick, 
Mass., three winters, and at Kingston, 
one. 

During all this time he was ardently 
prosecuting his studies. He had read 
Latin — his favorite study — far beyond 
the college course ; a suitable amount 
of Greek ; many volumes of French 
and German ; besides most of the 
English branches required by the col- 
lege curriculum. 

He attained to this mostly by his 
own private efforts, without pecuniary 
assistance from any quarter, paying his 
way as he went along, for he always 
had a great horror of debt, unless he 
could readily and surely see the means 
to cancel it, and to the strict observ- 



ance of this rule he attributes much of 
his success financially. His sympathy 
has ever been small for those students 
with energies so feeble that, instead of 
walking firmly and independently 
through their educational course on 
their own personal responsibility, with- 
out recourse to crutches, feel obliged 
to solicit the charity of some benevo- 
lent society or individual, or to discount 
the future by debt which may weigh 
upon them the remainder of their lives. 
When the funds from his winter's 
teaching gave out, he went to Boston 
in the summer and earned enough to 
float him over the rest of the year, so 
that when he was ready for business, 
he was at par with the world, with his 
learning for capital and no debts to 
harass or interest to eat up his earnings. 
This road to an education is longer, 
indeed, as it proved to be in his case, 
but it was sure and safe. He received 
his degree from the Wesleyan Univer- 
sity, Middletown, Conn., in 1863. 

And now had come the time when 
that all-important question to young 
men of even a slight degree of energy 
or ambition must be decided, viz., the 
choice of a life profession. He in- 
clined to the law, but feared it might 
estrange him too much from literary 
pursuits. While in this state of doubt 
he was invited to take charge of the 
Marlow, X. H., Academy. This school 
had become much reduced ; in fact, it 
was now almost without life. The 
prospect was discouraging, and Mr. 
Hunt, with no expectation of any par- 
ticular success beyond placing a very 
few hard earned dollars in his exhausted 
purse, entered upon his first academi- 
cal work. At the start his pupils hardly 
amounted to twenty. The school, 
however, increased rapidly and steadily, 
till, at the close of the second year, it 
numbered above 140 members, mostly 
adults, as a large class of smaller schol- 
ars was necessarily refused admittance 
from the want of accommodations. 
These, if admitted, would have raised 
the total to nearly 200. The third year 
was also one of continued prosperity. 
Such and so rapid a revival of a run- 



134 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



down academy, we believe to be unex- 
ampled in the record of New Hamp- 
shire schools. 

This was partly due to favorable 
circumstances, and still more to Mr. 
Hunt's good fortune in securing excel- 
lent assistants. His preceptress. Miss 
Mary Clough, a native of Canterbury, 
has for many years held a high reputa- 
tion as teacher and artist, both in New 
Hampshire and Massachusetts : while 
the Hon. George C. Hubbard, mathe- 
matical teacher, has since been honored 
with the highest offices of his native 
town, Sullivan, besides serving for sev- 
eral years with credit as a member of 
the Legislature. Above forty teachers 
were sent forth at one time for 
the public schools ; many were mem- 
bers whose names have since become 
prominent at home and abroad, of 
whom we will only mention Judge 
Hardy, Hon. Mr. Hammond, of the 
Executive Department of Government, 
and Sanborn Tenney. afterward pro- 
fessor of Natural History in Williams 
College, who was mostly fitted for col- 
lege at that school. His text books 
are well known. 

This unexpected success and liberal 
addition to his exhausted finances de- 
termined Mr. Hunt's vocation ; and 
the following spring he accepted an 
invitation to the High School of Castine, 
one of the oldest and most romantic 
little seaports on the coast of Maine, 
of which, when the British held pos- 
session, an officer wrote home, " That 
it was the prettiest place out of 
Heaven." Here he remained two 
years, receiving a generous increase of 
'salary the second. 

Having concluded an engagement 
of two 'years in the Standish, Me., 
Academy, he was called to Boston, 
where, after having taught for several 
years, and his health becoming some- 
what impaired, he abandoned the pro- 
fession for a while, with the design of 
engaging in other pursuits. 

During this interval, Mr. Hunt had 
the good fortune to secure for himself 
a wife, a Miss Caroline Higgins, of 
Standish, one of the estimable ladies of 



that part of Maine famed for noble 
women, whose social nature, executive 
ability, kindness, and the happy faculty 
of making the best of everything, have 
procured hosts of friends wherever 
their lot has been cast, and lightened 
the toils and perplexities incident to a 
most laborious profession. 

Recuperated by a two years' rest, 
Mr. Hunt gave up the design of at- 
tempting other employment, and began 
to cast a longing eye again upon the 
familiar work of the school room ; and 
was shortly found to be seated in the 
principal's chair of Powers Institute, 
Bernardston, Mass., where Prof. Dixon, 
the veteran teacher of mathematics in 
the Tilton Seminary, was associated 
with him during the first year. Mr. 
Burroughs, Miss Bullard and Miss Mer- 
rill also rendered efficient support. 
His predecessor had sunk the school 
to less than a dozen pupils. Amid this 
enfeebled state of affairs, the vivifying 
effect of Mr. Hunt's administration was 
soon manifest. Its reputation spread, 
the school grew and became one of 
the prominent educational institutions 
of the Connecticut valley, till, at the 
close of his five years' engagement, he 
could point to nearly 120 members of 
the Institute. Though strongly urged 
by the trustees to continue his engage- 
ment for another five years, he pre- 
ferred to heed a louder call from Fal- 
mouth, Mass. 

Educationally speaking, there existed 
a bad state of affairs at this time in 
Falmouth. The State Superintendent's 
Report on the Public Schools of Mas- 
sachusetts assigned Falmouth a very 
low grade ; her rank being near the bot- 
tom of the list. Lawrence Academy was 
in a still more deplorable condition. 
But one contracted, ill-shaped room 
was used for school purposes ; the 
others being filled with lumber, broken 
desks, debris and dirt. This room was 
heated by an insignificant sheet-iron 
stove, which stood awry, with more 
dints and holes in it than an old toper's 
dilapidated hat could boast of. Cheap 
teachers were employed, few repairs 
made, and the surplus under the name 



PROF. LUCIAN HUNT, A. M. 



1 3S 



of rent was divided among the owners 
of the building. At one time $1200 
were thus divided, — a sum probably 
greater than the whole worth of the 
building at that time. 

Mr. Hunt's policy in opposition to 
this state of affairs was warmly ap- 
proved by a majority of the citizens 
and trustees, and especially by the 
president of the board. A change was 
soon perceptible in the old Academy ; 
in fact, a revolution. Improvements 
were made in the building, both as re- 
gards convenience and beauty. A 
course of study was established, assist- 
ants employed, and other means taken 
to place Lawrence Academy on a level 
with similar institutions in other parts 
of the state : and with what success is 
evidenced, by its growing reputation, 
its graduates, and the increased inter- 
est in educational matters evoked 
throughout the town. Prof. Hunt was 
the means of introducing some excel- 
lent teachers there, and on giving up 
his charge after a twelve years' admin- 
istration, had the satisfaction of leaving 
it in the hands of a former pupil of his, 
who, he believes, will render it efficient 
service and carry the school to a still 
higher plane of excellence. 

Of his residence here Prof. Hunt 
retains some of his pleasantest memo- 
ries. He has . been heard repeatedly 
to say, "that nowhere in his wanderings 
has he met with warmer friends among 
people and pupils, more reliable sup- 
porters, pleasanter school classes, nor 
resided in a lovelier spot than in the 
good old town of Falmouth down by 
the sea." 

Yielding to the urgent request of the 
trustees of McCollom Institute, Mont 
Vernon, N. H., Prof. Hunt took charge 
of their Institution, which, after pursu- 
ing his vocation two years longer, he 
recently resigned, in order to carry out 
a purpose of his formed many years 
ago, to devote what might be left of 
his life to literary pursuits. 

He is a Trustee of McCollom Insti- 
tute, and of the New Hampshire Con- 
ference Seminary, at Tilton. In 1880 
he delivered an Historical Address at 



the Northfield Centennial, which was 
published in the October number of 
this Monthly ; since which he has been 
invited by the authorities of the town 
to prepare a History of Northfield. 

Prof. Hunt furnishes a good example 
of the successful teacher, student and 
financier combined. As a teacher he 
has devoted himself to his chosen call- 
ing with zeal from boyhood, during a 
period of thirty-two years, — till past 
middle age, — while his love of books 
and his wish to stand well before his 
classes have made him emphatically a 
student as well as teacher. His favor- 
ite studies have been the ancient and 
modern languages, especially the Latin, 
French and German ; ancient and 
modern history • and English Litera- 
ture. 

Another branch of teaching of first 
importance in which Prof. Hunt is 
proficient, ought not to be parsed by 
in silence, namely, the Art of Reading, 
or Elocution. In teaching this he 
probably has no superior in the state. 
He has also been frequently called 
upon to give public readings, in which 
he has uniformly won a favorable ver- 
dict. 

And now, after having wielded the 
pedagogue's sceptre for about a third 
of a century, still blessed with good 
health, with a sufficiency of this world's 
goods, and possessing one of the most 
valuable private libraries in New Hamp- 
shire, containing nearly 3000 volumes 
of well selected works, and among 
them several hundred in the French 
and German languages, he proposes 
to realize his long cherished design, to 
retire and pass the remainder of his 
days in rural employments and the 
companionship of his books, whither he 
and his estimable wife will be accom- 
panied by the good will of their friends, 
and the thousands in Maine, New- 
Hampshire and Massachusetts who 
have profited by his instructions, and 
the wish that blessed with the smiles 
of a kind Providence long years may 
yet be granted them in their pleasant 
retirement. 



136 THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



THE PHILOSOPHY OF EXPRESSION. 



BY PROF. E. D. SANBORN, LL. D. 



[CONCLUDED.] 



Guilt will give a new expression 
to the countenance. Says Ovid : 

" Heu quam difficile est crimen non 

prodere vultu," 
" How in the look does conscious guilt 

appear." 

The stealthy tread, the furtive glance, 
the downcast look, all speak the lan- 
guage of the first transgressor, " I 
heard thy voice, and I was afraid." 
They reveal at once the supremacy of 
conscience and the identity of human 
nature, throughout the race. " It is 
peculiar to man," says Tacitus, " to 
hate one whom he has injured ;" 
hence it is that conscious guilt always 
seeks concealment. 

Fanaticism, also, is accompanied by 
peculiar external signs. It is the same 
in the Hindu Fakir, the Mohammedan 
dervish, and the modern come-outer. 
An English author of high repute 
thus describes a young fanatic : 

" Look at that grave and abstracted 
countenance, pallid and somewhat 
fallen from the salient outline that 
should bespeak his actual years. What 
intensity in the glare of that sunken 
eye ! what fixedness of purpose in the 
lips ! and the movements of the youth 
.seejTi inspired with some intention be- 
yond simple locomotion or mechani- 
cal agency ; as he walks, one would 
think that he was hastening onward 
by the side of an invisible competitor 
for a prize at the goal. Hear him 
.speak : he is terse and precise ; his 
tones, too, have a certain mystic mo- 
notony in place of the natural modula- 
tions of a voice so young. But listen 
"to his opinions ; how vehement are 
they j how darkly colored his repre- 
sentations of simple facts ; exaggera- 
tion swells every sentence, and how 
far from youthful are his surmises ; 
and his verdicts how inexorable ! not 



a look, not a word, not an action of 
his belongs to the level of ordinary 
sympathies. All is profound as the 
abyss or lofty as the clouds." 

Such characters are not peculiar to 
any age. They abound in our own day. 
Their aim is to come out from every- 
thing old and go into everything new. 
Had they lived in the days of the 
Inquisition, they would have been the 
fiercest of conservatives, kindling the 
fires of persecution and torturing here- 
tics. Under different influences, they 
become destructives. Their creed is 
embodied in a single stanza of Cole- 
ridge : 

" Of old things, all are over old, 

Of new things, none are new enough ; 

We'll show them we can help to frame 
A world of other stuff." 

It is recorded of the celebrated 
painter Lionardo da Vinci, that, hav- 
ing incurred the displeasure of the 
Duke of Milan, by destroying a por- 
trait of the monarch which he had 
just executed, he was required, on 
penalty of death, to complete a pic- 
ture for the refectory of the Domin- 
ican cloister, in one year. The com- 
pliance with this requisition was the 
condition of his pardon by the Duke. 
There was one Dominican friar, a con- 
stant attendant of the monarch, who 
hated the painter and rejoiced in his 
misfortunes. His malice was too deep 
and bitter for concealment. "Though 
his words dropped honey, the honey 
was mingled with gall. His dark, 
malicious eyes looked slyly out from 
overhanging brows ; his forehead was 
knit into a thousand wrinkles, and his 
scornful mouth covered with a bristly 
red beard ; his nose hooked over his 
frightful mouth like the beak of some 
obscene bird ; in short, his whole ap- 
pearance inspired disgust and detesta- 



THE PHILOSOPHY OF EXPRESSION. 



137 



tion." He bad in him the spirit of a 
Shylock and his whole exterior would 
correspond to our ideal of that mon- 
ster of villainy. The subject chosen 
by Lionardo was the Last Supper of 
our Lord with his Disciples. On the 
last night of the year the head of Ju- 
das remained unfinished. The paint- 
er's imagination had failed to create a 
satisfactory ideal of the traitor. The 
Dominican saw his perplexity and re- 
joiced at it. With affected good hu- 
mor, he said, " Come, lend me the 
brush : to-morrow is the day : I will 
furnish thee with a head, and perhaps 
it may save thy own." Fastening 
upon him a searching glance, with a 
flashing expression of conscious power 
and triumph, he exclaimed : " Ha ! 
I thank thee for this last offer ; thou 
hast inspired me." He hastened to 
the refectory and completed the head 
of Judas at a sitting. On the next 
day, when the painting was exhibited, 
all eyes turned upon the Dominican, 
then to the picture of Judas. Sud- 
denly they cried, with one voice, " It 
is he ! It is he !" The brother 
monks of the cloister, who detested 
the prior, repeated, — " Yes, it is he, — 
the Judas Iscariot, that betrayed his 
Master." " The Dominican hastily 
withdrew from the crowd, pale with 
rage, with the emotions of a demon, 
quelled by the radiant power of an 
angel's divinity." 

Civilization and refinement, by ban- 
ishing the fiercer passions from society, 

( "grave virus 

Munditise pepulere/'J 

are great improvers of personal charms. 
Moral and physical beauty springs 
from one origin — a pure heart and an 
enlightened head, if occupied with 
manual and mental labor. As the 
savage advances in intelligence his 
countenance becomes more animated 
and his features lose their repulsive 
cast. In the late slave population of 
our own country, and among the ne- 
groes of the "West Indies, after a few 
generations succeded the native Afri- 
cans, the countenance and features 



lost their original form and expression, 
and approached the European type. 
As they became more intelligent, 
they became more manly. Exercise 
developes both the mind and body 
and produces a harmony between 
them. The old Greeks obtained their 
symmetrical forms and unrivalled 
beauty of person by their athletic 
training in the gymnasia. Their minds 
were strengthened by early discipline 
in the national schools and by the 
daily discussion of all political and 
legal measures, by the citizens in 
their public assemblies. Beauty of 
form is everywhere dependent on cul- 
ture. The reverse is also true. Ig- 
norance and want will degrade the 
civilized man to a level with the brute. 
" In Europe, at this day, there are 
whole classes of men and women 
whose organization is changing, whose 
whole form, features, countenance, and 
expression are so debased and bruti- 
fied by want and fear, ignorance and 
superstition, that the naturalist would 
almost doubt where, among living 
races of animals, to class them." "The 
descendants of the Irish rebels who 
were driven into the mountains in 
1641 and 1689," says Dr. Pritchard, 
" where they have been exposed to the 
worst effects of hunger and ignorance, 
the two great brutalizers of the human 
race, are now remarkably distinguished 
from their kindred in Meath and other 
districts, where they are not in a state 
of physical degradation. They are 
remarkable for projecting mouths, 
with prominent teeth and exposed 
gums ; their advancing cheek bones 
and depressed noses bear barbarism 
in their very front. In Sligo and the 
Northern Mayo, the consequences of 
two centuries of degradation and 
hardship exhibit themselves in the 
whole physical condition of the peo- 
ple, affecting not only the features but 
the frame, and giving such an exam- 
ple of human deterioration, from 
known causes, as almost compensates, 
by its value to future ages, for the suf- 
fering and debasement which past 
generations have endured, in perfect- 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



ing its appalling lesson. Five feet two 
inches, upon an average, in height, 
with large abdominal development, 
bow-legged, abortively featured, these 
spectres of a people that were once 
well-grown, able-bodied and comely, 
stalk abroad into the daylight of civil- 
ization, the animal apparitions of 
(Irish) ugliness and (Irish) want." 
These misshapen specimens of hu- 
manity come of kindred stock with 
O'Connell, Moore, Goldsmith, Burke, 
and Wellington ; and could they re- 
ceive that care which Christian charity 
imparts, and that culture which Chris- 
tian education gives, their children 
might, in a few generations, exibit the 
true type of the Irish orator. O'Con- 
nell is thus described by an English 
critic : " He had a presence, which 
from its breadth, height, and com- 
mand, might be called majestic. He 
had a head of ample compass and an 
eye of subtlest meaning, with caution, 
acuteness, cajolery, and craft mingling 
in its ray. The subtlety of his eye 
was that of a Northern despot, and 
his high stature, dignified carriage, and 
massive brow all seemed to bear this 
inscription, — ' This man was made to 
reign.' " The old Irish stock sends 
forth such scions when its roots are 
properly nurtured. Other men of 
like stamina would be found upon the 
same soil, if the natives were taken 
from their mud cabins, their innutri- 
cious diet, and companionship with 
brutes, and subjected to a thorough 
Christian education. The national 
type of the Irish face is round. The 
classic models are oval. Shakespeare 
makes Cleopatra inquire of the Ro- 
man legate whether the face of Oc- 
tavia, her rival, were round or long. 
The legate replies : " Round even to 
faultiness." The queen retorts : " For 
the most part, they are foolish that are 
so." This may have been an English 
prejudice imbibed by the poet. A 
traveller, speaking of the inhabitants of 
the penal colonies in Australia, says : 
" There are faces constantly occurring 
which it made one shudder to look 
at, they seemed so marked with hered- 



itary and irreclaimable qualities. The 
moral taint seemed to be in the blood 
and the expression, the wearing to the 
surface of whole generations of crimi- 
nal education and habits. The hard 
cheek bones, the gray, retreating, un- 
steady eyes, low foreheads, and inde- 
scribably cold and livid skin, — the en- 
semble was, in many instances, the 
most repulsive I ever saw. It spoke 
not so much of ungoverned passions 
and deficient sentiment, as of entire 
moral perversion, — of minds possessed 
by devils incarnate." 

But we have dwelt long enough, 
perhaps, upon the gloomy shades of 
the human countenance ; let us look 
at some of its softer tints. The poetry 
of love has made every feature of the 
face eloquent of various emotions. 
Though love may be blind, experience 
is not ; and, when affection and phi- 
losophy harmonize, we may rest with 
comparative safety upon the verdict 
which is made up from their united 
testimony. We now introduce a pic- 
ture from real life : 

" One was a noble being, with a brow 
Ample and pure, and on it her black hair 
AVas parted, like a raven's wing on snow. 
Her tone was low and sweet, and in her 
smile 

You read intense, affection. Her moist 
eye 

Had a most rare benignity; her mouth 
Bland and unshadowed sweetness, and 
her face 

Was full of that mild dignity that gives 
A holiness to woman. She was one 
Whose virtues blossom daily, and pour 
. out 

A fragrance upon all who in her path 
Have a blest fellowship." 

This is no fancy sketch. The graces 
of youth, that so fascinated the poet, 
still sit enthroned upon the same no- 
ble brow, and render the dignified 
matron " The cynosure of all eyes." 
The qualities here eulogized are the 
same which Milton assigns to his 
ideal of the mother of all living: 
" Where Adam is introduced describ- 
ing Eve, in Paradise, he does not 
represent her shape or features, but by 
the lustre of her mind which shone 



THE PHILOSOPHY OF EXPRESSION. 



x 39 



in them, and gave them power of 
charming." 

« Grace was in her steps, heaven in her 
eye, 

In all her gestures, dignity and love." 

Without this irradiating power the 
most perfect symmetry of form, the 
most faultless regularity of features, 
and the most delicate tints of com- 
plexion are like the beautiful shadings 
of a picture, uninformed and dead. I 
will illustrate this remark by a brief 
quotation from Campbell : 

" For with affections warm, intense, re- 
fined, 

She mixed such calm and holy strength 
of mind, 

That, like Heaven's image in a smiling 
brook, 

Celestial peace was pictur'd in her look. 
Her's was the brow, in trials unperplexed, 
That cheered the sad and tranquilized 

the vexed : 
She studied not the meanest to eclipse ; 
And yet the wisest listened to her lips ; 
She sung not, knew not music's magic 

skill, 

But yet her voice had tones that swayed 
the will." 

In the language of science as well 
as of love, the eye has ever been re- 
garded as the index of the soul ; 
though, it must be admitted, that a 
handsome eye, like charity, often covers 
a multitude of sins. There is no pas- 
sion which is not expressed by it. 
Now it is radiant with joy ; now 
shaded with sorrow. Now it assumes 
the fierce stare of defiance, now the 
steady gaze of intense affection. In 
one person : 

" Like the Jewish oracle of gems, it 
sparkles information ;" 

In another, it wears the lackdustre 
hue of idiocy. Each emotion has its 
appropriate sign ; each passion its in- 
telligible language, in the eye. A 
single glance will, sometimes, admin- 
ister more touching reproof, and ex- 
cite more distressing terror, than the 
strongest spoken language. When the 
apostle Peter, in a paroxysm of rage, 
was denying his Master, with oaths 
and imprecations, it is recorded that 



" the Lord tinned and looked upon 
Peter and by that look he was hum- 
bled and subdued, so that " he went 
out and wept bitterly." 

Josephine said of Bonaparte, that, 
in times of high excitement, there 
was something terrible in his eye. 
Csesar could awe a Roman senate by 
a look or the tap of his finger. Taci- 
tus says of Domitian, that the expres- 
sion of his eye was so terrible that 
paleness overspread every counte- 
nance upon which he fixed his scru- 
tiny, and that the stoutest heart would 
quail before his steady gaze. The 
eye also has its melting as well as 
chilling moods. It can warm with 
love as well as freeze with horror. 
Amorous poets, from Anacreon to 
Tom. Moore, have regarded the eye 
as the very armory of Cupid. "Ocuti 
sunt in amove duces," says Propertius. 
The Teian bard, more than two thou- 
sand years ago, addressing the artist 
whom he had invoked to paint his fair 
inamorata, says : 

" But hast thou any sparkles warm 
The lightening of her eyes to form V 
Let them effuse the azure ray 
With which Minerva's glances play, 
And give them all that liquid fire 
That Venus's languid eyes inspire." 

Even Homer, in the stately march 
of the lofty Epic, was not indifferent 
to the form, color, and expression of 
the eyes, in those celestial beings 
whom he introduces. He seldom 
mentions a goddess without an epithet 
descriptive of her eyes. In Juno, he 
seems to think only of the majesty of 
the queen of heaven. He applies to 
her an epithet descriptive of size. He 
ascribes to Venus 

"Persuasive speech, and more persua- 
sive sighs, 

Silence that spoke, and eloquence of 
eyes." 

The calm wisdom of Minerva beamed 
from azure eyes. Poets, I believe, 
have been fond of associating sweet- 
ness of temper with blue eyes. At 
least, so did Tom Moore : 



140 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



" The brilliant black eye 
May, in triumph, let fly 
All its darts, "without caring who feels 
'em ; 

But the soft eye of blue, 
Though it scatters wounds, too, 
Is much better pleas'd when it heals 
'em." 

Such a distinction, if it exist, can ap- 
ply only to Northern nations, where 
the eye has various hues. Southern 
nations, generally, have black eyes. 
The whole German race, according to 
Tacitus, once were characterized by 
blue eyes and red hair. The classic 
and poetic color of the hair, for the 
highest style of beauty, is auburn or 
golden. Dark tresses are also cele- 
brated by ancient bards. Sir John 
Mennis, in his rules for the choice of 
a wife, says : 

" The hair of her head, it must not be 
red, 

But fair and brown as a berry ; 
Her forehead high, with a crystal eye, 
Her lips as red as a cherry." 

But the color of the eyes and hair are 
intimately associated with temperament. 
We hear much of the humor of men ; 
of their temper or ruling passion. 
"All mental propensities or disposi- 
tions," says Dr. Good, " may be ar- 
ranged under five general heads, each 
of which constitutes a temperament, 
and is distinguished by a correspond- 
ing effect produced on the corporeal 
organs and the external features and 
figure. So that the mind and body 
maintain, for the most part, a mutual 
harmony, and the powers of the one, 
in a general view, become a tolerably 
fair index of the other." 

To these temperaments, physiolo- 
gists assign the following descriptive 
names : The sanguineous, bilious, mel- 
ancholic, phlegmatic, and nervous. 
Each of these is marked by peculiar 
external characteristics and internal 
qualities. The sanguineous tempera- 
ment is characterized by a free and 
energetic circulation of the blood, — 
tense pulse, a well-developed and firm 
muscular system, blonde complexion, 
blue eyes, and light hair. The moral 



and intellectual traits correspond with 
the vigorous and healthy constitution 
described. The perception is quick ; 
the memory tenacious ; and the feel- 
ings impulsive. This temperament is 
also supposed to be marked by great 
sprightliness and vivacity, a glowing 
imagination, and a passionate disposi- 
tion. It is frequently accompanied 
with great muscular power and strong 
athletic tendencies. Such men are 
good for the onset but become impa- 
tient of delays. They act rather from 
ardent feeling than mature judgment. 
In the bilious temperament, the liver 
and biliary organs are supposed to be 
excessively active. " The bodily con- 
formation is represented as rigid and 
spare rather than full and largely de- 
veloped." Excess of bile gives to the 
skin a brown or yellowish tinge. Its 
texture is harsh and dry. Such per- 
sons usually have black or brown hair, 
firm and rigid muscles, and great im- 
petuosity of temper. "Among its most 
admitted traits," says Dr. Mayo, " I 
should enumerate a gloomy but active 
imagination, a jealous, distrustful and 
unsatisfied disposition, and an anxiously 
reflective cast of thought." To this 
class are referred the world's heroes, 
who have striven for universal domin- 
ion and waded through blood to a 
throne. The iron frame and the inflex- 
ible will are concomitants. " Cependant 
sans cette maudite bile, on ?ie gagne pas 
des grandes batailks" said Bonaparte. 
I doubt if a hero or orator of great 
renown can be named who possessed 
a plump, round, jolly face, a plethoric 
habit, with blue eyes and flaxen or 
auburn hair. Men of unquestioned 
celebrity no doubt may be found with 
mixed temperaments, but the bilious 
frequently, perhaps generally, predom- 
inates in men of great executive energy 
and perseverance. It was this trait 
which obliterated the word "impossible" 
from the vocabulary of Napoleon. 
From the days of Nimrod to General 
Jackson and the Iron Duke, earth's 
mightiest heroes have possessed tense 
and rigid muscles, dark, coarse hair, 
the dingy complexion and strongly 



THE PHILOSOPHY OF EXPRESSION. 



141 



marked features which belong to the 
genuine bilious temperament. In such 
persons, however, there has generally 
been found a union of the sanguineous 
with the bilious. If that vital energy 
and impulsive force which the activity 
of the system of blood vessels pro- 
duces, be wholly wanting, the bilious 
temperament is apt to^ Regenerate 
into the melancholic. " The skin 
then assumes a deeper tinge, the 
countenance appears sallow and sad, 
and the disposition becomes habitually 
gloomy and suspicious." Such a dia- 
thesis of body is rather morbid than 
healthy. Tiberius Caesar, that lump of 
clay kneaded up with blood, as he is 
portrayed by the matchless pen of 
Tacitus, seems referable to this class of 
subjects. He was dark, designing, 
suspicious, and constantly malevolent. 
No ray of kindness or cheerfulness 
ever beamed from his clouded brow. 
A more ill-natured, unamiable human 
being never walked the earth. Melan- 
choly is near allied to madness, and 
the "blues" sometimes prove to be 
real demons. In the phlegmatic tem- 
perament, the proportion of fluids is 
too great for the solids in the system. 
It is thus described by an eminent 
physiologist : " The fleshy parts are 
soft, the skin fair, the hair flaxen or 
sandy, the pulse weak and slow ; the 
figure plump but without expression, 
all the vital actions more or less lan- 
guid ; the memory little tenacious, the 
attention wavering ; accompanied by 
an insupportable desire of indolence 
and aversion to both mental and cor- 
poreal exertion." Such men are re- 
markable for their masterly inactivity. 
Sancho.Panza was a true type of this 
fraternity, who exclaimed : "Blessed be 
the man who first invented sleep. It 
covers a man all over like a cloak." 
Of the same character was the English- 
man, who was called by mistake at day- 
break to take the early train. When 
the servant dinned his drowsy ears with 
the message, "Day is breakings sir," 
he exclaimed, "let it break, it owes me 
nothing." Solomon often alludes to 
such persons under the denomination 



of "the sluggard," who cries : "A little 
more sleep, a little more slumber, and 
a little more folding of the hands to 
sleep ; who will not plow by reason of 
the cold, and therefore begs in harvest 
and has nothing ; whose field is all 
grown over with thorns, and the stone 
wall thereof is broken down." It seems 
almost like a contagious disease among 
the young of our day. Boys just 
ripening into manhood are peculiarly 
subject to it. ''Neighbor Jones," said 
a nervous old gentleman, who observed 
too many rests in the music of the flails 
in his barn, " is not your son John 
afraid of work?" "Afraid of work ! " 
replied Mr. Jones ; " no indeed, he 
will lie down and sleep by it all day, 
without any sign of fear." The nervous 
temperament is almost precisely the 
reverse of the phlegmatic. Its external 
signs are fine, thin hair, delicate health, 
smallness, of muscles and vivacity of 
feelings, manifested by the rapid and 
sudden motion of the limbs. It is al- 
most always accompanied with a mor- 
bid condition of the subject, and per- 
haps is in part the result of chronic 
disease. It often produces great irrita- 
bility of body and mind because their 
harmony is interrupted by continued 
ill health. " The mind banquets and 
the body pines." Such men, like 
Cassius, "have a lean and hungry look. 
They think too much." It is not im- 
probable that this diathesis of the 
physical constitution is often induced 
by severe mental labor or by excessive 
anxiety about worldly affairs. Some of 
the greatest minds ever known have 
been tenants of the most crazy, shat- 
tered and frail mortal tenements that 
were ever animated with the breath of 
life* 



♦Note. — It is a curious fact, that a large 
majority of distinguished men, whether in 
the field, the cabinet, the forum, or in 
the illimitable arena of arts and sciences, 
have been undersized; few there have 
been of lofty stature. \\ ho can account 
for this, but on the hypothesis that they 
were perfect copies, even to the physique 
of the mother nature. A Teuton was 
asked how he came to have so feminine 



142 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



Such were Pope and Cowper among 
the poets ; Richard Baxter, Dr. Chan- 
ning, and our own Professor Stuart, 
among divines ; Aristotle, Kant, and 
Lord Jeffrey, among metaphysicians. 
When Jeffrey was appointed judge, S. 
Smith said : " His robes will cost him 
little. One buck rabbit will clothe 
him to the heels." A distinguished 
traveller, speaking of Kant, says : 
" Leaner, nay, drier, than his small 
body, none probably ever existed, and 
no sage ever passed his life in a more 
tranquil and absorbed manner. A 
high, serene forehead, a fine nose, a 
clear, bright eye, distinguished his 
face advantageously." Tradition has 
given a similar organization to the 
apostle Paul. But from his abundant 
labors, perils, and sufferings, we should 
infer that he must have possessed a 
more vigorous constitution. " Dr. 
Channing possessed a diminutive fig- 
ure, with a pale, attenuated face, eves 
of spiritual brightness, an expansive 
and calm brow, and movements of 
nervous alacrity." 

This temperament, with a mixture 
of the bilious, shows itself in the cyn- 
ic, the satirist, and the railer. Dean 
Swift and Voltaire were eminent in- 
stances of the most caustic and ma- 
lignant tempers. In the countenance 
of Voltaire, it is said, there was a mix- 
ture of the eagle and the monkey, 
and in his character he united the 
boldness of the one with the malice 
of the other. The muddy counte- 



a face ? "Because mine moder was a 
woman," responded honest Hans. If we 
examine the early histories of eminent 
men, we find that they m arly all received 
their early training from woman ; we 
shall find that the subtle essence that 
thrilled into life their dormant powers, 
emanated from the soul of woman — 
mother or instructor. St. Chrysostom, 
St. Augustin, Louis IX of France, and 
the WesJeys, are brilliant specimens of 
the mother's training. In the eyes of 
woman depredators, it must appear an 
odd freak to constitute women the brain- 
moulders of monarchs and statesmen; 
such, nevertheless was frequently the 
case. — The Knickerbocker. 



nance of Swift seldom relaxed. Be- 
neath the face of a Sphynx he wore 
the spirit of a Mephistopheles. Dr. 
Young wrote the following pithy epi- 
gram on Voltaire : 

'• Thou art so witty, profligate, and thin. 
At once we think thee Milton, death, 
and sin." 

Sterne was of a similar habit of mind 
and body. He was tall, thin, and 
pale. His countenance was emi- 
nently indicative of mirth and wit. 
with a very manifest and painful ex- 
pression of mischief mingled with his 
fun. He was undoubtedly an unprin- 
cipled humorist. Now it is evident 
that the soul and body are so inti- 
mately associated that the condition 
of one materially affects the other. 
The health and growth of both are 
modified by the same causes. Some- 
times a noble physical organization 
stimulates the mind to greater activity. 
Hazlett, the critic, supposed that trie 
celebrated preacher, Edward Irving, 
was first inspired to enact the orator 
by his consciousness of superior mus- 
cular power, and by the admiration 
which his handsome and majestic per- 
son called forth in strangers. Such 
feelings have often excited a love 
of military parades and called 
forth the highest bravery upon the 
battle-rleld. That great warrior, the 
Duke of Marlborough, possessed un- 
rivalled beauty of person and majesty 
of form. He is represented, in his 
old age, as standing before a full- 
length portrait of himself, and ex- 
claiming, with conscious pride : "That 
was a man." 

We all instinctively estimate char- 
acter by external signs. Every fea- 
ture of the body, and every motion 
of its limbs, has its appropriate lan- 
guage. If I were to describe to you 
only the color and texture of the hair 
of two persons of different tempera- 
ments, you would at once form some 
notion of their respective traits of 
character. Suppose I were to repre- 
sent the one as having dark, grizzly 
hair, course and wiry in its texture ; 



THE PHILOSOPHY OF EXPRESSION. 



143 



the other as having light and thin hair, 
soft and silky to the touch, would you 
for one moment suppose that the two 
persons would think and act alike? 
Or if I were to describe to you the 
leaden, downcast eye, the gross, inex- 
pressive face and stupid look of the 
phlegmatic temperament, in contrast 
with the penetrating, fiery eye, the 
rigid, contracted muscles and deter- 
mined look of the choleric man, could 
you possibly confound the moral and 
intellectual traits of the two persons 
portrayed? If the historian should 
represent the traitor, Catiline, with a 
fair complexion, a placid countenance, 
azure eyes and golden locks, you 
would at once cry out, "How strange !" 
I always imagined that he had a dark 
and scowling face, overshadowed with 
beetling brows and raven locks. Sal- 
lust remarks that the face of the trai- 
tor, when dead, still retained the feroc- 
ity which characterized his mind while 
living. If a painter were to represent 
Lady Macbeth as a little, plump, red- 
faced, bustling body, with blue eyes 
and light complexion, all the world 
would chide him for his folly ; and 
why? Simply because such features 
and looks are never associated with 
the bloody drama which Lady Mac- 
beth caused to be enacted. Such 
a woman might be as wicked, but her 
wickedness would hardly be displayed 
in the same way. The whole soul of 
Lady Macbeth is revealed in her ad- 
dress to her husband : 

li Your face, my thane, is as a book, 

where men 
May read strange matters: — To beguile 

the time, 

Look like the time ; bear welcome in 
your eye, 

Your hand, your tongue : look like inno- 
cent flower 
But be the serpent under it." 

We see, therefore, that looks are 
often counterfeited ; hence, they are 
not a true test of inward purposes and 
dispositions. There are remarkable 
exceptions, too, to the natural language 
of the face and features. An ugly 
face is no sure evidence of villainy, 



unless the habitual indulgence of evil 
passions has given a corresponding 
sinister expression to the countenance, 
thereby manifesting, by the fixed post- 
ure of the muscles, the favorite in- 
clinations of the mind. The sage 
Yalesius, in his " Sacred Philosophy," 
proposed to introduce the science of 
physiognomy into courts of law. 
" When two persons, accused of 
crime," he says, " are brought before 
a judge, let him unhesitatingly select 
the most ill-favored of them and put 
him to the torture." This is the lan- 
guage of an enthusiast. It is like 
what we frequently hear from phrenol- 
ogists, who profess to determine accu- 
rately a person's character from the 
head. A man will often pay an itine- 
rant lecturer a dollar for a graduated 
chart of his intellectual and moral 
powers, and retire very much elated 
with the discovery of virtues and ca- 
pacities before hidden even to his 
inmost consciousness ; when his wife 
or child or nearest neighbor, could 
(if consulted) have given a far more 
accurate map of the same " unknown 
interior." Such sciences, if they may 
be dignified with that high-sounding 
title, are to be treated like Egyptian 
hieroglyphics — dark, obsure, and enig- 
matical ; and yet highly significant and 
instructive, if rightly interpreted. The 
laws of expression are not like those 
of gravitation, immutable ; they are 
modified by climate and habit, by 
health and disease, and by all those 
nameless social influences which make 
men to differ from each other. To 
know the language of expression we 
must first learn its alphabet by minute 
and careful study ; and we shall be- 
come convinced that every style of 
face and form may, like the Chinese 
signs (or letters), have a different 
meaning according as it is differently 
accented, intoned or expressed. An 
active mind sometimes becomes unac- 
countably associated with a sluggish 
body. David Hume looked more 
like a turtle-eating alderman than ' a 
philosopher. His face was broad and 
flat ; his mouth wide and inexpressive ; 



144 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



his eyes vacant and spiritless ; and his 
person clumsy and corpulent. Dr. 
Johnson was so awkward and ungainly 
in his manners, so ugly and repulsive 
in his looks, that he was sometimes 
mistaken for an idiot or madman. 
His immense bony structure and slov- 
enly dress made him a fit prototype 
of Dominie Sampson. They were 
both school- masters and both excel- 
lent men. Johnson, however, was less 
courteous than the Dominie. The 
Doctor and a clergyman by the name 
of Shebbeare were beak pensioned at 
one time. The report became cur- 
rent at once that the king had pen- 
sioned two bears — a he-bear and a 
she-bear. Wilkes, who was excessively 
ill-favored, used to say that, in the 
estimation of society, a handsome 
man had only half an hour's start of 
him, as,' within that time, he would 
recover, by his conversation, what he 
had lost by his looks. On the other 
hand, a majestic form and courtly 
manners are sometimes strangely di- 
• vorced from mind and heart. In a 
field of grain, the empty heads are 
usually the most erect and showy, 
while those that are heavy laden with 
precious fruit, seem, like true science, 
to withdraw their rich treasures from 
the public gaze. It is very easy to be 
deceived by appearances. There is a 
wide difference between an egg and 
and an egg-shell, though at a distance 
they look very much alike. 

"Xe crede colon." 

If the language of expression were 
always intelligible, men might dispense 
with their grammars from Priscian to 
Lily and Murray, and talk with the 
features instead of the tongue, when 
they travel in foreign lands ; and it is 
very evident that this dumb eloquence 
might be carried to a high degree of 
perfection, from the proficiency made 
by deaf mutes, in the language of 
signs. " I have always had a firm be- 
lief," says Horace Smith, " that the 
celestials have no other medium of 
conversation; but, that, carrying on 
a colloquy of glances, they avoid all 



wear and tear of lungs and all the vul- 
garity of human vociferation. Nay, 
we frequently do this ourselves. By 
a silent interchange of looks, when lis- 
tening to a third part}-, how completely' 
may two people keep up a by-play of 
conversation and express their mutual 
incredulity, anger, disgust, contempt, 
amazement, grief, or languor. Speech 
is a laggard and a sloth, but the eyes 
shoot out an electric fluid that con- 
denses all the elements of sentiment 
and passion in one single emulation." 
This silent interchange of thoughts 
and feelings, by those who are listen- 
ing to a public speaker, accounts for 
the fact that the same sentiments, 
uttered in the same language, will 
affect a large audience more power- 
fully than they would any one or two 
individuals of the same assembly lis- 
tening to the same speaker in private. 

It was said of the Athenians that 
they resembled sheep, of which a 
flock is more easily driven than a sin- 
gle one. The comparison would be 
still more striking with swine than 
sheep, as is admirably illustrated by 
Leigh Hunt, in his essay entitled, 'The 
Graces and Anxieties of Pig-Driving." 
The owner had succeeded in working 
his ward, through the streets of Lon- 
don, almost to the shambles. " The 
animal was irritable, retrospective, 
picking objections, and prone to bog- 
gle, with a tendency to take every 
path but the proper one. He evi- 
dently possessed a peculiar turn of 
mind." When the driver's delicate 
and trying task was almost ended, the 
animal, as if suddenly struck with a 
presentiment of his fate, or as if he 
had forgotten some one lane which he 
had wished to enter, incontinently 
bolted — he was off. "Oh !" exclaimed 
the driver, smiting his head with his 
hand, in an agony of desperation ; 
"now he'll go up all manner of streets." 
A skillful swine-herd once remarked, 
that in order to form a taste for his 
business, "A man must chain his mind 
right down to it." This was sage 
counsel. It applies to the leading, 
training, and driving of bipids as well 



THE PHILOSOPHY OF EXPRESSION. 



quadrupeds. We hear of pig-headed 
and mutton-headed men. They are 
hard to drive or coax alone ; but in 
herds they become tractable. j It is 
not certain, however, that these terms 
are derived from the expression or 
external form of the face ; though such 
a supposition is not improbable. The 
terms are as old as written language. 
The greatest of the Homeric heroes did 
not hesitate to call each other "dog- 
faced" when one would charge an 
antagonist with immodesty ; and, ever 
since the Trojan war, men have de- 
lighted to describe certain forms of 
expression in "the human face divine" 
by epithets derived from the animal 
kingdom. Our language has a well- 
stored armory of such missiles. Such 
are the words wolfish, foxy, swinish, 
pig-headed, bull-headed, dogged, 
sheepish, owlish, eagle-eyed, hawk- 
nosed, <\x. 

From this somewhat desultory enu- 
meration or particulars. I have en- 
deavored to show that the body takes 
its conformation, from the soul ; that 
the external very significantly repre- 
sents the internal man ; that there is 
a harmony between the physical and 
spiritual in our constitution. Can 
these signs be reduced to a science? 
Is it possible to determine from the 
features and expression of the face, 
from the size and form of the brain, 
the true character of the man? The 
multiplied failures of such attempts 
show that no certainty can be reached 
by such philosophers. Much useful 
knowledge may be acquired, undoubt- 
edly, by a careful comparison of dif- 
ferent faces and heads, and many 
general conclusions may be deduced, 
but there is such an infinite diversity 
of form in the human head and face, 
that it is idle to talk of estimating char- 
acter and intellect with accuracy, by 
a brief inspection of the skull and 
countenance. Consider for a mo- 
ment how strangely the expression of 
the face is altered by a very slight de- 
rangement of a single feature which 
may be induced by accident or dis- 
ease. Let one eye be elevated or 
depressed a trifle at its external or in- 
vii— 10 



ternal angle, or the corners of the 
the mouth be turned up or down bin 
a grain, or let the chin project or re- 
treat a little, or the nose be slightly 
shortened or lengthened or turned up, 
and what a sinister or quizzical ex- 
pression is imparted to the whole 
countenance ! Indeed, painters tell 
us that the only difference between 
laughing and weeping consists in the 
depression or elevation of the muscles 
about the corners of the mouth and 
eyes. 

It was a favorite notion of Plato 
that physical beauty always accom- 
panies and indicates moral and intel- 
lectual beauty ; but the pug nose and 
ugly face of his own teacher, Socrates, 
were sufficient to refute such a theory ; 
even if the handsome person of his 
fellow-student, the reckless, profligate, 
and unprincipled Alcibiades, had not 
hung in the other scale, a living refu- 
tation of it. The laws of expression 
cannot, therefore, be inferred by in- 
duction, like the laws of gravitation, 
so as to serve as an unerring guide to 
the student of nature. Even if sucn 
certainty in judging of character were 
possible, passion, habit, and prejudice 
would prevent its application to real, 
life. Besides, the experience neces- 
sary to an accurate estimate of men 
from external signs, comes too late in 
our history to be available. Phrenol- 
ogists, in vain, direct young persons 
to select their partners for life by their 
cranial developments or temperaments. 
To the young, beauty and goodness 
are generally synonymous. The phi- 
losophy which distinguishes them is 
the fruit sometimes of bitter experi- 
ence. In judging of female accom- 
plishments, most men. I think, would 
agree with the witty Sidney Smith. 
He says : " I am no great physiogno- 
mist, nor have I much confidence in 
a science which pretends to discover 
the inside from the out ; but where I 
have seen fine eyes, a beautiful com- 
plexion, grace and symmery in wo- 
men, I have generally thought them 
amazingly well-informed and extreme ly 
philosophical. In contrary instances,, 
seldom or never." 



146 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



A WORKING MAN— A BRIEF SKETCH OF JOHN FARMER. 



BY PARKER 

What constitutes the genuine Work- 
ing Mm / is yet to many an unsolved 
problem. Perhaps none have more 
positively settled it in their own minds, 
than the vast multitude of those 
whose only labor is with their hands. 
And they doubtless are a large ma- 
jority of the working community — 
may bear about the same numerical 
proportion to the whole, as the brain 
bears to the avoirdupois of the whole 
body of a man. But small as the 
brain of a man may be, the muscles 
and bones cannot say to it, we have 
no need of thee. It takes very little 
brain to show any man that without 
that little, his bones and muscles 
would be of little use. And did all 
bone and sinew workers, in whatever 
department, know and consider what 
time and strength, what health and 
life, have often been consumed in 
inventing or perfecting the tools or 
instruments with which they work, 
they would be glad and proud to elect 
ail such as honorary members of their 
Guild, or League, or Protective Un- 
ion, though, with hands, they made 
nothing. 

I have just been reading an Essay, 
by an excellent friend of mine, now 
no more, but friend of everybody 
while he lived, on '''Labor Parties and 
Labor Reform." After a true state- 
ment of the aims and purposes, the 
principles and platforms of some of 
these organizations, both in Europe 
and America, he questions and criti- 
cises them after this sort : 

Will they consent to narrow their 
Laboring Class so that the term shall 
not include the Professions whose toil 
ministers, however imperfectly, to con- 
stant demands of soul, body, and estate ; 
so that educators of the young, and 
counsellors and consolers of the old, 
shall be set off as drones in the industrial 
hive? Are we to throw out of the list 
of ''Working Men" the philosopher 
who explores moral and spiritual proh- 



PILLSBURY. 

lems, and states the laws of intelligence, 
the economies which cannot be foregone 
nor overlooked? Or the poet who cheers 
the day with insight that brings health 
and sweetness to all thought and work ? 
* * * Does labor exclude the schol- 
ar's function, to present man under dif- 
ferent phases of religion and culture, 
and enforce universality by tracing the 
movement of ideas and laws through 
the ages of his development ? Ave we 
to reckon out the cares of maternity, 
the mutual offices of domestic life, the 
friend, the lover, even the "fanatic" 
whose lonely dream prospects the track 
and points the way for coming genera- 
tions ? Are we to count as outside of 
labor-contribution all work that reforms 
the vicious, relieves the helpless, or sets 
the poor in the way to help themselves? 

Thus distinctly stated, the Essayist 
says, the questions may seem to an- 
swer themselves. But knowing how- 
easy it is for parties, or men embar- 
rassed, to break away from principles 
that perhaps few, individually, would 
attempt to deny, he asks this also : 
" If labor is definable as that kind of 
service for which wages are paid, in 
distinction from that kind of service 
which consists in providing the fund 
out of which they are paid? from 
that kind of service which plans and 
directs the operation and bears the 
risk and responsibility? Or, in other 
words : is labor, as labor, so clearly 
distinguishable from capital in this 
sense, that the toils of mind as well 
as body involved in the application 
of the latter do not deserve to enter 
into our estimate of the ' rights of 
labor?"' And then he adds, and 
who will not say justly adds : " We 
must be very far from the track of 
science and freedom, if our defini- 
tions threaten to fall into such arbi- 
trariness as this." 

Two facts as respects Mr. Farmer, 
are beyond all question ; he exhausted 
all his vital energies and working 
powers, and died before he was fifty 



BRIEF SKETCH OF JOHN FARMER. 



147 



years old ; and secondly, that no 
labor of his, of whatever kind it was, 
-could ever be pronounced harmful on 
the one hand, nor unprofitable and 
unnecessary on the other. 

Who can estimate the amount of 
work done with hands that is abso- 
lutely injurious as well as unnecessary 
to human well-being ? If the time 
.and muscular labor employed in pro- 
ducing, transporting, and vending in- 
toxicating drinks and tobacco, includ- 
ing all the furniture and other appoint- 
ments absolutely necessary to the 
business ; and if every working man, 
woman, and child abstained wholly 
from the use of those articles as con- 
scientiously as did Mr. Farmer, that 
one change alone would so revolution- 
ize our whole industrial system as that 
six hours' labor a day would give 
every class a better living, in this 
country even, than it ever yet has 
had, or can expect to have while the 
present order and arrangement shall 
last. 

That John Farmer was born in the 
year 17S9, on the twelfth of June, 
.and died August thirteenth, 1S3S, 
proves the first fact already stated 
•concerning him. And the nature and 
amount of work he accomplished in 
those brief working years, will sub- 
stantiate the other. Indeed, a men- 
tion of only a part of it, and that 
wholly of the brain and pen, will more 
than suffice. 

For the following catalogue of Mr. 
Farmer's works I am indebted to the 
Memorial, just published of him by 
Rev. John LeBosquet, who was once 
his pupil, and remembers him in his 
works and ways with enthusiastic de- 
light, now, after his body has slept in 
the grave almost half a century : 

" Historical Sketch of Billerica, 
Mass.; Historical Sketch of Amherst, 
N. H. ; A Topographical and Histori- 
•cal Description of the County of Hills- 
borough, N. H. ; An Ecclesiastical 
Register of New Hampshire, contain- 
ing a Succinct Account of the Different 
Religious Denominations — their Ori- 
gin, Progress, and Numbers in 1821, 



with a Catalogue of the Ministers of 
the Several Churches, from 163S to 
1S21 ; The New Military Guide, a 
Compilation of Rules and Regula- 
tions for the Use of the Militia ; A 
Gazetteer of New Hampshire, in con- 
junction with Hon. Jacob E. Moore ; 
Memoir of the Penacook Indians ; 
Catechism of the History of New 
Hampshire, for Schools and Families ; 
The Concord Directory for 1S30 [first 
ever published] ; Pastors, Deacons, 
and Members of the the first Congre- 
gational Church in Concord. N. H., 
from November, 1730, to November, 
1830; An Edition of Mason on Self- 
Knowledge, with Questions ; An Edi- 
tion of the Constitution of New 
Hampshire, with Questions, for Acad- 
emies and Schools ; A New Edition 
of Belknap's History of New-Hamp- 
shire, with various corrections and 
illustrations of the first and second 
volumes of Belknap, with additional 
facts and notices of persons and 
events ; Seventeen volumes of the 
New Hampshire Annual Register and 
United States Calendar ; Three vol- 
umes of Collections, Historical and 
Miscellaneous, in connection with J. B. 
Moore ; Papers in the second and 
third series of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Collections ; Papers in five 
volumes of Collections of the New 
Hampshire Historical Society ; and 
the following papers in the American 
Quarterly Register : Sketches of the 
first Graduates of Dartmouth College, 
from 1 771 to 1783; List of the Con- 
gregational and Presbyterian Minis- 
ters of New Hampshire, from its first 
settlement to 18 14 ; List of the Gradu- 
ates of all the Colleges of New Eng- 
land, containing about nineteen thou- 
sand names ; List of eight hundred 
and forty deceased Ministers, who 
graduated at Harvard College, from 
1642 to 1826, together with their ages, 
dates of graduation, and decease ; 
Memoirs of Ministers who graduated 
at Harvard College to 1657; Genea- 
logical Register of the First Settlers 
of New England, a work of immense 
labor, and intended to be carried out 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



on a scale of the grandest dimen- 
sions." 

Besides all this, Mr. LeBosquet 
adds : " He left a large mass of ma- 
terial for a second volume of the His- 
tory of New Hampshire ; Sketches 
more or less complete of deceased 
Lawyers, Physicians, Councillors, and 
Senators of New Hampshire : extended 
tables of longevity and mortality ; ten 
bound volumes, duodecimo, of Me- 
moirs of more than two thousand 
graduates of Harvard College ; and 
two bound volumes of Memoirs of 
Graduates of Dartmouth College ; be- 
sides corrections and additions to al- 
most all his published works.'' 

And even these are by no means 
all. It should be remembered, too, 
that when Mr. Farmer wrote and pub- 
lished his works, the labor of such 
writing and compilation was vastly 
different from what it is to-day. We 
travel now by graded roads, turnpikes, 
and railways, where the first settlers 
cut their paths through almost impen- 
etrable forests with axes and hatchets ; 
fording rivers, turning widely aside 
from lakes and impassable marshes, 
often more than doubling distances, 
with no companionship but savage 
beasts, savage men, and other deni- 
zens of the wild and unknown woods. 
So Mr. Farmer wrote History. And 
to gather and prepare his materials 
out of scanty or chaotic masses, often 
dateless, almost always without in- 
dexes of any value, statistics con- 
fused and contradictory, the whole re- 
quiring study and thought like learn- 
ing a new or a dead language ; with 
correspondence sometimes to, if not 
through, both the hemispheres, cheap 
postage as yet. and to some parts 
any established postage, unknown — 
such were some of the labors of his 
wondrous, but too short, life. Where 
he did not make he mended, and so 
superseded old methods as to almost 
deserve to be called the creator of 
Biography, Genealogy, and History. 
His Notes and Illustrations of Bel- 
knap's History of New Hampshire, 
says the excellent Dr. Bouton, are 



scarcely less valuable than the text 
itself. And certainly his Genealogica? 
Register of the First Settlers of New 
England is a monument of marvellous 
research and patient labor. His con- 
tributions to the collections of the 
Massachusetts and New Hampshire 
Historical Societies were very valuable 
as well as numerous. Of the latter 
society, he was one of the founders l 
and member of the Publishing Com- 
mittee, and Corresponding Secretary 
from the year 1S25 to the day of his 
death. He was also an honorary 
member of various literary and other 
important societies in the old world, 
as well as a correspondent of the 
most eminent living historians, schol- 
ars, and antiquaries of the age. 

If there be associations or organ- 
izations of "Working-Men," so called, 
who would exclude the like of John. 
Farmer from membership, surely it is 
to be hoped their number is small and 
their membership not greater. For 
such do not yet know who are their 
truest and most valuable friends. 

But writing was not all the work of 
Mr. Farmer. From sixteen to twenty- 
one, he was clerk in a country store. 
For some years he was an active part- 
ner in an extensive drug store. As a 
teacher of youth he excelled. For 
ten or eleven years it was his chief 
occupation. If it be true that " the 
poor we have always with us," so, no- 
less, the ignorant are ever an omni- 
presence. And of Mr. Farmer it 
might be said, he taught without ceas- 
ing. And he gave lessons as well by- 
example as precept. He was a model 
of Temperance in all things. Intox- 
icating drinks were his aversion. To- 
bacco was his abomination. Not for 
such as he did Temperance Societies 
have to supplement the Church away- 
down in the nineteenth Christian cen- 
tury. 

Anti-Slavery, too, found in him an 
early, able, faithful, and .fearless advo- 
cate and champion. " He was mem- 
ber and Corresponding Secretary of 
the New Hampshire Anti-Slavery So- 
ciety, and a man greatly beloved by 



BRIEF SKETCH OF JOHN FARMER. 



149 



his fellow members." In a letter writ- 
ten soon after the 1S34 annniversary 
of the New Hampshire Congrega- 
tional Association of Ministers and 
Churches, he wrote : 

The meetings at Meredith are reported 
xts highly interesting. 1 hope the re- 
marks of Dr. Matheson on the subject 
of Slavery will not be lost on the nu- 
merous clergymen who were present. 
It is a subject which must more engage 
the attention of the messengers of glad 
tidings than it has ever yet done. Min- 
isters must not be afraid to speak and 
to preach on the subject. Slavery is 
one of the greatest national sins, and 
cannot much longer remain unpunished. 
Even Jefferson, a slaveholder, said he 
trembled for his country, when he re- 
flected that God was just. I have some- 
times queried if our Saviour were again 
to appear on earth, and should make 
our country the scene of his mission, 
what portion he would first visit; and 
who the first people to whom he would 
proclaim peace and good will toward 
men. "Would he not first visit the cap- 
tive ? Would he not command that 
every yoke should be broken ? that the 
poor, ignorant slave should be set free 
and enlightened'.'' Would he not re- 
prove some of his heralds for their 
apathy — nay. for their wickedness, in 
saying, " Touch not the subject of Slav- 
ery — they have slaves at the South : let 
the South take care of their slaves." 
Now this has been actually said by 
professed christians and ministers of 
the gospel. Let this course be adopted, 
and how long would it be before the sin 
•of Slaver}- should cease ? 

Sure enough, dear, glorious Mr. 
Farmer! how long? To terrible ex- 
tent " that course was adopted," and 
-Slavery did not " cease " for more 
than a quarter of a century. And 
then went down in cataclysms of 
blood and fire, by the voice of that 
•God before whom Jefferson "trembled, 
remembering that His righteous judg- 
ments could not forever sleep." 

No wonder Mr. Farmer never joined 
the American Church, though openly 
acknowledging his full belief in all the 
fundamental doctrines of the most 
-evangelical denominations. In one 
of his letters to a friend he wrote : 
*" Such is my indwelling depravity, 



that strange as it may appear, my 
days pass along with a constant ac- 
cumulation of sin and guilt which 
can only be pardoned through the 
merits of an Almighty Saviour." Af- 
ter his death, his business partner, 
Dr. and Deacon Samuel Morrill, after 
years of intimate business as well as 
personal acquaintance, testified : " He 
was a good man, and he trusted in the 
merits of the atonement of Christ." 

When he died, all classes of per- 
sons, without distinction of political 
party or religious sect, made haste to 
bring their tokens and tributes of 
respect and regard for his great moral 
and religious worth, as well as his ex- 
alted merits as a scholar, an antiqua- 
rian and historian. Though an abo- 
litionist, and friend and admirer of 
Garrison, Nathaniel Peabody Rogers, 
Whittier, and Wendell Phillips, Dem- 
ocratic as well as Whig party editors 
and leaders were loud in his praise as 
a philanthropist, a man, and a citizen. 
Though member of no sect in reli- 
gion, all sects seemed delighted to do 
honor to his memory and sublime 
christian worth. Though worshipper 
of the Family relation in all its purity 
and sacredness, he never married, for 
reasons to him all-sufncient, though 
perhaps hardly yet appreciable by the 
common world of man. 

Just about one year before Mr. 
Farmer died, Air. Rogers, of the Her- 
ald of Freedom, was lying very dan- 
gerously ill. In a letter written 3d of 
July, 1 S3 7, Mr. Farmer wrote : '' I la- 
ment to inform you that the talented 
editor of the Herald (Mr. Rogers), is 
now languishing on a bed of sickness, 
and it is not at all probable that he 
will be at present, if ever, able to re- 
sume his useful labors. He is one of 
a thousand, if not ten thousand. I 
know not any one who can fill his 
place." 

Mr. Rogers was at that time a mem- 
ber of the Plymouth Congregational 
Church. Mr. Farmer could respect 
and even admire him as such, because 
he was endeavoring to wash his hands 
and cleanse his garments clean from 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



the blood and guilt of slavery, as the 
great body of the church and clergy 
were not. Subsequently Mr. Rogers 
left the church for its persistence in 
fellowshipping slavery and slave-holders 
— clergymen as well as other men. As 
has been already told, Mr. Farmer 
never joined the church. Some of us 
can see plainly enough his good rea- 
sons why. 

And when he died. Mr. Rogers had 
recovered from his fearful illness and 
wrote thus of him in the Herald of 
September i, 1S3S : 

Dr. Farmer Dead ! We were amazed 
as well as deeply afflicted at the death of 
this • distinguished and most excellent 
- man. His departure surprised us, in- 
valid as he long has been, and feeble as 
was his hold on life. So insensible are 
we to the frailty and uncertainty of mor- 
tal existence ! "We have lo^t a highly 
valued personal friend, as well as our 
cause a faithful, devoted and invaluable 
advocate. 'W e could weep lor ourselves 
as well as for the poor slave who dees 
not know his loss. But it is not a time 
to weep. Survivors on the field do not 
pause in thick of the fight to lament 
comrades or chieftains falling around 
them. 

The departed Farmer lived and died 
a devoted abolitionist. We proclaim 
this amid the notes of his requiem and 
the tolling of his knell, in the ears of the 
scorner of the supplicating slave and of 
bleeding liberty. Admirers of his dis- 
tinguished worth, his admirable industry, 
his capacity, his usefulness, his blameless 
life, who felt awed at his virtues, while 
he lived almost invisible among men, 
mingling with the busy throng of life 
scarcely more than now Ins study-worn 
frame reposes in the grave — know all 
and be reminded all, that Farmer was 
in zeal, in devotion, in principles and in 
measures not a whit behind the very 
chiefest abolitionist. Xo heart beat more 
ardently than his in the great cause of 
human rights; or more keenly felt the 
insults, the inhumanity and the ruffian 
persecutions heaped upon its friends. 
How deep was his mortification at the 
brutal and ignoble treatment of the gen- 
erous and gifted George 1 hompson ! 
And with what agonizing solicitude did 
his heart throb, as the life of that inno- 
cent, most interesting and wonderful 
stranger was hunted in our streets ! How 



freely would he have yielded up his own- 
sickness-wasted form to save his friend ! 
Scorners of the slave, sneerers at the 
negro's plea, ruthless invaders (whoever 
you are) of the hearth of hospitality and 
the sanctities of Home, we point you to 
the fresh grave of Farmer. To the 
grave of Joseph Horace Kimball, too, 
his beloved brother — that young, mar- 
tyred heart, who still pleaded among you, 
unheeded but faithfully, the cause of the 
suffering and the dumb, when his voice 
was hollow with consumption — whose 
mild eye still beamed with remembrance 
of those in bonds, when lustrous with 
the hectic touch of death ! 

And the following was by his friend 
and fellow worker in Anti-Slavery, 
Temperance and all good enterprises, 
George Kent, Esq., then of Concord : 

The silver cord of life is loosed, and dust 

returns to dust : 
Heaven has reclaimed of selfish earth a 

high and holy trust ; 
A brother and a friend has gone to join. 

the glad employ 
Of ransomed souls secure in bliss, refined. 

from earth's alloy. 

'1 he memory of the just is blest — so shall 

thy memory be 
Green in our hearts, thou friend belov'd, 

till earthly shadows flee; 
When merged in substance things of 

time eternal shall become, 
Our hope shall be to meet again in 

Heaven, our happy home. 

But while sojourning here below, we- 

cannot cease to weep, 
It is the privilege of woe, its vigils thus 

to keep ; 

To grieve that one of gifts so rare is* 

summoned from our sight, 
But mourn in hope, and trust with him 
• who doeth all things right. 

Fair Science mourns a votary gone, of 
power and will to aid 

Her struggling sons in quest of light in 
Academic shade ; 

And History's muse, her harp unstrung,, 
pours forth the sad bewail, 

Of ancient lore that none remain so well- 
to tell her tale. 

A sorrow like no other grief, is felt that 

one so good, 
Of zeal so strong and heart so warm for 

human brotherhood , 



EARTHQUAKES IN NEW ENGLAND. 



So firm in faith that right must soon 
o'er ancient wrong prevail. 

Should from his Master's work on earth 
depart while foes assail. 

Would that the summons might have 
come when slavery has ceased — 

The good Samaritan displaced the Levite 
and the Priest — 

When broken lias been every yoke, and 
sundered everv chain 



That binds to earth imn 
with their God to r 



d s« 



Thy generous spirit then had 

sight of earthly bliss ; 
In full fruition had been tV 

bosom's happiness : 
But not our will. Parent Supreu 

thine alone be done : 
We bow in silence and adore : 

Eternal One ! 



*5* 

uls made 

joyed at 
and thy 
ie ! thine, 
Thou 

g. k. 



EARTHQUAKES FROM 1638 TO 18 S3, IN THE NEW ENGLAND 
STATES AND IN THE BRITISH POSSESSIONS NORTH OF 
THE UNITED STATES AND EAST OF THE ROCKY MO UN 
TAINS. 



BY JOSIAII EMERY. 
[CONTENTED.] 



February S, 1 729-30, about eight in 
the evening, a small shock ; about 
midnight, loud and long and gave our 
houses a great shock. 

February 26th, about 1.45 a. m., the 
noise was repeated twice in one min- 
ute ; the first was loud and long and 
shook our houses equal to any but the 
first shock ; the second noise was low 
and seemingly at a distance. 

April 1 2th, 1730, about eight in the 
evening, a very loud and long noise, 
and a great shock. 

July 28th, about 9 a. m., a sudden 
and loud roaring and shock. 



August 



about eight a. m., a shock 
of the earthquake twice repeated in a 
moment of time. 

November 6th, it was loud and long 
and gave my house a jar. 

November 14, about nine a. m., a 
small noise and rumbling ; no shock. 

November 25, about 8.20 p. m., a 
loud and long roaring, and gave my 
house a considerable shock. 

December 6th, about 10.45 p « M «> * l 
was loud and roared 
our houses jar. 

December nth, about 6.45 p.m., 
there was a small burst, but shaked my 
house. 



long, and made 



December 12th, about 10.30 p. m., 
the earthquake did very much shake 
our houses, without any noise or roar- 
ing, more than ever before, the first 
time excepted. It was felt at Boston, 
forty miles, at Piscataqua, twenty-two 
miles, almost equal to what it was 
with us. 

December 19th, about half past ten 
p. m., a very heavy shock. It was per- 
ceived at Boston and Portsmouth 
about equal to ours here. 

January 7th, 1730, about seven at 
night, it was loud and long : shook our 
houses. 

January 11, about midnight, loud 
shook our houses. 
, about five in the evening, 



and long ; 
March 



we heard the noise but no shock. 



May 28, 1 731, about nine in the 
morning, I heard the noise of the 
earthquake very distinctly, but could 
not perceive that it shook. 

July 5th, about sunrise, it was loud 
and long ; shook our houses. 

August 21, nine o'clock in the even- 
ing, the noise was small and short. 

October 1, about eleven at night, 
loud and long ; shook our houses. 

February 7, 1 73 1 , about seven at 
night, a great shock ; shook oar houses. 



(To he continued-) 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



AUGUSTINE R. AYERS. 



Now that spring has come after a for crockery, samples of which are 

long and hard winter, the careful displayed on the main floor, in all 

house-keeper must prepare to cleanse lines of staple and hotel ware, both 

and beautify the house. New wall- in white and decorated goods. The 

paper, ornamental and attractive to the display in the large front windows 

eye, new curtains for the windows, new of the store is attractive and pleasing, 

carpets for the floor, new china, crock- The front of the store is devoted to 

ery and glass ware for the table, are in silver plated ware, table cutlery, china, 

great demand ; and we can assure our glass and crockery. In the rear are 

readers that nowhere in the state can wall-papers, curtains, and oilcloths, 

all these goods be found in greater where will be found all the latest styles 

variety or at more reasonable prices and novelties in wall paper, and oil- 

than at the store of Augustine R. Ayers, cloths from i yard to 5 yards wide. 

91 North Main Street. Concord, New The floor above is devoted to the 

Hampshire. display of carpets, where will be found 

It has been the motto of his success- the largest stock north of Boston of 
ful business career to keep up with the body Brussels, velvet tapestries, tap- 
times and allow no one to undersell estry Brussels, Lowell extra-super in- 
him. In his store you can have the grains, medium ingrains, hemps, straw 
advantage of his excellent judgment mattings and druggets, 
and fine taste, and have as great a He has in stock new imported Jap- 
variety to choose from as in the estab- anese ware, majolica, French china 
lishments of Boston, New York, or and glass, plated ware, lamps, burners, 
Philadelphia. lanterns, teapots, bisc, opaque felt 

One line of trade he has made shading, Holland and oil opaque 
special preparations to meet this sea- shades, toilet sets, crockery ware, 
son, and that is the furnishing of the hanging lamps, vases, urns, cuspidores, 
great hotels and summer resorts among straw matting, hemps, oilcloths in 
the mountains and about the lakes of many widths, linoleum, door-mats, 
New Hampshire. His experience hassocks, rugs, feather dusters, flower- 
would be of the greatest advantage to pots, crockery and china, dinner, 
any purchaser. breakfast and tea sets, velvet and flock 

The basement of his store is used papers, embossed paper, and borders. 



THE JAFFREY MANSION. 



153 



THE JAFFREY MANSION. 

BY FRED MYRON COLBY. 



Down in Cheshire county, under the 
shadow of the mighty Monadnock, 
and watered by the Contoocook, whose 
main source rises about one hundred 
rods from the mountain's crest, lies 
the small,, uneven town ycleped 
" Middle Monadnock," or " Number 
Two," in the old province reports. 
In the long ago year 1773 the inhabi- 
tants of this borough petitioned Gov- 
ernor John Wentworth and his honor- 
able Council for an act of incorpora- 
tion and a new name. His urbane 
excellency was pleased to listen to the 
petition, and granted the petitioners a 
charter, naming the new township in 
honor of one of his councillors — 
Jaffrey. 

He must have been a great and 
prominent man, bearing a lofty and 
significant name, to have thus been 
honored by a Wentworth, for the 
name of no plebeian had ever 
been given as an appelative to 
any township. Great nobles, crown 
officers, patrician relatives, had thus 
been honored, none other. Indeed, 
this man could sit with right noble 
company and not be ashamed. He 
was the third generation of a family 
that was conspicuous in our colonial 
history. He inherited vast wealth, a 
great name, and the prestige that rank 
and influence always lends its posses- 
sors. The proudest of colonial pa- 
tricians, with the real " blue blood " of 
the aristocrat, George Jaffrey was as 
conspicuous in New Hampshire his- 
tory as any man of his day and gen- 
eration. 

The third George Jaffrey, him of 
whom we are now talking, was the 
son of George Jaffrey, Esq., by his 
first wife, Sarah, daughter of David 
and Elizabeth (Usher) Jaffries, of 
Boston. He was born in 1716, at 
Newcastle. He graduated at Har- 
vard in 1736, and at once entered 
upon his career as a gentleman and 
ambitious citizen. He had inherited 



a grand name and was heir to a large 
property. His father had gradually 
held all the honors in the province, 
from a justice to a seat in the royal 
council. The son was no less suc- 
cessful. He was justice and repre- 
sentative ; in 1 744 he was appointed 
clerk of the supreme court, which 
office he retained until he was admit- 
ted as one of his majesty's council in 
1766. He was also treasurer of the 
province from 1750 until the Revolu- 
tion. In 1 746, Mr. Jaffrey became 
one of the purchasers of Mason's pa- 
tent, thus becoming one of the most 
extensive landholders in the colony. 
When his father died, in 1749, the 
son became one of the few rich men 
of New-Hampshire. His stately res- 
idence, his numerous household, his 
slaves, his ancestral silver plate, his 
coach, his whole style of living, be- 
spoke the wealthy aristocrat. 

Hon. George Jaffrey never married. 
It was not owing to any disappoint- 
ment in youth, or to any pronounced 
antipathy to the gentler sex. He sim- 
ply had no inclination to take upon 
himself the responsibilities of wedded 
life. His father's second wife, that 
Sarah Wentworth who had queened it 
as mistress of the Macpheader's man- 
sion, remained the undisputed director 
of her second home. His stepmother 
was his housekeeper till her death, in 
1778. Subsequently a favorite niece 
did the honors of his house, and pre- 
sided with grace and dignity at his 
table, where more than once the elite 
of the province assembled. 

When the Revolution broke out 
Col. Jaffrey was in the full possession 
of all his faculties, both of mind and 
body. He was about . five feet and 
eight inches in height, and somewhat 
corpulent, weighing one hundred and 
eighty pounds. His features were 
regular, with gray eyes, a florid com- 
plexion, and dark hair. His manners 
were very dignified, as became one of 



154 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



his majesty's councillors. He was a 
man of naturally genial and social 
temperament, yet he would sometimes 
under perplexities and annoyances 
become irascible. His anger, how- 
ever, was usually brief. " He was 
opposed to oral prayer," says Mr. 
Brewster, in his " Rambles," " deem- 
ing those who thus pray hypocrites. 
But in church, on one Sunday, his voice 
was heard in response above all oth- 
ers. He had been much annoyed by 
encroachments on the boundaries of 
some of his extensive estates in the 
interior, and went to church with a 
vexed mind from that cause. In the 
course of the service, when ' Cursed 
be he who removeth his neighbor's 
landmark,' was read, 'Amen,' respond- 
ed JafTrey, with a loud voice and 
hearty good will. At one time the 
Rev. Arthur Brown chanced to come 
abruptly upon him when he was utter- 
ing a volley of oaths. ' I am sur- 
prised sir,' said the worthy doctor, 
' that you should, so soon after de- 
nouncing pra\ ing men as hypocrites, 
be found offering to God a petition.' " 
Councillor Jaffrey was strongly op- 
posed to the change in the govern- 
ment. He not only refused to sign 
the association test, but he was pro- 
nounced in his toryism. In this he 
had the company of a great many 
good men. Perhaps the time has not 
come even yet when the part taken by 
the loyalists or tories, in our war for 
independence, can be fairly estimated. 
Strange as it may seem at first sight, 
it is actually easier to obtain an atten- 
tive and sympathetic hearing for an 
exposition of the aims and motives 
which actuated the seceding States 
during our civil war. But the truth 
is that secession is recognized as only 
an extravagant application of the doc- 
trine of State rights, which is still ar- 
dently upheld by a large and influ- 
ential part of the Northern people, 
while even those who take an extreme 
Federalist view of the powers vested 
in our national government feel con- 
strained to conciliate the inhabitants 
of the Southern States. Accordingly, 



although secession may be a lost 
cause, its champions are treated with 
a consideration almost unparalleled in 
the history of civil contests. 

But the tories have no friends. 
They are not only discredited, but 
extinct. For a century the tide of 
public opinion has set so strongly 
against them that even their descend- 
ants are at pains to disguise what they 
have learned to think a blunder or a 
crime on the part of their ancestors, 
and historians have abandoned the 
well-nigh hopeless effort to modify the 
popular judgment. Few commenda- 
ble endeavors have been made to sup- 
ply the requisite material for a more 
accurate and equitable estimate of the 
motives and actions of the loyal col- 
onists during the Revolutionary strug- 
gle. We do not propose to enter 
upon their defence here. There are 
always two sides to a question, and 
when there are honorable and noble 
men found embracing a cause it is 
proof positive that there must be some 
good in it, however we may lean to 
the opposite. George Jaffrey, holding 
office un ier the crown, would natu- 
rally side with that power from which 
he received his honors, both from a 
sense of gratitude and from the fear 
or" being punished if found unfaithful 
and the royal cause triumphed. But 
he was actuated by other and nobler 
principles as well. By sentiment and 
conviction he was a tory. Unlike his 
friend and neighbor, Jonathan War- 
ner, he never willingly accepted the 
results of the war for independence. 
Several years after the declaration of 
peace, calling one day at a goldsmith's 
shop to have his silver buckles mend- 
ed, the workman observed : " I sup- 
pose you prize this highly not only for 
its intiinsic value, but also for its 
tower-mark and crown stamp?" "Yes, 
yes," answered the colonel, bringing 
down his cane with violence, "and we 
ought never to have come off — never." 

The grand old house that he lived 
in all his life still stands conspicuous 
among the noble mansions on Daniel 
street. It is a unique structure, and 



THE JAFFREY MANSION. 



155 



formerly the fine front yard and ele- 
vated position of the mansion gave it 
a very inviting appearance from the 
street. This yard, and the extensive 
garden plat in the rear are now cov- 
ered by many houses ; but the hand- 
some porch and magnificent linden 
trees on the premises still attract 
many admirers. 

The visitor passes through a white 
gate, under the graceful, over-arching 
boughs of these solemn trees. They 
rather impress one. There they had 
stood for generations, noting many a 
change that had come to the old 
house — noting the pageantry and the 
pomp of the old colonial times — not- 
ing the gaiety and the festivity that 
had reigned within many and many a 
time, when king's councillors and 
princely merchants and courtly aristo- 
cratic dames had feasted and danced 
and held gay revelry within the an- 
cient walls — noting how the two an- 
gels, one of life, and one of death, 
had often winged their way hither on 
their respective errands. No wonder 
I felt solemn as their shadow fell upon 
me. No wonder I walked slowly 
towards the door, stopping as I crossed 
the threshold to look "back at the 
venerable arms that hung protectingly 
over the house. 

" That old House stands alone, 
A queer and crumbling pile; 
And though its .shattered gables tell — 
Like the vibrations of a distant bell — 
Of days and years mayhap of centuries 
flown, 

I am too sad to smile." 

Yet it is a cheerful old home, and 
its historic memories are mostly pleas- 
ant ones. I loved to bring back the 
past, shutting my eyes, and dreaming 
as I sat in the house door. How 
many feet have crossed this threshold ! 
, feet that will never more tread 
the earth ; memorable feet, some of 
them, whose prints were made so 
deep in the sands of time, that they 
cannot be effaced. 

Fancy the great Dr. Franklin pass- 
ing through this broad hall-way and 
taking his place by the west window 



of the parlor to watch the distant hills 
and the setting sun ; I can almost see 
him now, with his benevolent face and 
his quaint costume of a hundred and 
twenty years ago. In the grand par- 
lor is his medalion portrait, placed 
there by his own hand. — the hand 
that once drew lightning from the 
clouds, the hand now so nerveless in 
the tomb. 

Before Franklin, there came to the 
old house under the linden trees the 
hero of Louisburg. Sir William Pep- 
perell, the great colonial magistrate 
of America, knight, baronet, owner 
of two hundred thousand acres of 
land, and ships that sailed on every 
sea. The old knight and the first 
councillor Jaffrey were good friends, 
and in this ancient parlor drank many 
a glass of port together while bending 
over the chess-board or whist- table. 

In the dim, wainscotted parlor, 
with other portraits, is that of George 
Jaffrey, second, who was councillor in 
1 716, and treasurer of the province 
after the death of Samuel Penhallow 
in 1726. He was also chief justice 
of the superior court to the time of 
his death in 1749. Sharp featured, 
keen, with an expression in which 
vehemence and intensity are blended 
with eagerness, the old councillor 
looks out upon us. It is a striking, 
brilliant face, but it lacks that massive- 
ness of feature, and that composure 
of expression, which are the guaran- 
tee of solid and consummate power. 
With his wig, small clothes, and broad 
skirted coat, he bears a little resem- 
blance to the first Governor John 
Wentworth, but is a lighter man withal. 

The second George Jaffrey was 
born at Newcastle, in 1683, and was 
the son of George Jaffrey, first, and 
Elizabeth Walker, his wife. He grad- 
uated at Harvard College in 1702. 
As early as 1719 he took up his resi- 
dence in Portsmouth, for we find him 
holding various town offices from and 
after that year. From his father, who 
was a man of wealth, and who was 
speaker of the New Hampshire as- 
bly in 1 69 1, he inherited a large prop- 



THE GRANITE MON THLY. 



erty, which he materially increased. 
He was one of the heavy tax-payers 
of Portsmouth in 1727, and was the 
owner of two slaves at that time — 
proof positive of his patrician wealth. 
He owned a large part of the present 
city, and, in 1737, sold to the town a 
road three rods wide, which leads 
from the country road "from Ports- 
mouth up to Islington," which was the 
opening of the present Middle street. 

In 1730 George Jaffrey built this 
mansion, after the style of architec- 
ture of that day — tall chimneys, gam- 
brel roof, and wainscotted walls. The 
grounds were elegant in their day — 
■spacious and handsomely laid out. 
The slaves' quarters stood back in the 
rear — two little brown cabins, long 
since taken down. 

His first wife, Sarah, died here a 
few years after its erection, and the hon- 
orable speaker brought home for his 
second wife the widow of his former 
neighbor, Lady Sarah Macpheadris, a 
haughty dame, but who made an ex- 
cellent wife and a careful mistress. 
The Jaffrey mansion was said to have 
been kept in the most perfect order, 
not only externally but internally. Mr. 
Brewster tells a story, how, on one 
occasion, no small offence was given 
to a neighbor who was applied to for 
some of their cobwebs to put on a 
cut finger, as none could be found on 
the premises. 

The most intimate friend of Hon. 
George Jaffrey was Col. Josiah YVent- 
worth, who was the heir expectant to 
his large estate. Col. Werjtworth was 
a prominent merchant and a patriot 
of the Revolution. In his business 
for the government as commissary, 
navy agent, etc., Mr. Jaffrey was his 
bondsman. As the colonel was una- 
ble to meet the claims government 
had upon him, Jaffrey met his liabil- 
ities, but was so embittered by the 
circumstances that he cut off Col. 
Went worth from his expectations. His 
will was drawn up by the Hon. Jere- 
miah Mason, who endeavored to 
have some of its controlling features 
changed ; his kind efforts were inef- 
fectual, however. The will as made 



out bequeathed all the real and per- 
sonal estate of Mr. Jaffrey to his 
grand-nephew and namesake, George 
Jaffrey Jeffries, of Boston, a boy of 
thirteen years. The conditions of the 
inheritance were that he should drop 
the name of Jeffries, become a per- 
manent resident of Portsmouth, and 
follow no other profession than that of 
a gentleman. These conditions were, 
of course, accepted. 

Hon. George Jaffrey, 3d, lived 
twenty years after the close of the 
Revolution, dying in 1S02, at the age 
of eighty-six years. People of the 
last generation remembered well the 
red cloak, small clothes, silk stockings, 
and heavy gold shoe buckles of the 
old time councillor. Habits and dress 
in those days plainly denoted rank in 
life. One who was a gentleman usu- 
ally went abroad in a wig, white stock, 
white satin embroidered vest, black 
satin small clothes, with white silk 
stockings, and a line broadcloth or 
velvet coat. At home, he wore a 
velvet cap, sometimes over a fine 
linen one, instead of a wig ; a gown 
of colored damask lined with silk, 
in place of a coat, and leather slip- 
pers. 

In most fgenteel families of the 
time, a tankard of punch was pre- 
pared every morning, and visitors dur- 
ing the day were invited to partake of 
it ; the master frequently taking the 
vessel from the cooler, drinking, first 
from it himself, and handing it to his 
guests. 

Dinners and suppers were frequently 
interchanged ; the fashionable hour 
was never later than three o'clock, 
and the table groaned with the dain- 
ties provided. The evening amuse- 
ments were dancing and cards. Dra- 
matic entertainments were prohibited 
by law. The dancing was conducted 
with a severe regard to propriety. The 
modern waltz was unknown ; the 
stately minuet, with its high-bred, 
formal courtesy, was varied by the 
contra-dance ; and cotillions did not 
come into favor tiil after the Revolu- 
tion. 



THE JAFFREY MANSION. 



T 57 



At the Jaffrey mansion there was 
high living and luxurious style. The 
councillor had a fine dinner set of 
pewter, ordered from England. He 
also had a valuable India China set, 
and a large quantity of silver. A 
tankard, holding a gallon or more, he 
devoted exclusively to hot punch. 
Much of the silver not only bore the 
'•'tower stamp," but had also his own coat 
of arms engraved on it. The councillor 
wore diamonds on great occasions. 
His furniture was heavy and costly. 
One piece was an old clock, seven 
feet in height, made in London in 
1677, and owned by the first George 
Jaffrey. The case is of English oak, 
handsomely veneered ; the key to 
wind it up is of fanciful workmanship, 
and is probably an imitation of that 
of the holy house of Loretto. The 
old clock stood in the Jaffrey house, 
from the time of its erection until the 
death of the third George, when it 
was sold, Timothy Ham being the 
purchaser. It is now the property of 
his grandson, Francis W. Ham, on 
Elm street, and is still in order, noting 
the passing hours with the same reg- 
ularity that the earth rolls upon its 
axis. 

The two councillors Jaffrey, father 
and son, were buried in St. John's 
churchyard, where sleep many others 
of the colonial magnates prior to the 
Revolution — staunch, royalty-loving 
governors, councillors, and secretaries 
of the province of New Hampshire, 
all snugly gathered under the motherly 
wing of the Church of England. One 
can move in the best of society in this 
place. Here lies the eponymous hero 
of many a New Hampshire town. 
Two Governor Wentworths and their 
families occupy one tomb, and around 
them, under faded escutcheons and 
crumbling armorial devices, are the 
ashes of Atkinsons, Warners, Sheafs, 
Sherburns, and Jaffreys. You cannot 
walk anywhere without treading on 
one of his majesty's colonels or a 
secretary under the crown. They led 
their lives of splendor and renown, 
and now a few feet of ground is all 
they can call their own. 



" Shall we build Ambition ! Ah no; 
Affrighted it shrinketh away. 
And nothing is left but the dust below. 
And the tinsel that shines on the dark 
coffin lid." 

George Jaffrey, the fourth, he who 
relinquished the name of Jeffries to 
inherit the noble cognomen and im- 
mense property of the old councillor, 
occupied the mansion from the time 
of his maturity to his death, in 1S56. 
He followed the condition of the will 
to the letter, living the life of a gm- 
tleman, an easy, luxurious, cultivated 
man, who made no stir in the world 
beyond his own immediate circle. As 
he left no son nor estate to continue 
the name, the line of George Jaffreys 
closed with him. Col. John Good- 
rich purchased the mansion, and his 
heirs at present occupy it. 

We stood gazing at the old house, 
long after we went out from it. How 
fair it must have looked to its lords in 
the old time, with the sunlight of the 
budding summer on its white walls 
and green gardens, before it was 
crowded in by smaller and inferior 
buildings. It was a noble ancestral 
home indeed, and no wonder the form- 
er masters, blase from visits to Boston 
and Salem, hastened to their stately 
residence glad of the repose and lux- 
ury it offered them. 

Slowly we turned from the house 
and walked across the street, leaving 
the grand old pile behind us, standing 
on its knoll of velvet turf, with its 
famous lindens closing around it and 
waving their green tree-tops up to the 
blue, clear heavens above — a home 
worthy of a noble line, now left to 
strangers' hands, in all its stately 
beauty — with its legends of antiquity, 
and its memories of glory and great- 
ness. Cowper's well known lines 
came to us with a force we had never 
felt before : 

" Meditations here 
May think down hours to moments. 

Here the heart 
May give a useful lesson to the head, 
And learning, wiser grow, without his 

books !" 



i 5 3 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 
HUMPHREY, DODGE 6- SMITH. 



The firm of Humphrey, Dodge & 
Smith, of Concord, New Hampshire, 
dealers in hardware, occupy the most 
centrally located establishment in the 
city, and fill a most important place in 
the business community. Individually 
the firm consists of Stillman Humphrey, 
the senior member, who in 185S was 
one of the firm of Warde & Humphrey 
(successors of Porter & Rolfe, estab- 
lished in 1833), an< 3 who has been 
frequently called to serve the city and 
state in offices of trust and emolument ; 
Howard A. Dodge, of a family specially 
honored in their native city, whose 
name is a synonym for uprightness and 
commercial integrity ; and Converse J. 
Smith, whom the chief magistrate of 
the state, Governor Samuel W. Hale, 
has commissioned colonel and aide-de- 
camp. 

The business of the firm, which is 
the growth of over half a century, is 
very extensive, and extends to remote 
towns in northern New Hampshire 
and Vermont. 

Their stock embraces a very large 
variety and requires over an acre of 
floor-room for its display. Besides 
their double store and basements they 
occupy a great storehouse, immediately 
in the rear, with their goods. These 
goods are classified as heavy and'orna- 



mental hardware, carriage goods and 
shelf goods. The firm are prepared 
to meet the requirements of the great 
carriage manufactories of Concord in 
every line. The farmer in their store- 
house will find every variety of labor- 
saving machinery from the sickle and 
hand-rake to the most improved mow- 
ing machine and reaper. Tools for the 
blacksmith, and iron and steel, in rod 
and bar, for his handiwork ; tools for 
the carpenter ; tools for the mason ; 
tools for the boy ! 

Besides the three members of the 
firm, who are each actively interested 
in the details of the business, there are 
twelve employees required to handle 
the goods or attend to the accounts. 

They have in stock agricultural im- 
plements, house-building hardware, 
carriage-building woodwork and hard- 
ware, sewer and drain pipe, all kinds 
of pumps, lead and tin pipe, black- 
smith stock and tools, iron and steel, 
stone quarrymen's tools and stock, 
factory and mill supplies, saws, belts, 
files, grindstones, locks, and wooden 
ware. 

Besides their heavy local trade 
they receive a large business through 
the mail, and they do their best to sat- 
isfy absent customers. 



PUBLISHER'S DEPARTMENT. 



*59 



NOTICE. The friends of the 
Granite Monthly will kindly note 
the fact that the March number of 
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end the volume in December. 

A|l those in arrears for the Granite 
Monthly will please remit promptly 
the amount due to the publisher. 
John N. McClintock, 

Concord, N. PI. 



A XEW HAMPSHIRE HOOK 



Brewster's "Rambles about Portsmouth." 



Sketches of Persons, Localities and 
Incidents of 

TWO CEISTTUPMES. 

Principally from tradition and unput 
lished documents. 



NOTICE. The New Massachu- 
setts Magazine, The Bay State 
Monthly, is clubbed with the Granite 
Monthly. S4.00 will pay for a year's 
subscription for both. 

John N. McClintock & Company, 
Publishers, 
31 Milk Street. Boston. Mass. 



A book much read, highly com 
mended, and often quoted. 

Written by Charles W. Brewster. 
Published and for sale by 

LEWIS VV. BREWSTER, 

Publisher of the PortsmoutJi Journal, 
Portsmouth, N. H. 

Fob. 'S4. 



FOE 



OFFE R 



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$3,Ot>J> EUuert County, Col., School I3»xad«, 

which pay 8 per cent, semi-annually, and have about 10 years to run. 
$2,5!>4> Parb (CosarUy, Col., £rIao*>! ES:>zai3s. 

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upon improved farms: and city property, in sums from $300 to $10,000. 
Knswsas 'S per eesit. ISortgrag-e JLoaias, 

upon improved farms and city property, in all sums. 

Board of Trade Slock, Concord Gas Stock, Page Belting Stock, 

Stocks and Bonds bought and sold in Boston and New York markets. We 
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Interest 011 everything? so2<l by us payable at our office. 

JScsT* All inquiries promptly answered.* 3 ^® 

BAIIiE FS BJLOCK, COS? COM®, M. Iff. 



There is :i resurrection of nature's latent vigor 
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the channel.- <>f life. Ayer's Sarsaparilla is the 
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The sunken eye, the palid complexion, the dis- 
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is something wrung going on within. Expel the 
lurking foe to health. Ayer's Sarsapar ilia was 
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A high mandarin of China, in ins letter of 
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"Sweet Curing Seeds"~-a very appropriate name! 
They are sweet, they cure, and are therefore the 
most profitable "seeds" a sick man. can invest in. 



i6o 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



MASSACHUSETTS 

MUTUAL 



Wl Li 



company, 



SPRINGFIELD, MASS 



Incorporated, 1851, 



Purely JVt utual! 



Assets, Dec. 31st, 1883, 
Liabilities, Dec. 31st, 1883, 

Surplus, Massachusetts Standard, 

" New York " (about) 



§7,588,727.32 
§6,775,384.10 

§813,312.92 
§1,311,600 



IMPOBTAIT. 

All policies, after two annual premiums have been paid, 
have a fixed and definite paid up and cash value, according 
to the law of the State. This equitable provision of the 
law combines the elements of a SAVINGS BANK with 
those of Life Insurance. 



M. V. IS. MOGJEMM^ 

2d Vice President and Manager of Agencies. 



I*. C. CcOlJJLIJ, Special Agent, 

MANCHESTER, N. EL 





3 2 Ci 



THE 



GRANITE MONTHLY, 

A NEW HAMPSHIRE MAGAZINE 

Devoted to Literature, Biography, History, and State Progress. 



Vol. VII. 



JUXE, 1884. 



'No. 6. 



HON. JAMES E. LOTHROP— MAYOR OE DOVER. 



BY REV. ALONZO H. QUINT. D. D. 



It is true that New Hampshire has 
been prolific in sons who. without 
special advantages of fortune, have 
so developed and applied their own 
force of character as to make them- 
selves felt in business and public life. 
Perhaps our native stock, perhaps the 
character of our soil which requires 
energy, have caused this abundance of 
the true wealth and prosperity of a 
State. But while such men are not 
few, it is well to put them upon 
record, as illustrations of success aris- 
ing from energy, integrity, and industry. 

James Elbridge Lotkrop, now on 
his second term as Mayor of Dover, 
was born 50 November, 1826, in 
Rochester, N. H., on the farm of his 
maternal grandfather, Samuel Home, 
three miles south of Rochester village. 
He was the son of Daniel and Sophia 
(Horae) Lothrop. He is descended 
from a sound stock on both sides. His 
first American ancestor, on his father's 
side, Mark Lothrop, was younger 
brother of Rev. John Lothrop, the 
first minister of Scituate, Mass., and 
grandson of John Lowthorpe, of Low- 
thorpc, Yorkshire, England. Mark 
was in Salem, Mass., in 1643, but 
removed to Duxbury, and thence to 
Bridgewater in 1656, where he died 
in 1686. His grandson Mark mar- 
ried Hannah Alden, a great-grand 

VII— 11 



daughter of John Alden, of the May- 
flower, by his wife Prisciila Mullins. 
commemorated in history and in Long- 
fellow's charming poem. The one 
who said, " Why not speak for your- 
self, John?" was the direct ancestress 
of James E. Lothrop. On the ma- 
ternal side, Mr. Lothrop is descended 
from William Home, of Home's Hill 
in Dover, who held his exposed posi- 
tion in the Indian wars, and whose 
estate has been in the family name 
from 1662 until the present genera- 
tion ; but he was killed in the massa- 
cre of 28 June, 1689. Through the 
Llorne line, also, came descent from 
Rev. Joseph Hull, minister at Dur- 
ham in 1662, a graduate at the uni- 
versity at Cambridge. England ; from 
John Ham, of Dover ; from the emi- 
grant John Heard, and others of like 
vigorous stock. It was his ancestress, 
Elizabeth (Hull) Heard, whom the 
old historians call a " brave gentlewo- 
man," held her garrison-house, the 
frontier fort in Dover in the Indian 
wars, and successfully defended it in 
the massacre of June 28, 16S9. 

The year after the son's birth, the 
father bought a farm on Haven's Hill, 
in Rochester, and removed thither. 
In this commanding highland, the 
son's home continued to be for the 
next fifteen years. Two other sons 



l62 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



were born, John C. and Daniel. It 
was a true home in which the boys 
lived. The father was a man of ster- 
ling qualities, strong in mind and will, 
but commanding love as well as re- 
spect. He was trusted with legisla- 
tion and with places which required 
fidelity and strength. The mother 
was a woman of outward beauty and- 
beauty of soul alike ; with high ideals 
arid reverent conscientiousness. Her 
influence over her boys was life-long. 
The home was a centre of intelligent 
intercourse, a sample of the simplicity 
but earnestness of many of our best 
New Hampshire homesteads. The 
mother lived until just after the eldest. 
James, had come of age ; the father 
survived for many years. 

Daniel Lothrop, senior, the father, 
while owning a farm, was a mason by 
occupation, and hence, in an exten- 
sive business, necessarily came to be 
much away from home. As James 
grew, he had a position of responsi- 
bility as the eldest of the three boys. 
But his early life was the usual life of 
a boy at that time on a New Hamp- 
shire farm. He was sturdy and self- 
reliant. He attended school in the 
district school-house winters, and 
worked on the farm summers. For 
several summers, in his father's neces- 
sary absence, the boy did a man's full 
work upon the farm. When he was 
nine years of age, he walked from 
Rochester to Dover, purchased a large 
Latin lexicon for his own use, and 
walked home the same day with his 
prize. When he was ten years of age, 
he used to take a load of wood to' 
Dover, and sell it before seven o'clock 
in the morning, and it is noticeable 
that the open market-place was Frank- 
lin Square, where his extensive prop- 
erty interests were to be largely situ- 
ated, and where he looks out daily 
from his principal place of business 
upon the spot where, a boy of ten 
years, he used to sell his wood. 

His attendance on district schools 
was not sufficient, and he obtained 
instruction of a higher grade, partly at 
an academy in Rochester village, and 



partly at Strafford Academy, of which 
Rev. Orin B. Cheney was then princi- 
pal, now President of Bates College. 
In the winter of 1842-3, when he was 
sixteen years of age, he taught the 
winter school in upper Rochester dis- 
trict, following with a private school in 
the same place. 

At that time he had so far progressed 
in study, that he was ready to enter 
college, that summer, a year in ad- 
vance. But in the spring before he 
would have entered college, in 1S43, 
he followed the advice of his maternal 
uncle. Jeremiah Home, m. d., a suc- 
cessful practitioner of medicine then 
in Fall River ; went to Fall River, 
commenced the study of that profes- 
sion in the office and under the in- 
struction of his uncle, and learned 
also the drug business in his uncle's 
drug store. 

He remained with Dr. Home two 
years, and then, in 1S45, returned 
home. He had fifteen dollars, made 
by a little traffic allowed him in the 
drug store of his uncle. 

In the fall of that year, Mr. Loth- 
rop, with three hundred dollars loaned 
him by his father, with the knowledge 
and experience acquired in the drug 
store of his uncle at Fall River, opened 
such a store in Dover. He was but 
nineteen years of age. But years are 
not necessary to pluck and ability. 
From that simple beginning by a boy, 
and with that little borrowed capital, 
has grown a business rapidly approach- 
ing, and soon to surpass, a million of 
dollars annually. 

It was the same year in which Morrill's 
brick block was finished. Mr. Loth- 
rop did not then know that this then 
elegant building would by-and-by come 
under his care. He opened his drug 
store in a little wooden building, a 
little north. The store in which is 
the Lothrop clothing house occupies 
almost exactly the same spot. It was 
one of a group of wooden buildings, 
which were afterwards to be pulled 
down to make place for the lofty and 
elegant Morrill's new block, which 
completes the whole distance on 



HON. JAMES E. LOTHROP. 



Franklin Square from Second to Third 
streets. 

For a year or more, he conducted 
the business entirely alone, doing all 
its work ; and then by night himself 
carrying circulars and other advertis- 
ing papers around to the houses of 
the citizens. Of course, he com- 
manded success, and he came to 
need help. 

Besides, he had begun the study of 
medicine, and he wished to complete 
it. He desired to attend lectures at 
Brunswick, Me., and afterwards to 
graduate at Philadelphia ; and he 
called to his assistance his younger 
brother, Daniel Lothrop, then fitted 
for college. 

He urged the young boy to take 
charge of the store, promising as an 
extra inducement an equal division as 
to profits, and that the firm should 
read " D. Lothrop & Co." This last 
was too much for an ambitious lad. 
When five years of age, he had 
scratched on a piece of tin these 
magic words, opening to fame and 
honor, " D. Lothrop 6c Co.," nailing 
the embryo sign against the door of his 
play-house. How then could he re- 
sist, now, at fourteen? And why not 
spend the vacation in this manner? 
And so the sign was made and put 
up, and thus began the house of " D. 
Lothrop & Co.," the name of which is 
spoken as a household word wherever 
the English language is used, and 
whose publications are loved in more 
than one of the royal families of Eu- 
rope. 

James E. Lothrop took the degree 
of M. D., at Jefferson Medical Col- 
lege, in 1848, and returned to Dover. 
But the increasing opportunities of a 
rapidly growing business had become 
so important that his whole attention 
was demanded in that direction, and 
he relinquished the idea of practicing 
medicine. His medical knowledge, 
however, was of good service in the 
drug business, to whose success he 
gave his earnest labor. It is perhaps 
needless to say that the little borrowed 
capital of $300 was repaid to his 



father two years after the loan was 
made. 

The business became lucrative. 
About three years after its origin, it 
was decided that Daniel open a simi- 
lar store at Newmarket, still for D. 
Lothrop & Co. James remained, and 
has ever since, in Dover, the financial 
manager of the firm. In a short time, 
the second brother, John C. Lothrop, 
was received into the firm. After the 
elder brother's departure from home, 
John C. had necessarily taken his 
place in farm work. But he demanded 
a business life. He was received on 
equal terms with the others. He was 
placed with Daniel, at Newmarket, and 
learned the drug business. 

These three brothers have presented 
a most remarkable spirit of family 
union. Remarkable in that there was 
none of the drifting away from each 
other into perilous friendships and 
moneyed ventures. They held firmly 
to each other with a trust beyond 
words. The simple word of each was 
as good as a bond. And as early as 
possible they entered into an agree- 
ment that all three should combine 
fortunes, and, though keeping distinct 
kinds of business, should share equal 
profits under the firm name of " D. 
Lothrop & Co." For thirty-six years, 
through all the stress and strain of 
business life in this rushing age, their 
loyalty has been preserved strong and 
pure. Without a question or a doubt, 
there has been an absolute unity of 
interests, although James E., President 
of the Cocheco Bank and Mayor of 
the city of Dover, is in one city, John 
C, in another, and Daniel in still an- 
other, and each having the particular 
direction of businesses which their 
enterprise and sagacity have made ex- 
tensive and profitable. 

After John C. Lothrop had learned 
the business, they proceeded to estab- 
lish a store at Meredith Village, and 
still another was opened at Amesbury 
Mills, Mass. All of these prospered, 
and the extent of business made pur- 
chases easy. But, as profitable oppor- 
tunities offered, these were ail sold. 



164 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



On the disposal of the Newmarket 
store, John C. Lothrop was placed in 
a drug store at Great Falls. This was 
continued until the added business of 
clothing became specially profitable, 
and the drug store was disposed of, 
and John C. Lothrop still remains 
there in that branch. 

In Dover, where the drug business 
had become concentrated, it had also 
become expanded. There was a fa- 
vorable opportunity to purchase the 
former business of Dr. Joseph H. 
Smith, and it was purchased, and car- 
ried on, under the oversight of Dr. 
James E. Lothrop, by salesmen. This 
he removed to the corner of Wash- 
ton and Central Streets, and built up 
a business, but sold it in 1S66. The 
old buildings on Franklin Square were 
torn down, and they moved into the 
brick block. It was absolutely neces- 
sary, from increase of business, to 
enlarge their working force, and they 
conveyed to Mr. Alonzo T. Pinkham 
a half interest. The drug store was 
then carried on under the style of 
Lothrops & Pinkham, and is still suc- 
cessful in the highest degree. 

When, about twenty-nine years ago, 
Oliver Wyatt left the store next above 
Morrill's brick block, and transferred 
his clothing business to the south side 
of the river, Mr. Lothrop conceived 
that there was still a great opportunity 
for such a business on the north side. 
The firm of D. Lothrop & Co. accord- 
ingly seized upon the vacant store and 
opened a clothing house. Doubtless 
they were also influenced by the fact 
that their father, Daniel Lothrop, sen- 
ior, desired to enter some such busi- 
ness, and the style of this house was 
Daniel Lothrop <x: Sons. They early 
established branches at Rochester and 
Great Falls. That at Rochester was 
sold out profitably in due time. 
The firm purchased, also, about six- 
teen years ago, the clothing business 
of Joshua Varney, but about five years 
after they brought it to the home store 
on Franklin Square. 

While the new block was building, 
their whole clothing business was ne- 



cessarily in the Varney store. Since 
its return it has remained in the elegant 
room in the new block. Two changes, 
however, occurred. The father, Daniel 
Lothrop, senior, did not enter the new 
building. Just before its completion, 
his lamented decease returned the firm 
to its former three members. An ad- 
dition became necessary. A brother, 
M. Henry Lothrop (late president of 
the Common Council of Dover), after 
eight years' servive as safesman, in 1877 
took one half interest in the clothing 
business here, D. Lothrop <\: Co. re 
taining the other half, and M. Henry 
Lothrop being in charge of this busi- 
ness. Since 1S70 they have been in 
the new, lofty, spacious store which 
forms the centre of Morrill's new block. 
But in 1SS0, M. Henry Lothrop was 
transferred to the Boston department, 
and the firm entered into partnership 
with Charles H. Farnham & Co., who 
took a half interest in the clothing busi- 
ness in Dover, and that business is 
conducted by Lothrops, Farnham &C0. 

To the Dover business was also 
added, in 1S73, another department, 
consisting of musical instruments, 
music, and machines, which has since 
grown to immense proportions, being 
now the largest of its kind in the state 
and probably in New England. 

The subordinate management of all 
these various departments of business 
must necessarily be in the immediate 
care of responsible interested parties, 
yet the general finance and leadership 
of the whole rests with James E. Loth- 
rop. 

It should be noted also, that in a 
critical time of business, 1857-9, owing 
to the absence and temporary illness 
of Daniel Lothrop, the whole extended 
business, in every direction, was thrown 
into the hands of James E. Lothrop, 
who conducted it with steady success. 

The name of D. Lothrop & Co. has 
even more than a national reputation. 
In 1850, in Dover, they purchased the 
stock of books held by Elijah Wadleigh, 
and began business as book-sellers. In 
1852 they purchased the entire build- 
ing. In addition to their retail busi- 



HON. JAMES E. I.OTHROP. 



165 



ness they built up a good jobbing 
trade, and did a little in publish- 
ing. In a few years, however, the 
ambition of the house wanted a 
broader field ; they sold the Dover 
book business, and Daniel Lothrop 
went to Boston and opened a store — 
D. Lothrop & Co. — at Nos. 38 and 40 
Cornhill. These were fine quarters, 
and the business was a success. 

In February, 1S76, they took the 
superb apartments of the whole four- 
story double store on Franklin Street, 
corner of Hawley, and fitted up a store 
running the whole depth with an ele- 
gance unsurpassed. A very large busi- 
ness has been built up, and the great 
success of their publishing work has 
required them, the present year, to lease 
additional a five-story building on Pur- 
chase Street, for manufacturing pur- 
poses. Besides their books, a class 
which for beauty of design and exquis- 
iteness of illustration are nowhere sur- 
passed, four periodicals have a world- 
wide fame, — Baby- Land, Pansy, Little 
Men End Women, and Wide-Awake. 

The immediate direction of the 
Boston business is of course in that 
city. But there the sagacity of the 
elder brother in Dover is often of great 
help. The general financial care also 
rests with him. The Boston manager 
can draw on James E. Lothrop at sight. 
The entire supervision of the Dover 
business is of course in his care. 
Never disturbed by fluctuations in busi- 
ness, apparently never busy, never ruf- 
fled in temper, keen in judgment, fertile 
in resources, the senior partner seems 
never to have a care resting upon him. 

At the same time, Dr. Lothrop has 
the entire care of real estate, com} (ris- 
ing fifteen stores and fifty-seven tene- 
ments, including the Morrill estate. 
He has been a director in the Cochecho 
National Bank from 1S58, was chosen 
Vice-President in 1S73, and has been 
its President since 1876. That his ad- 
ministration in that capacity has been 
particularly successful, is evidenced by 
the former and present standing of that 
institution. In 1871 he became a di- 
rector in the Cochecho Aqueduct Asso- 



ciation, its clerk in 1872, and from 
1875 its president. He is also a di- 
rector in the Portsmouth & DoveF R. R., 
in the Eliot Bridge Company, and in 
the Dover Horse Railroad ; and has 
been president of the Dover Board of 
Trade. To carry all these interests so 
successfully and satisfactorily requires 
skill, energy and public confidence. 

In the year 1S72, Mr. Lothrop was 
representative in the legislature. But 
his main public office has been and is, 
that of mayor of the city of Dover. 
L^pon this office he entered in January, 
1S83, and he gave himself heartily and 
carefully to the work of its duties. He 
began by establishing daily office hours, 
when he could always be found in the 
mayor's office. This ensured a close 
attention {o business in all directions. 
The care of a great business of his own, 
and with uniform success due to good 
organization, prudent forethought, 
known integrity and energetic action, 
fitted him for the work of the city, — 
which is simply a business to be con- 
ducted on business principles. As that 
he recognized it, and he attended to 
its concerns precisely as he would at- 
tend to his own private business. 

The prominent points in his admin- 
istration for the first year, were more 
than usually important. 

1. What was ca'led the Knibb's 
valve case, a suit for damages for al- 
leged infringement of patent upon 
some device in the fire steamers of the 
Amoskeag company. Suits were to be 
br o u gh t a 1 1 o v er t h e c o u n t r y . Tr o y , N . Y. , 
it was said, had acknowledged the claim. 
The complainant had begun with New 
Hampshire, as precedent to attacking 
Boston ; and in our state it began with 
Dover. An agreement was made be- 
tween the New Hampshire cities. The 
complainant demanded of Dover, 
$65,000 ; he gradually lowered his de- 
mand until, the trial coming on, Dover 
could settle for (say) $900, if she would 
acknowledge the claim and thus give 
the plaintiff the benefit of a verdict. 
It is not too much to say that Mr. 
Lothrop's inflexible determination to 
fight what he believed to be an out- 



V 



i66 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



rageous demand, prevented all serious 
talk of a compromise. Dover won the 
suit,— rfor the city of Boston ! 

2. The departure of the shoe busi- 
ness had seriously hurt trade in Dover. 
The mayor entered upon the work of 
recalling it by inducing the citizens to 
offer special facilities. This work is 
already successful, and the % tide is 
turned. 

3. But the one which he will doubt- 
less pride himself upon, is the estab- 
lishment of a free public library. A 
private library had existed. The mayor 
brought forward the subject in his in- 
augural address. He framed and pre- 
sented a plan by which the city could 
obtain the books of the old library ; 
secured the passage of an ordinance 
by the city council, and when the ne- 
cessary legislation was had from the 
state, found the people ready to make 
liberal appropriations. The library is 
established and has been largely in- 
creased. Dr. Lothrop is chairman of 
the board of trustees, not ex-officio, 
but by spontaneous election. His ad- 
ministration will always be remembered 
as the one in which Dover had its pub- 
lic library, and his name will be forever 
linked with this great public benefit. 

When his term of office was to ex- 
pire, however, the question of re-elec- 
tion came up. Some local disturbances 
as to the location of a public building 
had irritated some persons. Rarely 
has a mayor, it is believed, in Dover re- 
ceived as much majority on his second 
candidacy as on his first. But the re- 
sult was a gratifying endorsement. He 
had the rare endorsement of being re- 
elected by an increased majority. 

The following extract from Foster's 
Democrat, just previous to his elec- 
tion, expresses the sentiment of those 
who have best known him during his 
business career of nearly forty years in 
Dov er : 

" This being the case, a good, prac- 
tical, energetic and successful business 
man is necessary, a man of public 
spirit and enterprise, a man who knows 
the principles of true economy and 
how to practice them without being 



penurious, a man of honor and integ- 
rity, who can safely be entrusted with 
the control of all city improvements 
and enterprises without being contin- 
ually suspected of having a "job" to 
feather his own nest, a man who can 
be trusted in private affairs and is 
known to be good for his word of 
honor every time, not a perfect man, 
for there are none such, they have not 
yet been created, but a good, fair and 
square representative of the intelligence 
and business of our honorable business 
people is wanted. 

" Now look all around and see if a 
better one, all things considered, can 
be found than the President of our 
Dover Board of Trade, James E. Loth- 
rop, to the manor born. On a political 
issue, being Democratic ourselves, we 
might feel it a political duty to vote 
against him, but on a simple citizen's 
issue, which we hold to be the only 
one that should ever enter into a muni- 
cipal election, there is no man we 
would more gladly and eagerly vote for 
than Dr. Lothrop. We know him in a 
business way like a book, and a squarer 
and more honorable man does not live. 
He would make a good mayor." 

The day following the second elec- 
tion, the same paper said : — 

' ; Now a word in regard to Mr. Loth- 
rop. We are not sorry he is re-elected,, 
not at all. He does not agree with us 
in politics, but he is one of the best 
men we know of for all o' that, and 
Dover never had a better mayor, in our 
judgment. If any Democrat wants to 
vote for a Republican, we commend 
his good sense when he selects Dr. 
Lothrop as that Republican. He is as 
good as any of them, and ten times 
better than a great many of either Re- 
publicans or Democrats. He has been 
a good officer the past year and will, 
we predict, be a better one the year to 
come." 

The Republican, on the day follow- 
ing the election, said as follows : — 

"Apart, for the present, from all par- 
tisan consideration, the re-election of 
Mayor Lothrop, Tuesday, by a decisive 
and increased majority, is an event 



HON. JAMES E. LOTHROP. 



167 



worthy of notice. It would have been 
a calamity if he had been defeated, as 
it would have shown a lack of appre- 
ciation of earnest, zealous, faithful and 
successful devotion to the city's service, 
and thus have discouraged future pub- 
lic servants. If the little disagreements 
which always attend an administration 
are to be so magnified and fostered as 
to become formidable, only evil can 
result. 

"The result shows that the people 
appreciate Mayor Lothrop's services. 
During his first year, grave questions, 
like the ' valve ' suit, were settled by 
a victory for the city, vexatious suits 
for damages by accidents have seen 
their downfall, the fire department has 
been put on a capital footing, and the 
streets have been steadily improved. 
No one will pretend that the mayor 
does all these. But to the firmness of 
the mayor, his active energy, and his 
deep interest in all city affairs, these 
successes have owed much of their 
work. The mayor has been at his 
duties daily. He has watched ever}' 
department. He has added to his of- 
ficial work the experience and capacity 
of a business man with large personal 
interests and successful career, and the 
people appreciate it. Not the least has 
been his untiring efforts to add new 
business and recall old to Dover, which 
now promise a gratifying success. Nor 
will the future ever forget that the 
Dover Public Library owes its origin 



emphatically to Mayor Lothrop's plan 
and persistent endeavors. 

" Mayor Lothrop may well be proud 
of the fact that, in the face of some 
local divisions, he is elected by an in- 
creased majority — the only Instance 
save one or two, we believe, in the his- 
tory of our city. And not the less grat- 
ifying and complimentary is his appre- 
ciation by his own ward. That ward, 
which gave him ninety-two majority, 
this year quietly doubles it, making it 
one hundred and eighty-four. He may 
well be proud of the opinion of his 
neighbors." 

In his happy domestic relations, — 
Dr. Lothrop married Mary E.. daughter 
of the late Joseph Morrill. Mr. Mor- 
rill came to Dover when a young man, 
from Amesbury, Mass., and engaged in 
the making of nails. He subsequently 
and for many years was connected with 
the Cocheco Manufacturing Company, 
but eventually left that position to man- 
age his large real estate investments, in 
which his foresight had led him early 
to engage. Mr. Morrill's thrift and care 
met with large success, and he stood 
high, also, in the esteem of community. 
Of the high estimation in which his 
daughter Mrs. Lothrop is held, it is 
needless to write. 

In politics Dr. Lothrop is Republi- 
can. In church relation he is a Meth- 
odist, and has been a teacher in the 
Sunday school for more than forty 
years. 



CORRECTION. 



Rev. Benjamin Ray Hoyt. (Gran- 
ite Monthly, Vol. 6, May Number, 
1883, page 235.) In his valuable arti- 
cle, the late Hon. Thomas L. Tullock 
states that Rev. Benjamin Ray Hoyt 



was born in " Braintree," Mass. He 
was born in New Braintree, County 
Worcester, Mass. 

A. H. II. 

Boston, Jan., 1884. 



i-68 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



THE WARNER HOME AT PORTSMOUTH. 



BY FRED MYRON COLBY. 



No one can walk the tree-arched 
streets of Portsmouth — streets which 
have witnessed more sights, and 
grander ones, than almost any other 
in America — and gaze upon its grand 
old houses, filled with the treasures 
and traditions of colonial times, and 
not have rise within him a feeling of 
appreciative reverence and respectful 
homage for the men and women who 
gave character and fame to this "'city 
by the sea.** Magical names are 
those that once made Portsmouth 
famous, and still make her dear to all 
who love brave deeds and a glorious 
past. "Went worth, Langdon, Warner, 
Sherburne, Sheafe, Penhallow, Haven, 
Whipple, JarTrey, — are they not his- 
toric names which need neither crest 
nor motto nor escutcheon to show 
that blood as blue as the waters of Pis- 
cataqua still nous through Portsmouth 
families? Emblematic of the storied 
past that enwreaths these names and 
the houses they lived in, pointing sig- 
nificantly to peace, prosperity, and a 
certain pride that is self-respecting 
and respected, are those urn-topped 
posts, that stand like stately sentinels 
guarding the gateways of these ancient 
mansions. The;/ tell a story well- 
defined and serious of greatness and 
patrician wealth and courtly ease 
almost equal to the loftier structure 
itself which sheltered the generations 
of the past. 

The sculptured posts and gateways 
are typical, we say : the houses them- 
selves not only represent ideas, but 
they tell of a history and a social life 
remarkable alike for its picturesque 
charm and romantic interest. To the 
mind of the reflective visitor there is 
something in the manorial chimneys 
and the dadoed walls of the homes of 
our forefathers, that produces involun- 
tary impressions of grandeur and re- 
spect, and conjures to fancy an image 



of antiquity, at once attractive and 
touching. Nor is this sentiment the 
offspring of modern refinement simply. 
The large, roomy apartments, wain- 
scotted, with deep fire-places, costly 
moulding, embrasured windows, and 
paintings from the hands of dead 
masters, are cosy, comfortable, and 
luxurious themselves. We know by 
experience how pleasant it is of a 
summer morning or a winter evening 
to be ushered into one of these shad- 
ed parlors. The rich coloring that 
was gorgeous and brilliant has been 
softened and mellowed by age ; the 
furniture, antique in shape and style, 
has been polished by many hands — 
carved and claw-footed tables that 
grimly frown at us, convex mirrors 
that reflect to their depths a dimin- 
ished picture of what passes before 
them and seem emblematic of the 
past, chairs of heavy and ornamental 
pattern that may have come over in 
the Mayflower — all these appeal to 
the heart and tell stirring tales rich 
with an Arabesque splendor, so that 

-The tide of time flow'd back with me. 
'1 he forward flowing tide of time." 

While looking down upon it all were 
portraits of kings' councillors, colonial 
governors, and patrician dames, whose 
descendants live in these houses, and 
who bear in manner and in breeding 
those unmistakable marks winch only 
ancient lineage can give. 

The Warner house is one of the 
grandest as it is one of the most in- 
teresting of these old mansions of our 
State which are the delight of anti- 
quarians. Constructed about the 
time that saw Westover rise on James 
river and Phillipse Manor House on 
the Hudson, it resembles them some- 
what. Like them it is built of brick, 
three stories in height, with gambreled 
roof and luthern windows. The walls 



THE WARNER HOME AT PORTSMOUTH. 



169 



are a foot and a half in thickness, 
composed entirely of brick, every one 
of which was imported from Holland. 
As quarried stone was not in general 
use then for underpinning the bricks 
extend beneath the earth and are laid 
" headers and stretchers.*' The rich 
had a stately way of living then as 
now, and the Warner house is a fine 
and substantial sample of the archi- 
tecture of that period. The mansion 
cost in building ^6,000. 

Singularly enough the house does 
not bear the name of the builder. 
He was Capt. Archibald Macpheadris, 
a yellow-haired Scotchman, as crotch- 
ety as his late conntryman, Carlyle, 
an indefatigable worker, a prosperous 
merchant and speculator, whose thrift 
brought him wealth. He was exten- 
sively engaged in the fur and lumber 
trade, and was the leading projector 
of the first iron works established in 
America. The land of the company 
was in what is now Barrington. There 
was one foundry on Lamprey river. 
How long the work was continued is 
not known.* 

The social distinctions of Captain 
Macpheadris were many and impor- 
tant. He had a large household of 
servants and slaves, four African Can- 
daces sewing in parlor and kitchen. 
He owned at one time nearly twelve 
thousand acres of land, and kept 
some thousand sheep, from whose 
fleece his extensive househould was 
almost wholly clothed. On his estate 
twenty cows were milked, and a 

*It was in 1719 that the General 
Court of Massachusetts granted to the 
company, of which Capt. Macpheadris 
was the head, a slip of land two miles 
wide, at the head of Dover line, by way. 
of encouragement in the manufacture 
of iron. This land was to furnish fuel 
for the iron works, and a location for 
settling the foreign operatives. The 
work must have gone on for several 
years, and doubtless fell through by the 
death of its prime originator, Macphea- 
dris. Some of the iron fixtures in use 
in the Warner mansion were manufac- 
tured at the Lamprey river iron works. 

Author. 



cheese was made for every day in the 
year. This was the agricultural and 
domestic side ; the social life con- 
sisted of gay entertainments, visiting 
from house to house, fox-hunting and 
horse-riding over his lands — up the 
Piscataqua and the Saco, with his 
agents, after furs and timber, and over 
to Barrington and Durham to oversee 
his iron works. He also had civil 
duties to perform ; he was a magis- 
trate and justice, and from 1720 till 
his death he was a member of the 
king's council. He erected this man- 
sion in the years 171S and '23, and 
died in 172S, aged about sixty years. 

The honorable councillor married, 
late in life, Sarah Wentworth, one of 
the sixteen children of the first Gov- 
ernor John Wentworth, and sister to 
Benning Wentworth. By her he had 
an only child, Mary Macpheadris, 
born 1726. Miss Macpheadris grew 
up a beautiful girl, and was, for a long 
time the belle of Portsmouth. One 
of her suitors was Benjamin Plummer, 
Esq., who died in 1 744. aged twenty- 
four years. He bequeathed in his will 
numerous and valuable presents to 
the young lady that he loved. Mary 
Macpheadris afterwards married John 
Osborne, who died young, a few years 
after his marriage. For her second 
husband she married Hon. Jonathan 
Warner, Oct. 1, 1760, who gave his 
name to the mansion. 

Mr. Warner was a widower at the 
time of his marriage with the mistress 
of the Macpheadris house. He was 
the son of Hon. or Col. Daniel War- 
ner and Sarah (Hill) Warner, and was 
born in 1726, at what is now known 
as the Buck minster House on Isling- 
ton street, which was built by his 
father in 1720. Daniel Warner Was a 
prominent man in the middle of the 
last century. He was one of the 
patricians of New Hampshire. His 
goodly house, with " its antique fix- 
tures," was one of the public orna- 
ments of Portsmouth. He himself 
was a leader in civil and social life. 
His name, with the prefix of " Col- 
onel," is attached to many of the pro- 



i 7 o 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



vincial papers. In 1756 he was made 
one of his majesty's councillors under 
Benning Wentworth. Of his two 
sons, Nathaniel, the youngest, died 
early, of a disappointment in love, 
according to the gossippy author of 
" Rambles about Portsmouth." Jon- 
athan lived to inherit to the prestige 
of his great name and to win a rank 
and fame that exceeded even his 
father's. He married for his first 
wife Miss Mary Nelson, who died ten 
years afterwards, in 175S, leaving a 
daughter, Mary, who married in due 
time Col. Samuel Sherburne, and died 
childless one year after. 

His second marriage was a fortu- 
nate thing to Jonathan Warner. It 
lifted him at once into the front rank 
of colonial nabobs. His wife's wealth 
with his own made him second to 
only a few in the province in point of 
property. Lady Warner's connection 
with the Wentworths, being a neice to 
Governor Benning, and a cousin to 
the second Governor John, was still a 
greater feather in his cap. Warner 
was undoubtedly a man not of inferior 
abilities, his own birth was high, but 
he could never have risen to the 
prominence that he did but for his 
brilliant marital alliance. It did as 
much for him as Washington's mar- 
riage to "Widow Custis," or Benjamin 
Thompson's marriage to the Widow 
Rolfe. In a list of the principal tax- 
payers of Portsmouth for the year 
1770, there are only two others who 
are assessed for larger sums than 
Warner. His tax for town and prov- 
ince expenses is ^27, a large sum in 
those days. 

Hon. Jonathan Warner was one of 
the large slaveholders of the province. 
He owned at least eight or ten. 
Among them was one named Peter, 
of whom the following story is told by 
Mr. Brewster in his "Rambles :" One 
day, feeling the need of a better cov- 
ering for his head, Peter asked his 
master for a new hat. "Well," said 
Mr Warner, " I will get one if you 
will make a rhyme." Verse-making, 
though a passion with some negroes, 



was not one of Peter's accomplish- 
ments, but he was not discouraged. 
In his dilemma he sought the assist- 
ance of Wyseman Claggett, the attor- 
ney-general. He found that gentle- 
man in his office, and at once stated 
his errand. "What is your name?" 
asked the counsellor. 

"Peter Warner, massa," answered 
the darkey. 

"' Peter Warner — threw his hat in 
the chimney corner. There is your 
rhyme," said Claggett, laughing. "Now 
go get your new hat." 

The delighted negro did not allow 
the grass to grow under his feet. He 
burst into the Warner parlor, his black 
face radiant with success and the 
prospect of a new hat. " Massa 
Warner, Massa Warner, I've got the 
rhyme," he cried. 

" Well, let me hear it," said his 
master. 

Peter scratched his head and rolled 
his eves triumphantly : " Peter War- 
ner — took off his hat and threw it — 
in the fire-place." 

Mr. Warner was greatly amused, 
but he gave Peter his hat, remarking 
that he really did better than he had 
expected. 

In 1767, upon the accession of 
John Wentworth as Governor of New 
Hampshire, Jonathan Warner was ap- 
pointed one of the royal councillors 
of the province — a position to which 
he was every way entitled — still it was 
a great honor. Most of the mem- 
bers of the council were much older 
men than Mr. Warner. There was 
Theodore Atkinson, the Appias Clau- 
dius of the colony, reputed to be one 
of its wealthiest citizens, and who 
had held a larger number of offices 
of trust than any other man in New 
Hampshire, who was now upwards of 
seventy years of age. There was Col. 
Peter Gilman, of Exeter, one of the 
proudest of the blue bloods, also a 
septagenarian, and there was his own 
father who was seventy that very year. 
George Jaffrey, whose step-mother 
was Mrs. Warner's mother, the former 
Lady Macpheadris, was ten years his 



THE WARNER HOME AT PORTSMOUTH. 



senior. But though the youngest 
member of that honorable body, in 
wealth, in social position, in his indi- 
vidual qualities, Jonathan Warner was 
not inferior to any. 

Jonathan Warner remained in the 
council until the breaking out of the 
Revolutionary contest, when the royal 
authority was overthrown. It is cus- 
tomary to call him a tory. and his 
name is indeed among those who re- 
fused to sign the Association Test of 
1776. Nearly all those who held 
office under the crown refused to sign 
the test. Councillor Peter Oilman 
was one, and yet he would not have 
been regarded as a dangerous foe to 
liberty, for his fellow citizens chose 
him moderator that very year at their 
annual town-meeting. While some of 
those who refused to sign were Eng- 
lish in sentiment and too strongly at- 
tached to the mother country to rebel, 
there were others who were willing 
that a revolution should take place, 
but would not risk the chance of their 
offices or business by taking a part in 
the rebellion, fearing the consequences 
should it prove a failure. The case 
of Jonathan Warner may be that of 
some others. Warner was a commis- 
sary under the crown, and in his keep- 
ing were some of the munitions of 
war. which were needed by the patri- 
ots. He was waited on by the Sons 
of Liberty, who demanded the keys 
of the storehouse of him. With all 
the sternness of an official "Warner 
answered : " What right have you to 
make such a demand? The keys are 
my private property, I will not give 
them up to anybody ; but if you 
break in my door, what can I do?" 

The patriots took the hint and acted 
upon it. The door was broken open 
that night, and the munitions of war 
removed. The commissary could not 
have regretted the proceeding, by op- 
posing which his reputation as an of- 
ficer did not suffer with his sovereign. 
Meeting one of the patriots the follow- 
ing day, the honorable councillor ob- 
served : " What do you think ! Those 
fellows broke open my store last night, 



and / should not be surprised if they 
do it again to-night." 

If Hon. Jonathan Warner was a 
Tory, he was at least an inoffensive 
one. But we believe that his sym- 
paties were with the colonists. He 
accepted gracefully the result of the 
war, and we find him in several impor- 
tant positions during subsequent years. 
With John Langdon, Joshua Went- 
worth, James Sheafe, and other leading 
citizens, he was one of the committee 
appointed to receive President Wash- 
ington, at the time of his visit to Ports- 
mouth in 17S9. He filled municipal 
offices of trust, and went down hon- 
ored to his grave. 

Lady Warner died in 1780. She 
left no children. Colonel Warner mar- 
ried again in 1 783, his third wife being 
Elizabeth, daughter of Hon. Jonas 
Pitts, of Boston, whose mother was 
sister to Governor James Bowdoin of 
Massachusetts. She died in October, 
1S10. The councillor lived until May 
14, 1 8 14, when he too passed the river, 
at the good old age of eighty-eight 
years. He dressed in the continental 
style to the day of his death, and with 
him disappeared the queues, the knee 
buckles, and the scarlet colored broad- 
cloth cloaks worn by the noblesse of 
colonial times. " We well recollect 
Mr. Warner," says Mr. Brewster, " as 
one of the last of the cocked hats. As 
in a vision of early childhood he is 
still before us, in all the dignity of the 
aristocratic crown officers. That broad- 
backed, long-skirted brown coat, those 
small clothes and silk stockings, those 
silver buckles, and that cane — we see 
them still, although the life that filled 
and moved them ceased half a century 
ago." 

How many times he had passed be- 
tween those pillared posts going and 
coming from his stately mansion house ; 
how had that doorway been thronged 
with servants escorting him to his coach 
in which he rode in state to the levees 
of the governor or to meet him in his 
council chamber ! And through this 
gateway he was borne the last time to 
sleep his long sleep under the sculp- 



1) 



172 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



tured monument in St. John's church- 
yard, only a few rods from his home. 

The Warner house is situated at the 
corner of Daniel and Chapel Streets. 
Though probably the oldest brick 
building in Portsmouth, it is apparently 
as sound and fresh and in as good re- 
pair as though it had been erected 
within twenty years. Proportioned 
after the commodious style of the 
period, its lofty roof and towering 
chimneys must have made no unim- 
portant features in the landscape dur- 
ing the last century before it was 
crowded up so close by inferior build- 
ings. The stories are very high for the 
time in which it was built, the whole 
height of the building being about fifty 
feet. 

The ponderous door swings open at 
the summons of the heavy brazen 
knocker, brought by Captain Macphea- 
dris from England. We enter a deep, 
wide hall, built after a goneby fashion, 
sixteen feet wide and forty-four feet 
long, extending the whole length of 
the house. It looks baronial in its 
grandeur and magnificence. The floor 
is of oak blocked to represent squares. 
The walls are rich with paneling and 
wood-carving. The staircase is a grand 
affair, set at an easy angle and about 
seven feet wide. In the hall-way stands 
a large mahogany table used by the 
Warners, and several of the old family 
chairs. 

Passing under the enormous antlers 
of an elk, presented to Captain Mac- 
pheadris by his Indian friends, and 
which have hung there since, we enter 
the door at the right hand and step 
into the parlor. The room is nearly 
square, twenty by twenty-two feet, with 
dadoed walls, brown and dingy with 
age, and deep seats in the windows. 
It is rich in portraits and stately antique 
furniture. In this one room hang three 
generations, — grandmother, mother 
and daughter, — painted by Copley. It 
is told of a descendant of the famous 
painter, that once when visiting Ports- 
mouth she called to see the portraits 
(each of which would be a precious 
heirloom and guarantee to its possessor 



a patent of aristocracy). She admired 
them greatly and expressed a wish to 
add them to her collection of Copley's. 
When her desire was made known to 
the owner, he answered : " Tell Ma- 
dame I regret to be unable to 

oblige her, for as she values the pic- 
tures as work of her ancestor, no less 
do we value them as excellent portraits 
of ours." 

The room in which these portraits 
hang is wainscotted throughout, and in 
walking into it one seems to have 
stepped back a hundred years. The 
large open chimney-place is decorated 
with Dutch tiles, unique in character, 
representing monsters of the deep, 
galleons and ships, and fat, ludicrous 
mermaids. Everything is ancient and 
antique in the room except the modern 
lambrequins and lace curtains. It even 
smells of antiquity, and you almost 
expect to see starting up to welcome 
you one of those courtly councillors or 
patrician dames who in the long ago 
filled the room with the splendor of 
their presence. They fill it still, for 
there is nothing in the room like the 
portraits — Copley's choicest produc- 
tions — they have as fresh and lifelike 
an appearance as though painted but 
yesterday. They seem to smile right 
out of their frames, and you can all 
but hear their satin gowns rustle. 

Just where the light strikes in a broad 
band, there hangs the portrait of the 
first mistress of the mansion, Lady 
Macpheadris. She is a stately, haughty- 
looking dame, dressed in the graceful 
costume of the time — looped petticoat, 
high-peaked stays, yard long waists, 
figured satins, flowing sleeves, and the 
hair plastered back a la Pompadour. 
Her features are a little hard and stern, 
and the blackness of her hair seems to 
shadow and darken her face. But 
there is an earnestness and force in 
the keen dark eyes, looking straight out 
of the canvas, which impresses one. 
Doubtless in her youth Sarah Went- 
worth was beautiful, beauty was the 
natural dower of the Wentworth race, 
but in the woman of fifty-five there is 
more dignity than beauty, more pride 



THE WARNER HOME AT PORTSMOUTH. 



*73 



than loveliness. She was a grand and 
gallant dame, but not a gracious one, 
I wot. 

Lady Macpheadris, in the tenth year 
of her widowhood, became the second 
wife of George Jaffrey, Esq., and went 
to be the mistress of his mansion, now 
known as the Jaffrey house on Daniel 
Street, only a few steps from her former 
residence. Judge Jaffrey was one of 
the large men of his day, and kept an 
open house and coach and servants. 
He died in May, 1749. His wife sur- 
vived him nearly thirty years, living in 
widowhood in the old house with her 
stepson, Hon. George JafTrey, 3d, his 
majesty's councillor. 

Her daughter, Lady Warner, was a 
beauty. She is not so haughty looking 
as her mother, but a superb and stately 
dame withal. Her type of loveliness 
is rare, and the fascinating beauty of 
her face haunts one like a dream. Like 
Spartan Helen, she seems 

; 'A daughter of the gods, divinely tall, 
And most divinely fair." 

Her eyes are brown, full, large and 
soft ; her rich red lips are sweetly smil- 
ing ; her nose is slightly aquiline, just 
enough to give character to the face, 
and is very handsome. Her silky 
brown hair, lustrous and abundant, is 
arranged like a coronet upon her head 
and adorned with a string of pearls. 
She is dressed in a robe of light silk, 
low breasted, with waves of lace about 
the neck and sweeping over the arms, 
whose fairness and shapely outline rival 
those of the Vandyke and Lely beau- 
ties at Hampton Court. 

A fair young girl with blue eyes and 
flossy golden hair, smiles out from a 
gilded frame between these two statelv 
dames. This too is by Copley, and is 
the picture of Mary, Colonel Warner's 
daughter by his first wife. So here are 
three generations side by side. There 
are six Copley's in this room. No 
house in Portsmouth has more or better 
examples of that artist's art. We can 
only speak of one more. 

On the opposite side of the wall 
gazes down a portly, John-Bull-looking 



gentleman, with the peruke, small 
clothes, voluminous waistcoat and 
laced cuffs of George the Second's 
time. We suspect at once that this 
stout, well-conditioned gentleman is 
one of the ancient masters of the 
house. But we are mistaken. It is the 
elder Warner, the councillor, Daniel, 
who died in 1779. There is nothing 
peculiar in his external appearance, 
save perhaps a general well-to-do full- 
ness of person, an air of pleasurable 
self-satisfaction and contentment. Ev- 
erything about him is full and round, 
neck and cheeks, chin and hands. He 
looks like a comfortable Hamburg ship 
owner or captain, but there is an air of 
polished ease about him which be- 
speaks the gentleman of the old school. 

Of him who was so long the master 
of the house there is no portrait in his 
own residence. There is, however, a 
portrait of him by Copley in the Bos- 
ton Museum of Fine Arts, which I 
have seen. If that is to be depended 
upon, and there is no doubt of it not 
being a true likeness, Hon. Jonathan 
Warner was a strikingly handsome man. 
Tall, slender, erect, dressed richly in a 
garb of gray broadcloth, with a frank, 
fearless, courteous face, he is the beau 
ideal of the patrician gentleman. His 
face has a ruddy color as if flushed by 
generous quaffs of Madeira. His eyes 
are dark and piercing, his nose aqui- 
line, his forehead high and full ; his 
lips curl slightly and are very hand- 
some, his hair is powdered and he 
wears a queue. Such was the gentle- 
man in honor of whom the town in 
Merrimack county, the former Ames- 
bury, took its name. 

We leave the ancient parlor with 
regret, and ascend the noble stairway 
over which in the olden time have 
passed the light feet of many a grace- 
ful dame of the old regime. Three of 
them could walk abreast up its low in- 
clination with the hooped petticoats of 
the period and not be crowded. There 
are some interesting pictures on the 
walls — not by Copley this time. At 
the head of the stairs on the broad 
space each side of the hall windows 



174 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



are the pictures of two Indians, life size. 
There they tower in their furs and 
plumed coronets, as if guarding the 
stairway. They are said to be the 
portraits of two forest sagamores with 
whom Captain Macpheadris had deal- 
ings in the fur trade, and who, very 
likely, feasted with him more than 
once in his grand mansion. 

There are other pictures to be seen 
in this hall-way : the walls fairly glow 
with life. Here rides Gov. Phipps on 
his war charger, large as life, and 
painted in the full costume of a Brit- 
ish officer. Four or five hundred 
square feet are covered with sketches 
in color, landscapes, views of distant 
cities, figure pieces, and Biblical 
scenes. Some of these sketches are 
unique. On one side is seen Abra- 
ham offering up Isaac, with all the 
accessories — the angel, the ram. Oscc. — 
the patriarch clad like a buccaneer of 
the seventeenth century. Near by 
sits a lady at a spinning wheel, who 
is interrupted in her labors by a hawk 
lighting among her chickens. 

There are ten great chambers in the 
house, all of them wainscotted to the 
ceiling, and several of them contain- 
ing the original furniture. Here are 
two bridal chambers, dim and fra- 
grant, with azure hangings and cur- 
tains of pale gold. And there are 
death chambers, too, where the cold, 
white faces have laid, staring out from 
their funeral shroud. Ah, what a 
mystery is this death, coming upon us 
in the midst of our activity, and lay- 
ing us prostrate and helpless beneath 
the sod ! How it faces us in life, like 
the mummy at the Egyptian feast, 
ever reminding us of the night that 
cometh to all men ! Happy he who 
has learned not to fear this darkness. 

Across the hall-way from the parlor 
is the old dining-room of Macphea- 
dris and Warner, now the family sit- 
ting-room. Jn it the visitor finds a 
choice store of family relics — china, 
silver-plate, costumes, old clocks, and 



the like. In one corner stands an 
ancient bookcase made of mahogany. 
It was purchased by Jonathan War- 
ner in 1750, and is an artistically con- 
structed affair. Doors almost as heavy 
as those of a bank vault, secret draw- 
ers and sliding panels, and locks of 
fine, curious workmanship, make up 
a wonderful memento of the crafts- 
man's skill. Inside is a collection of 
antique volumes, several of which 
have the autographs of the colonial 
councillors. One of the books is the 
Hexalpha, or Commentary upon Dan- 
iel, printed in London in 16 10. There 
is also a book of prayer, printed in 
1739, which was presented by Gov. 
Benning Wentworth to his sister, Mrs. 
Macpheadris, and contains his signa- 
ture. 

The old house is full of odds and 
ends. A bric-a-brac hunter could 
here find his paradise. In the treas- 
ured family relics there are a hundred 
curiosities which our limits will not 
allow us even to mention, and which 
would be more pleasing to the anti- 
quarian than a feast. Nor are the at- 
tractions all on the inside. The first 
lightning-rod ever put up in New 
Hampshire protects the Warner house 
to-day from the electric bolt. It was 
put up under the personal supervision 
of Benjamin Franklin himself, nearly 
a century and a quarter ago. 

The present owner of the mansion 
is Mrs. John N.Sherburne, whose hus- 
band was the great nephew of Jona- 
than Warner. Sarah Warner, his sis- 
ter, married Henry Sherburne and 
was mother to Sarah Sherburne who 
married Woodbury Langdon, and of 
Samuel, the father of John N. Sher- 
burne. Col. J. N. Sherburne died in 
1866. The mother of Henry Sher- 
burne, who married Sarah Warner, 
was Dorothy Wentworth, a sister of 
the first Governor John, so that in the 
veins of the present proprietors the 
mingled blood of Sherburne, Warner, 
and Wentworth flow in one rich stream. 



JOHN HARRIS. 



*75 



JOHN HARRIS, 



BY C. C 

John Harris was born in Harvard, 
Mass., October 13, 1769 ; he came to 
Hopkinton, N. H., in 1794 ; he resid- 
ed in Hopkinton till his death, on the 
23d of April, 1S45. 

Generally speaking, a biographical 
sketch is supposed to record the lead- 
ing features of a life that is or was in 
some sense a special factor of society. 
Hence the individual commemorated 
represents in some way the public 
life of his time. Therefore to com- 
prehend John Harris intelligently, one 
must have a definitely correct concep- 
tion of the general state of that soci- 
ety in which he lived. We refer now 
to past society in Hopkinton, for we 
propose to speak of John Harris 
more particularly as a Hopkinton man. 

When John Harris came to Hop- 
kinton, the township was compara- 
tively a new one, just redeemed from 
the wilderness. Consequently. Hop- 
kinton may be said to have been 
at that time pre-eminently a rural 
town. Yet Hopkinton was then a 
thriving town, as it was growing in 
enterprise and population every day. 
Hopkinton kept on growing till about 
1830. On that year the enumeration 
of the United States census showed a 
population of 2.474 persons — the 
highest census ever taken in the town. 
Since then the population of Hopkin- 
ton has been almost steadily declin- 
ing. John Harris came to Hopkinton 
at the age of 25, or, we may say, 
when he was a full-fledged young 
man; in 1S30, he was 61 years old. 
So we may add that Hopkinton's gen- 
eral declension and John Harris' indi- 
vidual declension, began about the 
same time. In this accidental fact, 
we see apparent support of the theory 
of a co-relation between the life of 
a community and that of one who 
prominently figures in it. 

In its earliest days, Hopkinton was 
a rural township by virtue of the brief 



LORD. 

life of its community. Hopkinton is 
to-day a rural township in conse- 
quence of her comparative distance 
from the great centres of traffic and 
trade. But there was a time when 
Hopkinton was something more than 
a rural township. When Hopkinton 
was a commercial centre ; when here 
was one of the most noted public 
taverns between Boston and Montreal ; 
when Hopkinton was a half-shire 
town of old Hillsborough county ; 
when, in a period of nine years, the 
General Court of New Hampshire 
met here four times : — this was when 
Hopkinton counted among its resi- 
dents a fair portion of the elite of 
New England society. In Hopkin- 
ton were then great gentlemen and 
fine ladies, who cultivated a style of 
living that made them as distinct 
from the strictly rural inhabitants of 
the town as a blossom is distinct from 
a leaf. 

Nor must we too lightly consider 
the elements of social distinction ob- 
taining in the olden time in a town 
like Hopkinton, if we are to maintain 
a true relation of facts. In many re- 
spects, New England society has 
changed within less than a century. 
Within this limit, there was a time 
when the position of a high-toned 
gentleman or lady did not imply so 
much social condescension and indis- 
crimination as it now does in the 
same relative circles. Consequently 
there was once a kind of social caste 
where we now see almost nothing like 
it. Hence higher and lower in society 
then meant vastly more than they 
now do. As a result of this condi- 
tion of things, there was less inter- 
communication between classes of so- 
ciety, and more antipathy and sus- 
picion, than now prevail. The people 
of wealth, culture, refinement and per- 
sonal influence had a natural dread of 
social contamination in the prospect of 



i 7 6 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



great familiarity with their simpler neigh- 
bors ; the children of humbler means, 
indifferent culture, moderate refine- 
ment, and lesser personal force feared 
a usurpation of privileges and digni- 
ties in the same consummation. The 
great, so to speak, were few ; the 
small, as we may say, were many : 
the one class were largely occupied 
with the problem of moral, social, 
aesthetic, and political ways and means • 
the other, mainly with the ;k struggle 
for existence." The two classes could 
not intimately sympathize. The same 
condition of things essentially exists 
in society to-day, only we have learned 
how to control our feelings better 
than we used to do : we are also 
learning that society is necessarily a 
composite structure, and not simply 
an aggregation of individuals all of 
the same kind. 

John Harris was one of the social 
elite of Hopkinton. In person, he 
was dignified ; in mind, cultivated ; 
in morals, strict ; in his home, a mas- 
ter of men-servants and women-ser- 
vants ; in industry, diligent and exact ; 
by profession, a lawyer ; by initiation, 
a Freemason ; in politics, a Whig; in 
religion an Episcopalian. In his day 
and generation some of these things 
might be said of many men, but all 
of them could hardly be affirmed of 
any one outside of the smaller social 
circle including that class sometimes 
called aristocratic. 

It were illogical to suppose or affirm 
otherwise than that John Harris indi- 
vidually bore Jiimself as any one might 
have been expected to do in the same 
socially dynamic case. John Harris, 
of course, kept mainly within his se- 
lect social circle, and said things not 
appreciable without that social circle. 
VVe offer this reflection because there 
are those in Hopkinton to-day who 
have unpleasant recollections of him. 
These people, of course, do not rep- 
resent the social circle to which John 
Harris belonged, and the lights of 
memory still vividly reflect upon their 
minds the pictures of a once living 
past. These people doubtless have 



forgiven him, but they have not for- 
gotten him. 

We will, in this instance, illustrate 
the meaning of the foregoing allusion. 
Three religious societies have built 
churches in Hopkinton village, the 
home of John Harris. These socie- 
ties are the Episcopal, the Congrega- 
tionalism and the Baptist. Other so- 
cieties have from time to time held 
services here. It is hardly necessary 
to say that the Episcopal church is 
the most aesthetic structure of the 
three. The Episcopalians, compared 
with other protestants, are memorably 
more inclined to illustrate the aesthetic 
element in religious matters. As a 
natural consequence, they have a cer- 
tain zeal peculiar to their tastes. Look- 
ing back to the time of John Harris' 
meridian manhood, one need not be 
surprised to discover that he said 
something that wounded the sensi- 
bilities of somebody not of his own 
religious faith. At any rate, a Baptist 
authority does affirm that he said 
something offensive to Baptists in par- 
ticular. The affirmed statement was 
in substance this : * : The time is com- 
ing when all the first-class people in 
Hopkinton will attend the Episcopal 
church ; the middle class will serve 
the Congregational ; the tag-rags will 
go to the Baptist." We cannot logi- 
cally condemn John Harris for this 
statement. Was he not an Episco- 
palian ? Was not puritan Congrega- 
tionalism a protest against the Church 
of England and her twin sister, the 
Protestant Episcopal Church of Amer- 
ica? Was not the Baptist church a 
protest against puritan Congregation- 
alism? Was not then a time when 
ecclesiastical distinctions were very 
distinct? Is it not natural for every 
sect to think its own spiritual house- 
hold the nearest to perfection ? Had an 
enthusiastic Baptist of those days ven- 
tured to compare the social status of 
the different Hopkinton churches, 
he quite as likely as not would have 
made a statement something like this : 
"The humble servants of the Lord 
are Baptists ; those having a qualified 



JOHN HARRIS. 



177 



respect for the Almighty are Congre- 
gationalists ; the people who serve 
Satan under the cloak of religion are 
Episcopalians." In every age, we 
find that a phenomenon is in a cer- 
tain sense absolute ; its interpretation 
is almost always related to the pre- 
conceived ideals *of the interpreter. 
However, it is fortunate that in later 
times society, in action and speech, 
is less zealous for the extinction 
of legitimate distinctive privileges. 
Were John Harris alive to-day, he 
would not repeat his former compari- 
son of the church-goers of Hopkin- 
ton, and a Baptist now has no occa- 
sion to retaliate in a way we have 
imagined. What is true of a later 
and better aspect of religious matters 
is equally so of all subjects of popu- 
lar discussion. 

Having thus briefly defined and ex- 
plained John Harris' social position 
in Hopkinton, we will now consider 
certain matters more specially per- 
sonal. From such information as 
we have, we conclude that John Har- 
ris was of medium stature and rather 
slim. In physical bearing, he was 
erect, but he sometimes walked with 
a peculiarly rapid motion that was 
noticeable. His complexion was fair, 
his hair' was light, and he had blue 
eyes. We hear that he had a smooth 
face. By this we infer that he had no 
beard. Beard Jis not an invariable 
appendage to the masculine human 
face. Capt. Cimsley Perkins, a for- 
mer noted citizen and landlord of 
Hopkinton, had no beard except a 
mere tassel upon his chin. John 
Harris dressed well, but he was not 
particularly scrupulous about his at- 
tire. In this he was like many other 
men of distinguished mental attain- 
ments. In the intervals of public 
and private cares, he found time to 
give to the children. Of course we 
do not mean all the children. In the 
social circle in which John Harris 
moved, there were children that spe- 
cially attracted or interested him. He 
observed of these that they needed 
better instruction in reading than the 
vn— 12 



public schools of the time afforded 
them. In this, he showed his devo- 
tion to an educational specialty. He 
collected a class of scholars and gave 
them free instruction in reading. His 
school room was the senate chamber 
of the old Hopkinton court house. 
Lest any pupils should come un- 
bidden to his school, he distributed 
cards of admission among those he 
desired to teach. In his reading 
school he paid special attention to 
accent, emphasis, and inflexion. A 
favorite selection was made the subject 
of a prize exercise. This selection was 
from the New Testament, and con- 
tained a part or all of this passage 
from Matthew, or its equivalent in 
Luke : 

" What went ye out into the wilder- 
ness to see ? A reed shaken with the 
wind? But what went ye out for to 
see ? A man clothed in soft raiment ? 
Behold, they that wear soft clothing 
are in kings' houses. But what 
went ye out for to see? A prophet? 
Yea, I say unto you, and more than 
a prophet." (Matt. XI, 7, S, 9.) 

Evidently an admirable selection, 
when one considers the different mod- 
ulations of voice required in its per- 
fect rendering. 

During much the larger part of the 
time John Harris lived in Hopkinton, 
he dwelt at the angle of two roads in 
the western part of the village, where 
the road to Henniker leads off from 
the main village street. The situation, 
now occupied by Mr. Reuben E. 
French, is somewhat elevated. Pre- 
viously to John Harris' occupancy, the 
place had been owned by Mr. John 
George, who moved from Hopkinton 
to Warner. When owned by John 
Harris, the estate embraced about fifty 
acres of land, " suitably divided," as 
is often said. In the buildings and 
land, John Harris effected certain im- 
provements. He built an addition to 
the main house and also erected an 
office. In those days, farming improve- 
ments were less extensively made than 
now, but he kept his standard of fer- 
tilization and productiveness fully up 



1 7 8 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



to the standard of the times. In one 
instance remembered, he employed a 
hand to spade up the soil of a piece of 
land, pick out all the stones, and fer- 
tilize it to the depth of two feet. His 
grass, grain, corn and vegetable crops 
were the best. The same may be said 
of his farm animals. It is told of him 
that he hardly ever slaughtered a hog 
that did not yield 500 pounds of pork. 
He usually kept a horse, a yoke of 
oxen, two or three cows, and some 
young cattle. As out-of-door help, he 
kept one man the year round, and a 
good deal of the time more than one. 
Yet John Harris made at least one 
mistake in farming. Lying southwest- 
erly from his house a short distance, 
was a meadow of about 20 acres, of 
which he owned perhaps one half. It 
yielded large crops of grass. In his 
portion he dug great ditches bi meeting 
each other at right angles. The drain- 
age was too effective and spoiled the 
yield of hay. But the muck taken out 
of the ditches, by being composted, 
replenished greatly the supply of fer- 
tilizers. Indoors, John Harris em- 
ployed one or more female domestics 
most or all of the time. Here he was 
as diligent as ever in the pursuit of 
betterments. His observation of house- 
hold economy appears to have been a 
special cause of remark. It is said 
that when away from home, on tasting 
an unusually palatable article of food, 
he would obtain the recipe for its prep- 
aration, that he might take it home 
to his wife. With so much application 
and diligence in general domestic af- 
fairs, and the successful practice of the 
legal profession, not to mention inci- 
dental obligations already implied or 
expressed, it could hardly be supposed 
that he would devote much time to 
mere social recreation. It appears he 
did not. John Harris was diligent and 
studious. He could not frequently at- 
tend social sittings and indulge small 
talk. Consequently he became marked 
for his seclusiveness. Like numerous 
others of his kind, he was to a greater 
or less extent set down as " an odd 
man." 



We have already given the place 
and time of John Harris' birth. His 
father was Richard Harris and his 
mother was Lydia Atherton. Richard 
Harris was a carpenter. We apprehend 
that diligent regard was given to John 
Harris' education, for in 1 79 i»or\\ 'hen 
about 22 years of* age, he graduated 
at Harvard College. He read law with 
Simeon Strong, of Amherst, Mass., and 
Timothy Bigelow, of Groton. Mass. 
In September, 1 799, he married Mary 
Poor, born in Hampstead, N. H., and 
daughter of Eliphalet Poor and Eliza- 
beth Little. They had four children. 
George was born Feb. 6, 1S01, and 
died Feb. 17, 1849. Catharine, who 
became the wife of Timothy Wiggin 
Little, of Hopkinton, was born Jan. 23, 
1804, and died Feb. 16, 1843. Eliza 
Poor was born Jan. 21, 1S09. and died 
Oct. 31, 1S50. Ann was born Feb. 
19, 1S12, and died Aug. 1, 1S32. 
Mrs. Harris died Mar. 6, 1S43, aged 
64. Her reputation was that of a su- 
perior woman. 

John Harris held numerous public 
offices. In November, 1S10, he was 
appointed captain of the 4th company 
of the 2 1 st regiment of the New 
Hampshire militia. When the Hop- 
kinton post-office was first legally es- 
tablished, April 1, 1 S 1 1 , John Harris 
was the postmaster, being succeeded 
by his son in 1825. In 1S16. he was 
made a trustee of Dartmouth College. 
He was solicitor of Hillsborough 
County from 1S17 to [823 ; judge of 
probate from 1S12 to 1S23, and the 
same for Merrimack County from 1S23 
to 1843. He was associate justice of 
the supreme court of New Hampshire 
from 1S23 to 1S33. 

Assuming at the outset that John 
Harris was a good judge, we are pre- 
pared to entertain a certain opinion of 
him expressed by one competent to 
pass it. The legitimate attitude of a 
mere advocate is in a sense strictly 
partial. The position of the truly ju- 
dicial mind is eminently impartial. It 
is the privilege of an advocate to de- 
bate, but of a judge to discourse. 
Consequently a person qualified by 



JOHN HARRIS. 



i79 



mental constitution for a judge most 
likely makes an indifferent advocate. 
An eminent and venerable member of 
the legal profession in New Hampshire 
says that John Harris " had the repu- 
tation of a good judge. He was hon- 
est and well qualified to discharge all 
the duties of a good judge of probate. 
As a lawyer, at the bar, he never ex- 
celled as an advocate, but had the 
credit of knowing the books and be- 
ing a safe adviser, and claimed to be 
a tolerable special pleader." We are 
further told that upon the supreme 
bench of the State, John Harris was 
of a timid mien and hesitating speech, 
and the jury was seldom or never 
addressed by him," nor were the opin- 
ions of the court often directly the 
result of his formularies. Yet, when 
he was judge of probate for Hills- 
borough county, with Charles H. Ath- 
erton of Amherst, as register, the pro- 
bate code of laws was revised by 
their aid, and has continued without 
much amendment to tin's day. John 
Harris was made the head of the 
probate law commission in 1S20. 

In June, 1S14, the legislature of 
New Hampshire selected a commit- 
tee to " designate the most eligible 
site for a State house, to prepare a 
plan for the same, to receive pro- 
posals from any town or individuals 
for building the same, and to ascer- 
tain the probable expense, and report 
at the next session of the legis- 
lature." John Harris was the chair- 
man of this committee. The other 
members were Benjamin Kimball, of 
Concord, and Andrew Bowers, of 
Boscawen, At that time Concord 
and Hopkinton were competitors for 
the prize. The decision was ulti- 
mately in favor of Concord. In this 
matter, John Harris received severe 
criticism from his fellow townsmen, who 
laid their disappointment at his door. 
In committee, the Concord member 
voted for his own town ; the Bos- 
cawen member, for Hopkinton ; John 
Harris, as chairman, for Concord. 
Thus was the scale turned. Had 
John Harris voted for his own town, 



Hopkinton instead of Concord would 
have been the capital of New Hamp- 
shire. Hopkinton felt this blow keenly. 
Some Hopkinton people said that John 
Harris was bribed. 

However, we have grounds for de- 
fending John Harris' memory from 
this imputation of bribery. His gen- 
eral character and reputation forbid 
the ascription of sinister public mo- 
tives. The specific charge that he 
was rewarded for his action by a 
judgeship is untenable, because when 
Governor Plumer, in 1S16, appointed 
him an associate justice of the su- 
preme court, he declined the position, 
and a man will not decline to receive 
that for which he has already paid 
the price ; nor is it probable that, 
being asked to receive it, he will per- 
sistently refuse it seven years. There 
was a profunder reason than bribery 
that influenced John Harris' action. 

At the time of the location of the 
New Hampshire State house, which 
began to be erected in 181 6 and was 
occupied in 1819, Concord and Hop- 
kinton were about equal in popula- 
tion, in 18 10, according to the cen- 
sus then taken, Concord had 2,393 
inhabitants, and Hopkinton 2,216, 
making a difference of only 177. 
Both were places of business enter- 
prise and importance. Concord, 
however, had one special advantage, 
in being located on a great river. In 
New Hampshire, rivers were then gen- 
erally thoroughfares. The Merrimack 
river, in connection with Middlesex 
canal, formed a direct -thoroughfare 
between Concord and Boston, and 
merchandise was freely transported 
up and down. Prospectively, at least, 
the Merrimack was navigable still 
farther north. Hopkinton was ceas- 
ing to occupy a position upon a great 
line of transportation. The forecast- 
ing of the unequal destiny of the two 
places was easy. Such a fact could 
not fail to influence the action of a 
mind, habitually contemplative of gen- 
eral rather than special objects and 
ends. John Harris, a man of broad 
and discoursive judgment, was con- 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



strained to vote for Concord in prefer- 
ence to Hopkinton as the permanent 
seat of the State government of New 
Hampshire. 

We have already spoken of John 
Harris as a Freemason. He gave 
great diligence to the welfare of the 
local Masonic element. In 1S03. on 
the 10th of January, a preliminary 
meeting of the Palladian Society was 
held at his home. A constitution had 
been framed and adopted, and John 
Harris became the first treasurer. In 
1807, Trinity Chapter was formed in 
Hopkinton. In the priority of chap- 
ters in the State, Trinity was the sec- 
ond. John Harris was its founder. 
In 1S24, he was its treasurer. He 
was also founder of the Tyrian Council, 
and of the Mount Horeb Command- 
ery of Knights Templars. He was 
Grand Master of the Grand Lodge, 
Grand High Priest of the Grand 
Chapter at its formation in 1S19. and 
first Grand Master of the Grand En- 
campment of Knights Templars of 
New Hampshire at its formation in 
1826. 

John Harris' career as a party poli- 
tician seems to exhibit little promi- 
nence. Being a Federalist, or Whig, 
he sustained the disadvantage of re- 
siding in a town where the opposing 
political party had a strong majority. 
He was frequently the incumbent of 
minor offices, such as moderator, se- 
lectman, or member of a special com- 
mittee of the town, but in those days 
a Whig could not expect to be sent to 
the General Court of New Hampshire 
from Hopkinton. The more notable 
civil offices that John Harris held were 
the gifts of executive appointment. In 
this fact, too, we find illustration of a 
principle that often obtains in Ameri- 
can politics. The appointing power is 
often more non-partisan than the elec- 
tive. It is noticeable that John Harris 
was not in a single instance appointed 
to higher civil office by dignitaries, of 
his own party. He was appointed 
postmaster under the administration of 
James Madison ; probate judge under 
the gubernatorial regimes of William 



Plunier and Levi Woodbury ; solicit- 
or under that of Plumer ; associate 
justice under that of Woodbury. It 
must be that John Harris was selected 
for these offices on account of his abil- 
ity and integrity. The cause of his 
deposition from the most important ju- 
dicial office he ever held, was purely 
partisan. In 1S32, when Samuel Dins- 
more was governor of New Hampshire, 
Charles F. Gove was the Democratic 
leader of the House of Representatives. 
In the legislature of that year, there 
was presented a resolution asking 
for the removal of Judge Harris from 
office. The resolution was referred to 
the judiciary committee, which re- 
ported in opposition to the removal. 
Gove then appealed to the house, and 
the Judge was ousted. A member of 
that legislature, now living, says, " It 
was a violent action that did not com- 
mand my vote." 

It remains for us to speak of John 
Harris as a churchman. In religious 
matters, as in other affairs, he was 
prominent. In 1S03, an organization 
of the Episcopal Church, under the 
superintendence' of the Rev. Samuel 
Meade, was effected in Hopkinton. It 
was known as ,; Christ's Church," and 
worshipped in the old county court 
house. John Harris was one of the 
subscribers to the ecclesiastical consti- 
tution. In 1S26, the Rev. Moses B. 
Chase became the clergyman of the 
church and founded a new parish, 
which was incorporated in 1827 as 
''St. Andrew's Church." John Har- 
ris and William Little were its first 
wardens. 

A man like John Harris could 
hardly fail of continued prominence 
in any church to which he might give 
his religious sympathies and support- 
However, in the Episcopal church at 
Hopkinton, his assistance was once 
in special demand. In the early- 
struggling days of this church, the 
regular services of a clergyman were 
not always attainable. Laymen were 
often required to supply the desk. 
Prayers were often read at public wor- 
ship by John Harris and John O. Hal- 



COO-ASH-AUKE. 



181 



lard, better known as " Master Bal- 
lard," the noted teacher of a select 
school, but the sermons were usually 
or always read by Harris, whose skill 
.as a public reader gave him an ac- 
knowledged prominence in this part 
of the services. 

The remains of John Harris, with 
thofe of his wife and unmarried chil- 
dren, were buried in the old cemetery 
of Hopkinton village, on the right 
side of the lot, as one enters by the 



front gate, and a number of rods in- 
wardly. The remains of Catharine 
Little lie in another part of the same 
yard. It is an unfortunate circum- 
stance that the graves of the Judge 
and Mrs. Harris are both in a sad 
state of neglect, the headstones being 
prostrate and broken. The grave of 
Ann Harris is not in any better 
condition. 

There is no descendant of John, 
Harris living. 



COO-ASH-AUKE. 



BY LEVI W. DODGE, SYRACUSE. X. Y 



'Twere long ond needless here to tell 
How to my hand these papers fell, 
"With me they cannot stay. — Marmiox. 

There is perhaps no subject of 
greater interest to the earnest antiqua- 
rian than the origin and history of ge- 
ographical proper names ; those of 
aboriginal no less than those of mod- 
ern attachment. The facts and impres- 
sions here recorded, may gratify the 
•curiosity of some of the readers of 
'''The Granite" interested in ye mat- 
ters of ye olden time. 

Coos, the title attached to our north- 
ern county, is purely of Indian deriva- 
tion, and of the dialect of the Abene- 
kies, a confederacy of tribes once 
inhabiting the territory now included 
in New Hampshire and Western 
Maine, and north to the River St. Law- 
rence. It is a corruption of " Coo-ash." 
signifying pines ; the syllable ash being 
the plural ending in that dialect. 

It was among the aborigines of the 
country even as in our own time, the 
inhabitants of any particular section 
were known by some name attached 
to, or descriptive of the portion of 
country in which they were located. 
We know the " Green Mountain Boys " 
live only in Vermont. So among the 
natives the Coo-ash-aukes were the 
dwellers of the " pine-tree country," 



from Coo-ash, pines, and auke or a&ee, 
place or section, the latter having a 
broader signification than the terminal 
auke, which was more generally applied 
to localities. This title was attached 
to the country and its inhabitants north 
of the mountains and along the Con- 
necticut valley above Moosilauke. It 
is not probable that these pine country 
Indians assumed tribal regulations un- 
til after the advent of the white man 
or the breaking up of the more impor- 
tant and powerful organizations below. 
Nor is this the only location bearing 
that title. There is a stream, a branch 
of the lower Merrimack, the outlet of 
Massabesic Lake, still known by its 
Indian name, " Cohos Brook ;" and 
the country around and through which 
it flows was once a dense forest of pine, 
the '''Coo-ash" of the natives. Nor is 
this the only Indian title still clinging 
like the ancient pine to its native soil 
around this northern section, and 
doubtless brought hither by those 
exiles from the lower Merrimack, when 
driven from the hunting grounds and 
the homes of their fathers, to seek a 
temporary abiding place ki around the 
head waters of the Connecticut." 

When, in the early part of the i 7th 
century, Capt. John Smith coasted 
along the shore of New England, and 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



made the acquaintance of its early 
inhabitants, he found dwelling in the 
beautiful 4< valley of the Merrimack," 
a half dozen or more tribes, each 
independent in itself, but all owning 
allegiance to one powerful chief, Pas- 
saconaway of the Penacooks. His 
centre of power, or seat of council, 
was about where the city of Concord 
now is. This valley afforded superior 
advantages for Indian settlement. Its 
rich intervales were easily cultivated 
even by the rude implements and with 
the slight knowledge they possessed. 
The forests abounded in game, and 
the various falls along the course of 
the river afforded unsurpassed fishing 
advantages, where, during the favorable 
season, the fishermen of the various 
tribes gathered for their annual supply 
of fish. The most noted of these re- 
sorts was called Namaoskeag : from 
namaosj fish, and auke,a. place, mean- 
ing therefore fishing place, and the 
native tribe inhabiting the section 
around the falls, was known as Nama- 
oskeauks. In those primitive days the 
name was applied to the succession of 
falls from the country of the Penne- 
cooks to the Souhegan. but as the 
country became settled by the white 
man, the name became limited to the 
falls now known as Amoskeag, a cor- 
ruption of the original Xamaoskeauke. 
During the two hundred and fifty years 
it has been known to the English, it has 
suffered many transformations in or- 
thography, one of which by Dr. Cotton 
Mather we will quote. The river had 
become noted far beyond its native 
bounds on account of other wonders 
than its fish, its falls, and its broad ba- 
sins. 

In the "Philosophical Transactions," 
published in London, Mather writes 
thus : "A little above the hideous falls 
of the Merrimack River, at a place 
called Amnuskeag, is a huge rock in 
the midst of the stream," etc. 

When in after years the remnants of 
these Merrimack river tribes, deci- 
mated to a scanty few, were forced to 
quit their native valley, the homes of 
their ancestors and their ancient hunt- 



ing and fishing grounds, they fled north, 
and around the head waters of the 
Connecticut they found a new " Coo- 
ash " country, and themselves became 
the Cooashaukes, and the mountain 
streams abounding in trout, their native 
food, from the rivers of lower Cohos 
(Haverhill) to the upper Cohos (Lan- 
caster) intervales, were soon known as 
their Namaos-coo-auke, easily trans- 
lated into " Pine-tree Fishing Place," 
and as easily transformed by some 
Cotton Mather of later years into the 
present briefer but not less euphoneous 
title, Ammonoosuc, and clinging still 
to three distinct wild streams included 
within the ancient domain of the Coo- 
ash-aukies. 

The writer has seen or heard a dif- 
ferent signification of the name Coos, 
as meaning crooked, and applied to the 
country as descriptive of the winding 
course of the river in those named lo- 
calities, but this cannot be the true 
translation, for although the English 
word might descriptively be applied, 
the Abenekies term for crooked would 
be penaquis, from which could not well 
be derived the name Coos. 

There exists no Indian title of moun- 
tain, lake or river, but is a concentrated 
description, often clothed in poetic 
imagery, illustrative of some peculiar- 
ity, real or imaginary, or perhaps com- 
memorative of some strange legend or 
savage romance. 

The aboriginal name once borne by 
Lancaster's eastern branch of the Con- 
necticut, Israel's river, seems to have 
departed with the nation or tribe 
which conferred it, and it is so lost in 
tradition, so warped by attempts to re- 
concile English orthography and pro- 
nunciation with the Indian tongue, 
that it has become corrupted into al- 
most a meaningless title. In the tradi- 
tional " Singrawoc," we can trace no 
Abenequis save the terminal oc or auke. 
Siwooganock, as written by some one. 
whom, we know not, is nearer the orig- 
inal, which was doubless Saiva-coo- 
naukc, with the n thrown in for eu- 
phony. This in the Indian dialect 
would signify " burnt pine place," or 



COO-ASH-AUKE. 



'85 



country, from which we might read that 
sometime, away back prior to the ad- 
vent of the white hunter, perhaps in 
the days of Wannalancet, the valley 
was devasted by fire, which circum- 
stance was of sufficient Indian import- 
ance to be classed among the traditions 
of the tribe and gave a name to the 
section and its river. Col. Potter, the 
historian of Manchester, is authority 
for the derivation of Sucv from a sim- 
ilar traditional source. 

The name this river at present bears, 
is said to commemorate that of an en- 
terprising hunter, who prior to mid- 
eighteenth century days, scouted this 
section for peltries. It is said to have 
been before the exploration of this 
north country by the whites, and prior 
to the advance of civilization beyond 
the outposts, winch as late as 1 760 
were Charlestown on the Connecticut 
and what is now Franklin on the Mer- 
rimack. 

The generally accepted origin of the 
name is doubtless founded upon some 
show of fact, but as English knowledge 
of the region extends back but to 
about the middle of \he last century, 
we can but think that what is now ac- 
cepted as dim tradition, might be 
traced to its circumstantial source. It 
would certainly be a satisfaction to the 
lovers of the antique and to the student 
of history to know whence came and 
whither went the unknown individual 
whose name is immortalized in the title 
of this beautiful stream coming down 
from 

Where the shadows of mountains 

Lie darkly at noon, 
And December drifts cool in the 

Sunlight of June. 

The tradition which associates the 
name of " old Captain John," as he 
was familiarly known to the whites, 
with the present title of the river of 
Dalton and YVhitefield at the head of 
the "Fifteen Mile Falls," the writer has 
never been able to trace to any reliable 
source, but will here introduce for what 
it is, a tradition characteristic of those 
times. 



Among the Cooashaukes who returned 
from St. Francis, or Abernaquis as their 
settlement in Canada is still called, and 
where descendants of these scattered 
New Hampshire tribes now exist, were 
two families of former distinction 
among the clans. They were known 
as Capt. Joe and Capt. John, and were 
prominent actors in the events of those 
pre-revolutionary days. They were 
totally unlike in disposition and senti- 
ment, but both espoused the cause of 
the patriots during the war that followed, 
and did good service for the people. 

. The squaw of Capt. Joe was known 
among the whites as "Molley." She re- 
mained true to her disentitled chief 
until in his old age, when under stronger 
influences she returned to friends at 
St. Francis. "Old Joe" died at New- 
bury in 1S19. said to have been the last 
survivor of his race. 

In the town of Barnet, just above the 
junction of the Passumpsic river with 
the Connecticut, is a small contribution 
to the former river known as " Joe's 
Brook," and its source among the hills 
of Barnet is "Joe's Pond," commemo- 
rative of " old Joe," the last of the 
Cooashaukes ; while a little farther to 
the westward are Molley's Brook and 
Molley's Pond, telling to the listener's 
ear the story of the unfaithful squaw. 

Capt. John was an active partisan 
during the revolutionary war. He led 
a small company of Indians enlisted 
from Coos and vicinity, and received 
a captain's commission. With the in- 
stincts of his race, like Capt. Joe, he 
was a wandering hunter, and the tradi- 
tion affirms that the river running 
through his favorite hunting grounds 
came to be known as " John's River." 
It enters the Connecticut from the east 
just at the head of the " Fifteen Mile 
Falls," in Dalton. This ancient chief- 
tain died a violent death soon alierthe 
return of peace, and was buried a: 
"lower Cohos." Capt. John was 
known among his own kindred as 
" Soos-sup," or Sussup, and in those 
savage war-whoop days he was a ter- 
ror among the early settlements of 
New Hampshire, being a leader in 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



some of the incidents of Indian cap- 
tivity and cruelty, as instigated by the 
French. 

He left one son, who was known 
as " Pial Sussup Pial being the 
Indian of Phil, or Philip, and 
the writer is wondering if there is 
not some connection between this 
name and that attached to the last In- 
dian consignment of land located in 
the Coos country. This deed is dated 
June 8th. 1796, and conveys from 
"Philip, an Indian, a native of Amer- 
ica, now resident in Upper Coos and 
chief thereof," to " Thomas Eames, of 
Northumberland, and his associates." 
''Beginning on the east side of the 
Connectteecook river, now called Con- 
necticut, at the mouth of the Ammon- 
oosuck River," etc. The territory in- 
cludes within its bounds all that section 
of New Hampshire lying north of the 
Ammonoosuc and Androscoggin, and 
a section of Maine, with the following 
reservations and conditions, namely : 
"That I reserve free liberty to hunt all 
sorts of game on any of the foregoing 
territories and taking fish in any of the 
waters thereof, for myself, my heirs and 
successors and all Indian tribes forever. 
Also liberty of planting four bushels of 
corn and beans, and this my trusty 
friend Thomas having given me secur- 
ity to furnish me and my squaw with 
provisions and suitable clothing, which 
I have accepted in full. I have for 
myself and in behalf of ail Indians who 
hunted on or inhabited any of the 
foregoing lands or waters, forever quit- 
claimed and sold as aforesaid to them 
* * * as a good estate in fee 
simple, and do covenant with them 
that myself and my ancient fathers, 
forever and at all times have been in 
possession of the above described 
premises ; and that I have a right to, 
and will warrant and defend the same 
to them, etc. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto 
set my hand, seal and signature this 
twenty-eighth of June, 1 796. 

his. 

Philip -j- Indian Chief. 

mark. 



her 

Molley -f Messell. 

mark. 

her 

Mooseleck -j- Sussup." 

mark. 

Incidentally here let me mention 
what I have never seen allusion to in 
any historical sketches of Lancaster, 
but is preserve'd among the memories 
of "Ye ancient days" in "'Lower Coos." 
During those times of Indian terror. 
Gen. Jacob Bailey, the leading military 
spirit of this section, had under his 
command a small scout both of whites 
and friendly Indians. Learning at one 
time that a party of the enemy were 
on their way from Canada with intent 
to burn Newbury, he dispatched a band 
ef rangers under the leadership of Col. 
Barron to intercept them. But some- 
where along their route from Lake 
Champlain, the Indians were apprised 
of the intended ambuscade by a tory 
hunter. 

"Thus foiled in their main purpose, 
they abandoned the destruction of 
Lower Coos, and turning north they 
burned the settlement at Lancaster." 

Should this notice of an event 
scarcely more than traditional meet 
the eye of any descendant of those 
intrepid pioneers who followed the 
lead of Paige and Nash and Stockwell, 
perhaps they will tell us more of that 
early Indian raid into this north coun- 
try, and who were the sufferers thereby. 

Prior to the conquest of Canada, 
which closed what has passed into his- 
torv as the French and Indian war, in 
ryGi, the region north of a line drawn 
from Charlestown on the Connecticut, 
to the south end of Lake Winnepiseo- 
gee. which would represent New Hamp- 
shire's northern outposts of civilization, 
and onward to the River St. Lawrence, 
was a va^t wilderness, uninhabited ex- 
cept by the remnants of those scattered 
tribes who had fled north before the 
irresistible advance of the white man 
into their native wilds. 

'J his "terra incognita " was a broad, 
indefinable country, lying between the 
French possessions of Canada and 
British provinces of New England, but 



COO-ASH- AY'KE. 



'85 



still occupied by the real owners of the 
soil, who held their title by grant from 
the King of kings. Can we wonder 
that they were jealous of the aggres- 
sions and encroachments that had al- 
ready driven them from their ancestral 
domains into hopeless exile and into 
weak and scattered bands among the 
mountains? Does it seem strange that 
seeking retaliation %or their many 
wrongs, and fearing lest they be driven 
even from this last foothold in their 
native land, they should be found allied 
with the French as against their ancient 
and implacable foe, the English? 

From the Indians alone, after the 
death of their great war chief, Kan-ca- 
ma-gus, just previous to 1700, the set- 
tlers of New Hampshire would have 
had but little to fear even among the 
unguarded outer settlements, for the red 
and white hunters were frequent com- 
panions, and the red men, their wives 
and their children were often seen at 
the fireside of the pale-face : but insti- 
gated by the French through offers of 
reward, love of revenge and fear of 
punishment, they were influenced to 
dastardly deeds. 

During the peaceful reign of Wan- 
nalancet, the son and immediate suc- 
cessor of Passa con away, who was Sag- 
amore of the Merrimack river confed- 
eracy when the English first com- 
menced the settlement of the country, 
the Indians had been shorn of their 
strength and had now become a mere 
remnant of a once powerful nation. 

After the massacre at Cocheco in 
1689, which was instigated and carried 
forward by the wily Kancamagus in 
revenge for repeated wrongs to himself 
and family and tribes, he with his fol- 
lowers fled north, and, says Judge 
Potter, '[joined the bands at the sources 
of the Saco t Amaresco^in and Con- 
necticut" and the " royal residence of 
the Pennecooks at Namaoskeag be- 
came comparatively deserted." 

The small tribe upon the Saco was 
known as the Pequaukies under a sav- 
age chieftain, but they were routed 
and most of their warriors slain in 1725, 
by Capt. Lovewell and his party, and 



the feeble remnant fled north of the 
mountains, and afterward, says the 
same authority as above, ''joined their 
friends at St. Francis." 

It was these reunited remnants of 
the once powerful Abenekies tribes of 
Maine and New Hampshire, who were 
used by the French in after years as 
instruments to carry the fire and toma- 
hawk into the border settlements of 
the state, the ancient homes of these 
revengeful wild men of the woods. 

It was from these expatriated surviv- 
ors of their race, perhaps under direc- 
tion of their allies, the French, that 
came to Capt. Stevens at Charlestown, 
the protest against the further advance- 
ment of English colonization into the 
" Cowass " country, as alluded to by 
Belknap and Saunderson, and embod- 
ied in a communication dated March 
19th. 1753. from Capt. Israel Williams 
to Lieut. Gov. Phips, of Massachusetts, 

Perhaps in view of certain contro- 
versies that have grown out of allusions 
of different writers to this letter, it may 
be of interest to the public to here in- 
troduce it in full, or as far as is neces- 
sary to illustrate our sketch. 

"Hatfield, March 19th, 1753. 

Sir : 

Capt. Stevens, of No. 4, was lately 
at my house and gave me the following 
acc't, which I thought it my duty to 
transmit to your 'honour, it appearing 
to me to be of importance to the pub- 
lic : viz. — That the beginning of Jan'y 
last, six Indians of the St. Francois 
tribe came to No. 4 Fort under a Flag 
of truce : the first thing they asked 
after was, Whether it was all well? To 
which he answered Yes, and asked 
whether they had not heard of the late 
Treaty at the Eastward? Their answer 
was No, they knew of no such thing. 
He told them there was no doubt but 
some of their tribe was present at the 
Treaty. They said none of their Chiefs, 
for it they had any treaty with the 
English, it would be at Albany or in 
some of these parts. They further 
said to the Capt.. You well know what 
you heard from our chief men last 



1 86 THE GRANT] 

summer at Montreal, and what they 
say is always strong. In the most of 
the conversation he had with them, he 
told me they manifested great uneasi- 
ness at our People's going to take a 
view of Cowass meadows last spring, 
but never fully declared their minds 
till the morning they took their depart- 
ure, when with great deliberation ( as 
he expressed it) they told him. For the 
English to settle Cowass was what they 
could not agree to, and as the English 
had no need of that land, but had 
enough without it, they must think the 
English had a mind for war if they 
should go there, and said if you do we 
will endeavor that you shall have a 
strong war ; that they should have the 
Mohawks and Otawawas to help them : 
that there were four hundred Indians 
now a hunting on this side the St. 
Francois River, and that the owners of 
the land at Cowass would be all there 
this Spring, and that they at No. 4 
might expect that if the affair of set- 
tling Cowass went forward to all have 
their houses burnt. 

They told him further that they had 
no mind for war and desired him to 
use his Interest to prevent the English 
going to Cowass, and said again if they 
go there must be war, and it would be 
a war of the English making. Thus 
have I given the account almost in the 
words he delivered to me, nothing ma- 
terially different." 

Capt. Williams further adds, "Upon 
the whole it is evident that the Indians 
are acquainted with the Designs and 
Projections of a neighboring govern- 
ment (New Hampshire), and it is evi- 
dent they don't intend tamely to yield 
up the possession of that piace to the 
English ; but on the contrary do what 
they can to hinder the settlement of it, 
and as they suppose the land to be 
theirs, and none without their consent 
have right to enter upon it, and they 
have good right vi et armis to drive 
any such away, so beyond all dispute 
the French will encourage and help 
them. However easy and practicable 
the settlement of Cowass may appear 
to some, yet I make no doubt they will 



E MONTHLY. 

meet with a Tartar and find themselves 
miserably disappointed that they have 
undertaken it it they proceed." 

This is the letter upon which Dr. Bel- 
knap, the historian, bases his statement, 
vol. 2, page 2 78, of his history. "A 
party was sent up in the spring of 1 752, 
to view the meadows of Cohos and lay 
out the proposed townships." Col. 
Potter, the historian of Manchester, 
seems to entertain the same opinion, 
and yet neither of the above authors 
gives us any proof or record of the 
exploration, nor has thus far any ac- 
count of it come to the light of mod- 
ern history. The expression in Capt. 
Williams's lettergiving rise to the theory 
of the 1 752 undertaking, is this : "They 
manifested great, uneasiness at our Peo- 
ple s going to take a view of Cowass 
meadows List Spring" 

The opinion of this writer is that by 
some means the Indians were made 
acquainted with the deliberations of 
the Council of New Hampshire, rela- 
tive to the occupancy of their lands, 
and before any steps were taken toward 
a survey, sent their protest to the near- 
est point hiving authority to communi- 
cate. The consideration of the subject 
by the assembly was early in March, 
1753, at which time a committee was 
appointed for the purpose of ''survey- 
ing and marking a road to Coos." 
This committee consisted of Col. Zac- 
cheus Lovewell, John Tolford and 
Caleb Page, and the particulars of their 
service may be gathered from their ac- 
count rendered and now on file in the 
office of the secretary of state. It 
bears date March 31, 1753, and is as 
follows : 

"March, 1753. Messrs. Zacheus 
Lovewell, John -Tolford and Caleb 
Page Charge ye Province of New 
Hampr., Dr., for themselves and men 
here named hired to survey and make 
the road to Coos in March Curr't." 
Here follow the names of the party 
and the time of service, varying from 
19.*, to 22 days. The pilot of the ex- 
pedition was John Stark, who had 
passed over the same route as a cap- 
tive but a year before, and one mem- 



COO-ASH-AUKE. 



187 



ber of the paity was Robert Rogers, 
afterward the famous scout and ranger, 
and the destroyer of the Indian village 
of St. Francis, in 1759. 

To reconcile the above account with 
the statement in the letter of Mr. Wil- 
liams, we must conclude there is error 
in dates, which would not be likely to 
occur, or the meaning of the author of 
the letter has been misunderstood, un- 
less there was a previous expedition 
under private enterprise \ which may 
have been the ease. 

The author of Stark's memoirs, in 
alluding to this expedition, seems to 
treat it lightly and says, "They reached 
Concord on tluir return on the thir- 
teenth day from the time of their de- 
parture." What is his authority for 
this statement we are unable to find, 
and he in the same connection refers 
to Col. Potter's account, which author- 
ity says, "they performed the duty as- 
signed them in twenty days." 

This then was the state of affairs in 
the '• Cohos " country in the spring of 
1 753, about ten years previous Co its 
occupancy by the whites. The English 
had penetrated and marked a way by 
the Merrimack and Pemigewasset val- 
leys, into the heart of the Indian terri- 
tory, notwithstanding the protest of the 
native chiefs. This action, we may 
presume, was immediately communi- 
cated to the French, for rumor was 
soon brought that'they were building 
a fort at Upper Cohos. This being 
conveyed to the governor, he dis- 
patched a company under command 
of Capt. Peter Powers, and Stark says, 
"with a flag of truce, to demand their 
authority for so doing." The author 
of the History of -Manchester says they 
were sent out " in pursuit of the In- 
dians," who had again commenced 
their hostilities on the frontiers. 

From the Adjutant General's Report 
we have no reference to this expedi- 
tion, except in the biographical notice 
of Peter Powers, which says, "A re- 
port was afloat that the French were 
building a fort at the ' Upper Coos/ 
and Governor Wentworth ordered 
Capt, Powers to inarch to that section 



of country and ascertain the fact. This 
was in June. 1754. He obeyed the 
order and found that the report was 
unfounded." 

Perhaps the Captain did not pene- 
trate far enough to prove the report 
untrue, as he ended his explorations 
about two miles above the mouth of 
what is now known as Israel's river. 
The first fortification known to have 
been built above the "fifteen mile falls," 
or at " Upper Coos," was constructed 
by a detached company from Colonel 
Blanchard's regiment, which was en- 
listed for service against Crown Point 
in 1755. This company was officered 
as follows:' Robert Rogers, captain, 
Richard Rogers, 1st lieutenant, John 
Stark, 2d lieutenant. Noah Johnson, 
ensign. Early in the summer of that 
year they were sent forward from their 
rendezvous on the Merrimack to build 
a fort at " Coos Meadows," which lo- 
cality, so little known by the govern- 
ment, was supposed to be in the direct 
rente from Salisbury Fort to Crown 
Point. And it was to be for "occupa- 
tion by the regiment, or for resort in 
case of disaster." The report of the 
Adjutant General says : "'Capt. Rogers 
executed his commission and built a 
fort at the junction of the Ammonoo- 
suc with the Connecticut, on the south 
side of the former river. This was 
called ' Fort Wentworth.' " And he 
adds : "This fort upon the Ammonoo- 
suc should have been called 4 Fort 
Folly ' instead of Wentworth, as the 
fort, as well as the batteaux, never was 
of any use." 

It has been asked, Why did not 
Rogers, in his famous retreat from St. 
Francis, in 1 759, stop at this fort which 
himself had builded, and find needed 
rest and relief from pursuit by the In- 
dians? The only answer seems to be 
in the fact that they were upon the op- 
posite side of the river from the fortifi- 
cation, and not finding the expected 
boats and having no tools for construct- 
ing a raft for aid in crossing, they 
thought their only safety was in con- 
tinued flight from their pursuers. 

After civilization had penetrated to 



iSS 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



this northern country, and pitches had 
been made upon both sides of the 
valley, from the falls to the mouth of 
the Nulhegan, the settlers united them- 
selves together for self protection 
against the French and Indians, and, 
says the Hon. Moody Rich, in the 
Vermont ALigazine : "There were three 
forts built, two in Northumberland, one 
at the mouth of the Ammonoosuc river, 
and one on the Marshall farm, since 
owned by Charles H. Woods, and one 
in Stratford, in the north part of the 
town, opposite the Joseph Merrill firm, 
in Brunswick. Whenever an alarm 
was given Indians or Tories were com- 
ing, the women and children lied to 
the forts." Ward Bailey was chosen 
captain, to take command of these 
forts and the forces raised to guard 



them. He had settled upon the west 
side of the river, in Maidstone. In 
17S0, or soon after. Col. Bailey built a 
blockhouse as a defensive resort in 
case of necessity, at the Guildhall falls, 
and in after years it was used as the 
first jail in the county of Essex. 

" In the spring of 1776, Capt. Jere- 
miah Eames was on duty at the 'Upper 
Coos,' and built or repaired the garri- 
son at Northumberland, and about tne 
same time he built garrisons at Bath 
and Lancaster." So says the Report 
of the Adjutant General. 

Still linger in our northern clime 
Some memories of that olden time. 
And still around our mountains here 
W e hold the ancient titles dear. 

Axon. 



EARTHQUAKES FROM 1638 TO 1883. IN THE NEW ENGLAND 
STATES AND IN THE BRITISH POSSESSIONS NORTH OF 
THE UNITED STATES AND EAST OF THE ROCKY MOUN- 
TAINS. 



BY JOSlAi 
[COXTJ 

September 5, 1732, about noon, we 
had a severe shock, which was per- 
ceived at Boston and Piscataqua, but 
attended with little or no noise. The 
same earthquake was heard at Mon- 
treal, in Canada, at the same time and 
about the same hour of the day, and 
did damage to one hundred and eighty- 
five houses, killed seven persons and 
hurt five others ; and it was heard there 
several times afterward, only in the 
night, as the newspapers give us this 
account. Of this shock, Mr. Brigham 
says : " September 5, 1 732, x. s., a vio- 
lent earthquake was felt in Canada, 
which did considerable damage at 
Montreal, as stated in Mr. Plant's list 
above. It came at eleven o'clock a. m., 
and was attended with a rumbling noise. 
A clock was stopped at Annapolis, 
Maryland, although the shock was 
slightly felt at Boston. 



s EMERY. 
XUED.] 

December 30, in the morning, we 
had a shock, and it had been heard by 
some people several times within three 
weeks before. 

March 1, 1733, a loud and long 
noise of it. 

October 19, 1733, a loud and long 
noise about midnight. 

January 16, 1733-4, about 10.20 
p. M., a loud and long roaring. 

June 29, 1734, about 3.15 p. m., 
there was somewhat of a noise of it. 

October 9, about 1 0.20, a small shock. 

November 11 or 12, for it was about 
midnight, we had the loudest noise and 
greatest shock, except the first ; it was 
long, very awful and terrible. 

November 16, about six in the morn- 
ing, there was a small shock. 

February 2, 1735-6, about a quarter 
of an hour before six in the evening, 
there was a pretty loud noise and shock. 



EARTHQUAKES IN NEW ENGLAND. 



1S9 



March 21, 1736, about half an hour 
past ten in the morning, it was some- 
what loud. 

July 13, about 9.45 a. m., the noise 
of it was loud. 

October 1, about 1.30 a. m., it was 
loud and long, and a great shock re- 
peated twice in an instant. 

November 12, about two in the 
morning, there was a shock- with the 
noise, and about six the same morning 
another something louder. 

February 6, 1736-7, about a quarter 
past four p. sr., there was a considerable 
shock. • 

Shocks were also felt in Boston, says 
Mr. Brigham, at the same hour of Feb- 
ruary 16. This probably was the same 
as the above, with a x. s. date. 

September 9, 1737, about 10.20 a.m., 
it was very loud and long, and shook 
our houses very much. 

" In October or November of the 
same year," says Mr. B.. "a very slight 
shock was felt in Boston, but it is only 
referred to as happening about seven- 
teen years before the great earthquake 

of 1 755-" 

December 7, a little before eleven in 
the night, the ground shook very much, 
but we heard no noise. On the same 
seventh of December, at New York, 
they had three severe shocks of an 
earthquake in the night ; it threw down 
there some chimneys, and made the 
bells to toll so as to be heard. At the 
same time the said shock and noise was 
felt and heard in many other places. 
This is the same shock referred to by 
Mr. B., page 9, as happening on De- 
cember 17. His date is N. s., Mr. 
Plant's o. s. 

August 2, 1739, we had a great 
shock ; it made, my house to shake, 
and the windows jar. It was about an 
hour past two in the morning. I think 
I never heard but two other louder or 
longer or greater. 

December 14, 1 740, about 6.35 a. m., 
there was heard a pretty loud noise of 
the earthquake. 

January 18, 1741, about four a. m, 
there was heard the noise of the earth- 
quake. 



January 25, 1 741, about ten minutes 
before four in the afternoon, there was 
a shock of the earthquake with a loud 
rumbling noise. 

The above account, up to January 
25, 1 741, was copied by Mr. Plant 
and sent to England, and read before 
the Philosophical Society, February 
2i. 1742. and published in the Philo- 
sophical Transactions, vol. 43, p. 33. 

In the letter transmitting his record, 
he says : "This is the last that has been 
heard (and I pray God I may never 
hear any more such and so long). I 
have omitted to set down some that 
were small, or such as I did not hear 
myself. I was very exact to the time, so 
that what account I have sent you is 
most certainly true. And though the 
first night was the most terrible, as the 
surprise was sudden, yet there never 
happened one shock among us, but what 
occasioned some alteration at U"iat time 
in every person's countenance or con- 
stitution ; and which way soever any 
person's face happened to be, that way 
the noise of the earthquake appeared 
to him. These frequent repetitions of 
the roaring and shocks of the earth- 
quake were upon Merrimack river, and 
seldom extended above seven or eight 
miles' distance from, or twenty or thirty 
up the river — those instances alone ex- 
cepted which I have mentioned in the 
relation : and. the first shock of it was 
greater with us than anywhere else in 
New England ; and the tops of chim- 
neys and stone fences were thrown 
down in these parts." 

Mr. Plant was a native of England, 
born in 1691 : was graduated from Jesus 
College, Cambridge, in 1712 ; became 
rector of Queen Anne's Chapel, New- 
bury, April 29, 1722; died April 2, 
1753- 

The earthquake on the Tuesday pre- 
ceding September 15, 1728 (n.s.), men- 
tioned by Mr. B. in Historical Notes, is 
probably the same as that mentioned by- 
Mr. Plant as occurring September 8. 

The shock of November 9, 1727, 
mentioned by Mr. B., is doubtless the 
same as Mr. Plant's of October 29, the 
one being n. s., the other o. s. 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



Mr. Brig-ham's of September 15, 
1732, n. s., is the same as Mr. Plant's 
of September 5, 1732, o. s. 

Mr. B.'s of February 16, 1737, is 
the same as Mr. Plant's of February 
6, i?37- 

Mr. B.'s of December 17, 1737, is 
Mr. Plant's of December 7, o. s. 

" In October or November, 1737," 
says Mr. B. " a very slight shock was 
felt in Boston, but it is only referred 
to as happening about seventeen years 
before the great earthquake of 1755." 
See Philosophical Transactions, vol. 
49, p. 443. 

June 13, 1 741, at 10.35 A - M - a 
very noisy earthquake took place, al- 
though the shock was not very great. 
The day was bright and hot, and the 
barometer fell slightly in the morning. 
There had been no rain since the 
twenty-third of May, and the whole 
month yas hot and dry. Much light- 
ning was observed during the latter 
part of the month. At the time of the 
earthquake the barometer, as observed 
by Prof. Winthrop, stood at 29.94. 

December 6, 1741, a small earth- 
quake was felt at Boston, Dedham, 
Walpole, and other towns, about 8 
o'clock in the morning. This is not 
mentioned by Mr. Plant, and probably 
was not heard at Newbury. The towns 
mentioned are some distance south of 
Boston, and Newbury double the dis- 
tance north. 

March 27, 1742, a quarter before 
7 a. M., the noise of the earthquake 
was very loud, but it did not make 
any shaking, as I could perceive, al- 
though I was alone and seated in my 
little house. One thing I took notice 
of, namely, at all times before, when 
we heard the noise, which way our 
faces were, that way the noise seemed 
to be, but now the noise seemed to be 
behind me, and my family took notice 
of it that the noise seemed to be be- 
hind them. Mr. Plant. 

September 13, 1742, about half past 
five an earthquake. P. 

August 10, 1743, about five P. m., a 
pretty loud shock of the earthquake. 
P. 



May 13, 1744, in the morning, a 
shock. 

May 16, 1744, at a quarter past 
eleven a. Nr., there was an earthquake. 
It was felt in Quebec, in Canada. 

June 3, 1744 (o. s,) on the Sab- 
bath, at a quarter past ten, we had a 
terrible shock of the earthquake. It 
made the earth so shake that it made 
myself and many others run out of 
the church. This was also noticed 
at Cambridge, Mass. B. 

June 28, 1744, public fist, and in 
the evening an earthquake, JP. 

December 23, 1744, a small earth- 
quake was felt about Newbury at neon. 

Mr. Plant made no record of the 
above. 

February 2, 1746, a shock was felt 
by some at Boston between nine and 
ten in the evening. 

August 2, 1746, just before sunrise, 
there was a considerable loud and long 
earthquake. 

January 6, 1747, about midnight an 
earthquake. 

December 3, 1747, at half past four, 
an earthquake. 

December 6, 1747, at four p. m., 
another. 

March n, 1748, about a quarter 
before seven a. m., there was an earth- 
quake. 

November 1, 1755, the great earth- 
quake at Lisbon occurred, and con- 
tinued for several days. According 
to Appleton, this earthquake was felt 
in Iceland, on the coast of Massachu- 
setts, and on Lake Ontario. 

"November 18, 1755, about four 
o'clock a. m., was the most violent 
earthquake ever known in North 
America. It continued about four 
and a hah minutes. In Boston, about 
one hundred chimneys were leveled 
with the roofs of the houses, and fif- 
teen hundred shattered and thrown 
down in part. There was a shock 
every day till the twenty-second." 
The above I copy from Joshua Coffin's 
historv, who quotes from Richard 
Kelley. 

(To be continued.) 



*E. W. WILLARD & CO. 



191 



SOMETHING ABOUT THE DRY GOODS BUSINESS IN 

CONCORD. 




Prominent among the fine blocks in 
Concord is the Board of Trade Build- 
ing, located on Main street, corner of 
School. In this block we find the 
store of E. W. Willard & Co., who 
are known thro gho.it New Hamp- 
shire as one of the leading dry goods 
firms of the State. The above cut 
shows their store, with its three en- 
trances, Xos. S3 North Main Street 
and 2 and 6 School Street. For the 
benefit of our readers we have taken 
pains to inspect the large stock 
and numerous departments of this 
store. Also, the Lamson Cash Rail- 
road, a novel device (used only by 
the larger stores) for carrying cash 
from clerks to the cashier's desk. This 
is the only one of the kind in Con- 
cord, and would well pay any one 
visiting Concord to inspect. 

In a single page which we shall de- 
vote to the leading dry goods store in 
Concord, we can but mention some of 
the many attractions offered by Messrs. 
E. W. Willard & Co., and only a few 
things that have led to the success of 
which they may well be proud. We 
notice in their store a large and care- 



fully selected stock. Prominent among 
the departments are the Diess Goods, 
Silks, Shawls, While Goods, Kid 
Gloves , Hosiery, Ribbons, Handker- 
chiefs, Corsets and Skirls, Small 
IVares, Domestics and Housekeeping 
Goods. We could not but admire the 
excellent arrangement of the goods, 
which seemed to border on the artistic, 
but a fact more worthy of mention 
was the quality of the goods which 
filled their many shelves and drawers. 
To maintain the reputation and large 
trade which this firm has already se- 
cured (a close inspection reveals the 
secret), the very best grades of goods 
largely predominate. While the de- 
mands of the trade require that all 
grades be kept, the firm always recom- 
mend a good fabric, avoiding shoddy 
and cheap imitations. 

In Silks. E. W. Willard &: Co. seem 
to have unusual facilities for giving 
their customers good value. They 
have gathered suggestions from the 
leading importers and large buyers of 
New York, and are willing to compare 
prices with any house in the country. 
The liberal patronage this department 
has received the past season is con- 
vincing proof that it is worthy the at- 
tention of clo.>e buyers. Their Hosiery 
and Kid Clove stocks are worthy of 
special mention : for variety of makes, 
patterns, colors, and prices they are 
rarely equalled. 

E. W. Willard & Co. make a spe- 
cialty of furnishing Beach and Moun- 
tain Houses, also Boarding Houses, 
with Blankets, Cottons, Crashes, 
Table Linens, Napkins, Towels, etc., 
at wholesale prices. They also fur- 
nish pay envelopes [size 3] x 5] 
inches] free to any parties wishing 
them. These are regular specie en- 
velopes and have their card printed on 
one side. Visit the store of E. W. 
Willard & Co. 



1-92 



t 

THE GRANITE MONTHLY. 



If 



m 



it I - - Jri 



" 1 ••/. 



* J 



THE 

GRANITE MONTHLY. 

A NEW HAMPSHIRE MAGAZINE. 

Devoted to Literature, Biography, History, and State Progress. 

Vol. VII. JULY AND AUGUST, 1884. Nos. 7 & 8 

CAPTAIN GEORGE HAMILTON PERKINS, U.S.N. 

By Captain George E. Belknap, U.S.N. 



In passing up the Concord and 
Claremont Railroad from Concord, the 
observant traveler has doubtless noticed 
the substantial and comfortable- looking 
homestead with large and trim front 
yard, shaded by thickly planted and 
generous topped maples, on the right- 
hand side of the road after crossing 
the bridge that spans 

" Contoocook's bright and brimming river," 

at the pleasant-looking village of Con- 
toocookville in the northern part of 
Hopkinton. 

There, under that inviting roof, the 
subject of this sketch, George Hamil- 
ton Perkins, the eldest son in a family 
of eight children, was born, October 
20, 1836. 

His father, the Honorable Hamilton 
Eliot Perkins, inherited all the land in 
that part of the town, and, in early 
life, in addition to professional work as 
a counsellor-at-law and member of the 
Merrimack County bar, built the mills at 
Contoocookville, and was, in fact, the 
founder of the thriving settlement at 
that point. 

His paternal grandfather, Roger Eliot 



Perkins, came to Llopkinton from the 
vicinity of Salem, Massachusetts, when 
a young man, and by his energy, enter- 
prise, and public spirit, soon impressed 
his individuality upon the community, 
and became one of the leading citizens 
of the town. 

His mother was Miss Clara Bartlett 
George, daughter of the late John 
George, Esquire, of Concord, whose 
ancestors were among the early settlers 
of Watertown, Massachusetts. He is 
said to have been a man of active tem- 
perament, prompt in business, stout in 
heart, bluff of speech, honest in pur- 
pose, and never failing in any way those 
who had dealings with him. 

As " the child is father of the man/' 
so the boyhood and youth of Captain 
Perkins gave earnest of those qualities 
which in his young manhood the rude 
tests of the sea and the grim crises 
of war developed to the full. " No 
matter " was his first plainly spoken 
phrase, a hint of childish obstinacy 
that foreshadowed the persistence of 
maturer years. Among other feats of 
his boyish daring, it is told that when 
a mere child, hardly into his first 



202 



Captain George Hamilton Perkins, U.S.N. 



[April. 



trousers, he went one day to catch 
a colt in one of his father's fields 
bordering on the Contoocook. The 
colt declined to be caught and after a 
sharp scamper took to the river and 
swam across. Nothing daunted, the 
■ plucky little urchin threw off his jacket, 
plunged into the swift current, and 
safely breasting it, was soon in hot 
pursuit on the other side ; and after a 
long chase and hard tussle made out to 
catch the spirited animal and bring 
him home in triumph. Always passion- 
ately fond of animals and prematurely 
expert in all out-door sports, he thus 
early began to master that noblest of 
beasts, the horse. 

When eight years old, his father 
removed with his family to Boston, 
and, investing his means in shipping, 
engaged for a time in trade with the 
west coast of Africa. The son was apt 
to run about the wharves with his father, 
and the sight of the ships and contact 
with "Jack" doubtless awoke the taste 
for the sea, that was to be gratified 
later on. 

Returning to the old homestead on 
the Contoocook after the lapse of two 
years or more, the old, quiet, yet for 
young boyhood, frolicsome out-door 
life was resumed, and the lad grew 
apace amid the rural scenes and ample 
belongings of that generous home ; not 
over studious, perhaps, and chafing, as 
boys will, at the restraint imposed by 
the study of daily lessons and their 
recital to his mother. 

At twelve years of age, he was sent 
to the Hopkinton Academy, and after- 
wards to the academy at Oilman ton. 
While at Gilmanton, General Charles 
H, Peaslee, then member of Congress 
from the Concord congressional dis- 
trict, offered him the appointment of 
acting midshipman to fill a vacancy at 



the Naval Academy, Annapolis, Mary- 
land, which, after some hesitation, his 
pjients permitted him to accept, and he 
was withdrawn from Gilmanton and sent 
to Concord to prepare for entrance at 
Annapolis, under a private tutor. He 
remained under such pupilage until the 
age of fifteen, when the beginning of 
the academic year, October, 1S51, saw 
him installed in " Middy's " uniform at 
that institution, and the business of life 
for him had begun in earnest. 

To a young and restless lad, used to 
being afield at all times and hours with 
horse, dog, and gun, and fresh from a 
country home where the " pomp and 
circumstance " of military life had had 
no other illustration than occasional 
glimpses of the old "training and 
muster days " so dear to New Hamp- 
shire boys forty years ago, the change 
to the restraint and discipline ; the 
inflexible routine and stern command ; 
the bright uniforms and novel ways ; 
the sight of the ships and the use of a 
vocabulary that ever smacks of the 
sea ; the call by drum and trumpet to 
every act of the day, from bed-rising, 
prayers, and breakfast, through study, 
recitation, drill, and recreation hours, to 
tattoo and taps, when every student is 
expected to be in bed, — was a trans- 
formation wonderful indeed ; but the 
flow of discipline and routine are so 
regular and imperative that their cur- 
rents are imperceptibly impressed upon 
the youthful mind and soon become a 
part of his nature, as it were, unawares. 
So we may conclude that our young 
aspirant for naval honors proved no 
exception to the rule, and soon settled 
into these new grooves of life as quietly 
as his ardent temperament would 
permit. 

The discipline at the Academy, in 
those days, was harsher and more 



1 



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Captain George Hamilton Perkins, U.S.N. 



203 



exacting, and the officers of the institu- 
tion of a sterner and more experienced 
sea-school, than now; and the three 
months' practice cruises across the 
Atlantic, which the different classes 
made on alternate summers, when the 
" young gentlemen " were trained to do 
all the work of seamen, both alow and 
aloft, and lived on the old navy ration 
of salt junk, pork and beans, and hard- 
tack, with no extras, were anything but 
a joke. The Academy, too, was in a 
transition state from the system in 
vogue, up to 1850 inclusive, prior to 
which period the midshipmen went 
to sea immediately after appointment, 
pretty much after the fashion of Peter 
Simple and Jack Easy, and after a 
lapse of five years came to the school 
for a year's cramming and coaching 
before graduating as passed midship- 
men. The last of such appointees was 
graduated in 1856, and the sometime 
hinted contaminating influence of the 
" oldsters " upon the " youngsters " was 
a thing to be known no more forever, 
albeit the hint of contamination always 
seemed, to the writer, questionable, as, 
in his experience, the habit and pro- 
pensity of the youngsters for mischief 
appeared to require neither promotion 
nor encouragement. Indeed, their 
methods and ingenuity in evading rules 
and regulations and defying discipline 
were as original as they were persever- 
ing, and could the third-story room of 
the building occupied by the subject of 
this sketch be given tongue, it would 
tell a tale of frolic and drollery that 
would only find parallel in the inimita- 
ble pages of Marryatt. Convenient 
apparatus for the stewing or roasting of 
oysters, poaching of eggs, or the mix- 
ing of refreshing drinks, could be 
readily stowed away from the inspect- 
ing officer, or a roast goose or turkey 



be smuggled by a trusty darkey from 
some restaurant outside ; and it was 
but the work of a moment after taps 
to tack a blanket over the window, 
light the gas, and bring out a dilapi- 
dated pack of cards for a game of 
California Jack or draw -poker; or to 
convert the prim pine table into a bill- 
iard-table, with marbles for balls, with 
which the ownership of many a collar, 
neckerchief, shirt, and other articles of 
none too plentiful wardrobes, weri de- 
cided in a twinkling, while the air of 
the crowded room grew thick and 
stilling from the smoke of the for- 
bidden tobacco. One of the company 
would keep a sharp lookout for the 
possible advent of the sometimes 
rubber-shod passed midshipman doing 
police duty, and, if necessary, danger 
signals would be made from the base- 
ment story, by tapping on the steam- 
pipes, which signal would be repeated 
from room to room, and from floor to 
floor, generally in ample time for the 
young bacchanalians to disperse in 
safety. If, perchance, the revelers got 
caught, they would stand up at the next 
evening's parade and hear the offence 
and demerits accorded, read out in 
presence of the battalion, with an easy 
sang-froid that piqued the sea-worn 
experience of the oldsters while they 
marveled. Let no one judge these 
lads too harshly, for the «day came, all 
too soon, when they were to stand up 
in face of the enemy, and, with equally 
nonchalant but sterner courage, go into 
battle in defence of the flag they were 
being trained to defend, many winning 
undying honor and fame, some meeting 
untimely but heroic graves, in " the 
war that kept the Union whole." 

Our midshiprnite soon became a 
favorite with all, from the gruff old 
superintendent down to the littlest 



204 Captain George Ham 

new-comer at the school. His bright, 
cheery, and genial disposition, and 
frank, hearty ways, were very winning, 
and if, in his studies, he did not take 
leading rank, nor become enraptured 
over analytics, calculus, and binomials, 
' he was esteemed a spirited, heartsome 
lad of good stock and promise, bred to 
honorable purpose and aspiration, with 
seemingly marked aptitude for the noble 
profession, which, more than any other, 
calls for a heroism that never hesi- 
tates, a courage that never falters ; 
for, aside from its special work of 
upholding and defending the flag, and 
all it symbolizes, on the high seas to the 
uttermost parts of the globe, " they 
that go down to sea in ships " come 
closer to the manifestations of the 
unspeakable might and majesty of 
Almighty Power than any other. The 
seaman, with but a plank separating 
him from eternity, never knows at what 
moment he may be called upon to put 
forth all the skill and resource, the 
unflinching effort and sacrifice, that his 
calling ever, in emergency, unstintedly 
requires. 

"Where'er the surge may sweep, the tempest's 
breath prevail, 
He searches all its stormy deep, its dangers 
all unveil." 

Of medium height, slight and 
trim of figure, clear complexion and 
piercing gray eyes of peculiar brilliancy, 
softened by a merry twinkle betokening 
latent mischief, young Perkins was a 
youth fair and interesting to look upon. 
He walked with quick, elastic step, 
carried his head a little on one side, 
and had a habit, when anything 
struck his fancy pleasantly, of shrugging 
his shoulders and rubbing his hands 
together in a vigorous way, that seemed 
to declare in unmistakable terms that 
he was glad all over ! 



Hon Perkins, U.S.N. [April, 

During one of the wonted summer 
cruises, he made himself somewhat 
famous at great-gun practice, the 
details of which are given in one of 
his home letters, as follows : — 

" We had target practice one day, and 
it came my turn to shoot. There was 
quite a swell on, which made it very 
difficult to get any kind of a shot", but 
when I fired I hit the target, which 
was a barrel with a small flag on it, set 
up about three quarters of a mile 
distant. Such a thing as hitting a 
small target at sea, with the ship in 
motion, and a swell on, is considered 
almost out of the question, so they all 
said it was * luck.' But another target 
was put out, and I fired again and stove 
it all to pieces. Then the crew all 
cheered, and made quite a hero of me. 
Still some said it must be luck, and 
another target was put out in exactly 
the same manner. This one I did not 
quite hit, but the shot fell so near, that 
all gave it up it was not luck, and 
that I was a first-rate shot with broad- 
side guns." 

After such demonstration, it is not 
strange that he was looked upon as 
having a very correct eye for distances, 
and was ever afterward called upon to 
fire whenever experiments were wanted. 
Naval gunnery, be it remarked in 
passing, is quite a different matter from 
army practice : in the former, with its 
platform never at rest, it is like 
shooting a bird on the wing, when 
distance and motion must be accu- 
rately gauged and allowed for ; in the 
latter, from its gun on a fixed platform, 
it is but a question of measurement from 
the object, by means of instruments if 
need be, and of good pointing. The 
seaman stands immediately in rear of 
the gun, with eye along the sight 
directing its train, now right, now 



1 



rSS 4 .] 



Captain George Hamilton Perkins, U.S.N. 



205 



left, now well, and with taut lock-string 
in hand in readiness to pull the moment 
the object is on, and on the alert to 
jump clear of the recoil. The soldier 
handles his piece with greater delibera- 
tion, sights it leisurely on its immovable 
platform, and, if mounted en barbette, 
retires behind a traverse before firing. 

Graduating in June, 1856, the now 
full-fledged Midshipman Perkins could 
look back upon his five years' proba- 
tionary experience with many pleasant 
recollections, though doubtless thanking 
his stars that his pupilage was over. 

During his time there had been two 
superintendents at the academy. The 
first was Captain C. K. Stribling, a 
fine seaman of the old school, of rigid 
Presbyterian stock, stern, grim, and 
precise, with curt manners, sharp and 
incisive voice that seemed to know no 
softening, and whose methods of duty 
and conception of discipline smacked 
of the "true blue " ideal of the Cove- 
nanters of old in their enforcement of 
obedience and conservation of morals. 
The second was Captain L. M. Golds- 
borough, a man of stalwart height and 
proportions and a presence that en- 
nobled command ; learned and accom- 
plished, yet gruff and overwhelming in 
speech and brusque and impatient in 
manner, but possessing, withal, a kindly 
nature, and a keen sense of humor 
that took in a joke enjoyably, however 
practical ; and a sympathetic discrimina- 
tion that often led him to condone 
moral offences at which some of the 
straight-laced professors stood aghast. 
His responses at church-service re- 
sounded like the growl of a bear, and 
when reprimanding the assembled mid- 
shipmen, drawn up in battalion, for 
some grave breach of discipline, he 
would stride up and down the line with 
the tread of an elephant, and expound 



the Articles of War in stentorian tones 
that equaled the roar of a bull ! But 
if, perchance, in the awesome precincts 
of his office, he afterwards got hold of 
a piece of doggerel some witty mid- 
shipman had written descriptive of 
such a scene, none would enjoy it more 
than he ! 

After an enjoyment of a three months' 
leave of absence at home, Midshipman 
Perkins was ordered to join the sloop- 
of-war Cyane, Captain Robb. That 
ship was one of the home squadron, 
and in November, 1856, sailed for 
Aspinwall, to give protection to our 
citizens, mails, and freight, in the 
transit across the Isthmus of Panama to 
California, back and forth. At that 
period safe and rapid transit in that 
region of riots and revolution was 
much more important than now, — the 
Pacific Railroad existing only in the 
brains of a few sagacious men, — and 
the maintenance of the thoroughfare 
across the pestilential isthmus was a 
national necessity. For years our naval 
force on either side had had frequent 
occasion to land expeditions to protect 
the life and property of our citizens, 
and a frightful massacre of passengers 
had but lately occurred at the hands of 
a mongrel mob at Panama. The situa- 
tion was critical, and for a time it 
looked as though the United States 
would be obliged to seize and hold 
that part of Colombian territory. But 
time wore on without outbreak on the 
part of the fiery freemen of that so- 
called republic, the continued presence 
of ships, both at Panama and Aspinwall, 
doubtless convincing them of the folly 
of further attempts to molest the hated 
Yankees. 

Meanwhile the notorious Walker had 
been making a filibustering raid in 
Central America, which ended in failure, 



2o6 



Captain George Hamilton Perkins, U.S.N'. 



[April, 



and the Cyane went over to Grey town 
to bring the sick and wounded of his 
deluded followers to Aspinwall for pas- 
sage to New York. Some hundred and 
twenty officers and men found in the 
hands of the Costa Ricans were taken 
on board, most of them in a deplorable 
condition. Some died before weighing 
anchor for Aspinwall, and as midship- 
men have no definable duties except to 
obey orders, whatever they may be, 
Midshipman Perkins was sent in a boat 
one day to take a chaplain's part in the 
burial of one of the victims. " When 
we got out to sea," he wrote, " I read 
some prayers over him, and then he 
was thrown over the side, the sailors 
saying ' God bless you ! ' as the body 
sunk." This sad duty made him feel 
solemn and reflective, but more than 
likely as not he was called upon 
immediately on arrival on board, as 
"master's mate of the spirit-room," to 
attend the serving out of grog to the 
ship's company ! Extremes meet on 
board a man-of-war, and the times for 
moralizing are short and scant. 

So time sped, Midshipman Perkins 
performing his multifarious duties with 
alacrity and approval, and having some 
perilous adventures by flood and field 
in pursuit of wild game, until July, 
1857, when the monotony of the cruise 
was broken by a trip to the banks of 
Newfoundland for the protection of our 
fishing interests, and including visits at 
Boston, St. John's, and Halifax. 

The people of the Provinces were 
very hospitable, and the contrast be- 
tween the dusky damsels of the isth- 
mus and the ruddy-cheeked belles of 
St. John's and Halifax was brightening 
in the extreme ; and young Perkins, 
ever gallant in his intercourse with the 
sex, and a good dancer, found much 
favor with the Provincial beauties, and 
doubtless made up for past depriva- 



tions, in the alluring contact with their 
charms. 

Returning southward in the fall, the 
ship cruised among the West Indies, 
visiting, among other ports, Cape 
Haytien, the old capital of the island 
of Hayti, to inquire into the imprison- 
ment of an American merchant cap- 
tain. This place, before the French 
Revolution, had been a city of great 
magnificence and beauty — the Paris of 
the Isles ; and the old French nobility, 
possessing enormous landed estates 
and large numbers of slaves, lived in a 
state of almost fabled grandeur and 
luxury ; but negro rule, the removal 
of the seat of government to Port- 
au-Prince, and the great earthquake 
of 1842, have destroyed all but a 
semblance of its former glory and 
importance. 

Among other sights visited by the 
officers was the old home of Count 
Cristoff, a castle of great size and 
strength, built on one of the highest 
hills, some twelve miles back of the 
town. It was told of the old Count 
that he used every year to bury large 
sums of money from his revenues, and 
then shoot the slave who did the work, 
that the secret of the spot might be 
known only to himself. 

In January, 1858, Midshipman 
Perkins was detached from the Cyane, 
and he bade adieu forever to her dark, 
cramped-up, tallow-candle lighted steer- 
age, baggy hammock, and hard fore, 
where the occasional dessert to a salt 
dinner had been dried apples, mixed 
with bread and flavored with whiskey ! 
There were no eleven-o'clock break- 
fasts for midshipmen in those days, and 
canned meats, condensed milk, pre- 
served fruits, and other luxuries now 
common on shipboard, were almost 
unknown. 

A few brief days at home and orders 



1 



i8S 4 -] 



Captain George Hamilton Pci'kins, U.S.N. 



207 



came to join the storeship Release, 
which vessel after a three months' 
cruise in the Mediterranean returned to 
New York to fill up with stores and 
provisions for the Paraguay expedition. 
That expedition had for its object the 
chastisement of the Dictator Lopez for 
certain dastardly acts committed against 
our flag on the River Parana. 

Owing to the paucity of officers, so 
many being absent on other foreign 
service, Midshipman Perkins was ap- 
pointed acting sailing-master, a very 
responsible position for so young an 
officer, which, with the added comforts 
of a stateroom and well-ordered table 
in the wardroom, was almost royal in 
its contrast with the duty, the darksome 
steerage, and hard fare on board the 
Cyane. It would be difficult to make 
a landsman take in the scope of the 
change implied, but let him in 
imagination start across the continent 
in an old-fashioned, cramped-up stage- 
coach, full of passengers, with such 
coarse fare as could be picked up from 
day to day, and return in a Pullman car 
with well-stocked larder and res aurant 
attached, and he will pet a glimmering as 
to the difference between steerage and 
wardroom life on board a man-of-war. 

The Release was somewhat of a tub, 
and what with light and contrary winds 
and calms took sixty-two days to reach 
the rendezvous, Montevideo, arriving 
.there in January, 1858. She found the 
whole fleet at anchor there, and officers 
and men soon forgot the weariness of 
the long passage in the receipt of 
letters from home, and in the joyous 
meetings with old friends. All admired 
the fine climate, and, as that part of 
South America is the greatest country 
in the world for horses, the young sail- 
ing-master rejoiced in the opportunity 
offered to indulge in his favorite pastime 



of riding. He also showed his prowess 
as a devotee of the chase in the fine 
sport afforded on the pampas that 
enabled him to run down and shoot a 
South American tiger. 

Meanwhile Commodore Shubrick, in 
command of the expedition, had com- 
pleted his preparations for ascending 
the Parana, and the fleet soon moved 
up to a convenient point, the Commo- 
dore himself continuing on up the river 
in a small vessel to Corrientes to meet 
Lopez and convey to him the ultimatum 
of the United States. After some 
" backing and filling," as an old salt 
would characterize diplomacy, Lopez 
concluded " discretion to be the better 
part of valor," and making a satisfactory 
amende, the Paraguayan war came to a 
bloodless end, and the hopes of expect- 
ant heroes with visions of promotion 
dissolved like summer clouds. 

Young Perkins was now, August, 
1858, transferred to the frigate Sabine 
for passage home to his examination 
for the grade of passed midshipman. 
Passing that ordeal satisfactorily, aided 
by handsome commendatory letters 
from his commanding officers, he spent 
three happy months at home, and then 
received orders for duty on board the 
steamer Sumter, as acting master, the 
destination of that vessel being the 
west coast of Africa, where, in accord- 
ance with the provisions of Article 8 of 
the Webster- Ashburton treaty (1842), 
the United States maintained a squadron, 
carrying not less than eighty guns, in 
co-operation with the British govern- 
ment, for the suppression of the slave 
trade. That article continued in active 
observance nineteen years, when the 
Lmited States, having a little question 
of slavery to settle at home, gave the 
stipulated preliminary , notice and re- 
called the ships. 



208 



Captain George Hamilton Perkins, U.S.N. 



[April, 



The Sumter arrived on the coast in 
October, 1S59, making her first anchor- 
age in the lovely harbor on the west 
side of Prince's Island. That island, 
in about i° 30' north latitude, covered 
with all the luxuriance of tropical 
growth and verdure, and broken 
into every conceivable shape of pin- 
nacle, castellated rock and chasm, 
and frowning precipice, streaked with 
silvery threads of leaping streams in 
their dash to the sea, is indeed one of 
the most enchanting spots the eye ever 
rested on. The chief inhabitant of 
the lovely isle was Madame Ferrara, 
a woman of French extraction, who 
lived alone in a big, rambling house, 
surrounded by slaves, who cultivated 
her plantations and prepared the cocoa, 
palm oil, yams, and cocoanuts, for the 
trade that sought her doors. 

Filling up with water, the Sumter 
proceeded to the island of Fernando 
Po, a Spanish possession close in to the 
mainland, in the Bight of Biafra, where 
she met several English and French 
men-of-war, and received orders for her 
future movements. 

The first thing to do, in accordance 
with the custom of the squadron, was 
the enlisting of fifteen or twenty 
negroes, known as Kroomen, whose 
home is in the Kroo country in upper 
Guinea, just south of Liberia. They 
did all the heavy boat-work of the ship, 
thus lightening the work of the crew, and 
saving them as much as possible from 
exposure to the effects of the deadly 
climate. Great, strapping, muscular 
fellows, many of them, with forms that 
an Apollo might envy, they were 
trained from infancy to be as much at 
home in the water as upon the land, 
and could swim a dozen leagues at sea 
or pull at the oar all day long without 
seeming fatigue. Wonderfully expert 



in their handling of boats, especially in 
the heavy surf that rolls in upon the 
coast with ceaseless volume and resist- 
less power, its perilous line almost 
unbroken by a good harbor, from the 
Cape of Good Hope to the Straits of 
Gibraltar, their services in communi- 
cating with the shore were simply inval- 
uable. The head Kroomen exercised 
despotic power over their respective 
gangs, and the men were given fanciful 
names, and so entered on the purser's 
books. Bottle-o'-Beer, Jack Frying- Pan, 
Tom Bobstay, Upside Down, and the 
like, were favorite names ; and our fun- 
loving young sailing-master hints, in his 
letters of the time, that the archives of 
the fourth auditor's office at Washing- 
ton may possibly embalm the names 
of certain Annapolis belles that had 
been borne by some of these sable 
folk ! 

The cruising ground embraced the 
coasts of Upper and Lower Guinea, 
and the coast of Biafra, with occasional 
visits of recruit and recreation to Cape 
Town and St. Helena. The work was 
arduous, monotonous, and exhausting, 
especially during the rainy season, 
when the decks were continually 
deluged with water, and dry clothing 
was the exception, not the rule. The 
weather was always hot, often damp and 
sultry, and the atmosphere on shore so 
pestilential, that no one was permitted 
to remain there after sundown. But 
that rule was no deprivation, as the 
dangers of the passage through the 
relentless breakers, alive with sharks, 
were so great, that few cared to visit the 
shore except when absolutely necessary. 
The vessels cruised mostly in sight of 
the coast to watch the movements of 
the merchantmen, all more or less 
under suspicion as slavers, watching 
their chances to get off with a cargo. 



1 



iSS 4 -3 



Captain George Hamilton Perkins, U.S.N. 



209 



On one hand was the rounded horizon 
dipping into the broad Atlantic ; on 
the other, the angry line of rollers with 
their thunderous roar, backed by white 
beach and dense forest, with occa- 
sional glimpses of blue hills in the 
distant interior. This and nothing 
more, from day to day, save when a 
small village of thatched huts came into 
view, adding a scant feature to the 
landscape ; or a solitary canoe outside 
the line of breakers ; or strange sail 
to seaward ; or school of porpoises, 
leaping and blowing, windward bound ; 
or hungry shark prowling round the 
ship, lent momentary interest to the 
watery solitude. It was a privilege 
to fall in with another cruiser, whether 
of our own or of the English flag. On 
such occasions, down would go the 
boats for the exchange of visits, the 
comparison of notes, and sometimes 
the discussion of a dinner. The 
English officers had numerous captures 
and handsome sums of prize-money to 
tell of, while our people, as a rule, 
could only talk of hopes and possibil- 
ities. Our laws regulating captures 
were as inflexible as the Westminster 
Catechism, and a captain could not 
detain a vessel without great risk of 
civil damages, unless slaves were actu- 
ally on board. Suspected ships might 
have all the fittings and infamous equi- 
page for the slave traffic on board, but 
if their masters produced correct papers 
the vessels could not be touched ; and 
our officers not infrequently had the 
mortification of learning that ships they 
had overhauled, and believed to be 
slavers, but could not seize under their 
instructions, got off the coast eventually 
with large cargoes of ebon humanity on 
board. 

Not so with the English com- 
manders, whose instructions enabled 



them to take and send to their prize- 
courts all vessels, except those under 
the American flag, under the slightest 
showing of nefarious character ; and 
their hauls of prize-money were rich 
and frequent. 

The intercourse with the English 
officers, notes Master Perkins, at first 
cordial and agreeable, became, after a 
few months, cold and indifferent. Her 
Majesty's officers no longer cared to 
show politeness or friendly feeling. 
The first premonitions of the Rebellion 
in the John Brown raid, the break-up 
of the democracy at Charleston, and 
the violence of the Southern press 
concerning the probable results of 
the pending presidential election, con- 
vincing them that the long-predicted 
and wished-for day — the breaking up 
of the Republic — was nigh at hand, 
and their real feelings as Englishmen 
cropped out but too plainly : but of 
this, more anon. 

Despite the perils of the surf, the 
clangers of the inhospitable climate, and 
the unfriendly character of some of the 
savage tribes to be met with, the ad- 
venturous spirit and dauntless courage 
of Master Perkins was not to be balked. 
Volunteering for every duty, no matter 
how dangerous, hardly a boat ever left 
the ship that he was not in it. The 
life of the mess through his unfailing 
good humor and exuberant flow of 
spirits, he was the soul of every expedi- 
tion, whether of service or pleasure ; 
and before the cruise of some twenty- 
two months was up, he came to know 
almost every prominent tribe, chief, and 
king on the coast. Now dining with 
a king off the strangest of viands ; now 
holding " palaver" with another; now 
spending a day with a chief and his 
numerous wives ; now visiting a French 
barracoon, where, under a fiction 



1 



2IO Captain George Hamilton Perkins, U.S.N. [April, 



of law, the victims were collected to be 
shipped as unwilling apprentices, not 
slaves, to be returned to their native 
wilds, if (key lived lo?ig enough ; now 
ascending a river dangerous for boats, 
where, if the boat had capsized, him- 
self and crew would but have served 
a morning's meal to the hungry sharks 
held as fetich by the natives along the 
stream, who yearly sacrifice young girls 
reared for the purpose to their pro- 
pitiation ; now scouring the bush in 
pursuit of the gorilla or shooting hip- 
popotami by the half-dozen, and other 
adventures and exploits wherein duty, 
excitement, and gratified curiosity were 
intermingled with danger and hair- 
breadth escape that few would care 
to tempt. 

On one occasion, he volunteered to 
go with a boat's crew and find the 
mouth of the Settee River, not dream- 
ing of landing through the unusually 
heavy surf. " But," said he, " in 
pulling along about half a mile from 
shore, a roller struck the boat and cap- 
sized it. Of course we were obliged 
to swim for shore ; in fact, we had little 
to do with it, for the moment the boat 
was upset we were driven into the surf, 
and not one of us thought we should 
ever reach the shore, for if we were not 
lost in the surf, the sharks would eat us 
up. As I rose on the top of a wave I 
could look ahead and see the stretch 
of wild, tossing surf, which it seemed 
impossible for any one to live in ; but 
when I looked back I could count all 
my men striking out, which was very 
encouraging, as I feared one or two 
might be under the boat. I thought 
for a moment of you all at home, and 
wondered if mother would not feel 
a little frightened if she knew how 
strong the chances were against her 
son's receiving any more letters from 



home. Just then a roller struck me 
and carried me down so deep I was 
caught by the undertow and carried 
toward the sea, instead of the land. 
When I came to the surface I tried to 
look out for the next roller, but it was 
no use ; the first one half-drowned me, 
and the next kept me down so long 
that when I rose I was in the wildest 
of the surf, which tumbled and rolled 
me about in a way I did not like at all. 
My eyes, nose, and mouth were full of 
sand, and, in fact, I thought my time 
had come. Just then I looked on 
shore, and saw two of my men dragging 
some one from the water, and at that 
sight I struck out with one despairing 
kick, and managed to get near enough 
for two of the men to reach me ; but 
that was all I knew of the affair until 
a little after sunset, when 1 became 
conscious of the fact that I was being 
well shaken, and I heard one of the 
men say, ' Cheer up, Mr. Perkins ! 
Your boat and all the men are on 
shore.' This was such good news that 
I did not much mind the uncom- 
fortable position in which I found 
myself. I was covered with sand and 
stretched across a log about two feet 
high, my head on one side and my 
feet on the other. The men had 
worked a long while to bring me to. 
Three of the men were half-drowned 
and one injured. We managed to get 
the boat in the river, but suffered 
awfully from thirst. The next morning 
we lost our way, and, after pulling 
around till mid-afternoon, we stumbled 
on some natives fishing. We followed 
them home, but found them such a 
miserable, bad-looking lot of negroes 
that we expected trouble. Knowing 
that the native villages in the daytime 
are left in charge of the old men and 
women, and not knowing what might 



1 



iSS 4 .] 



Captain George Hamilton Perkins, L T .S.2V. 



211 



happen when the men came back, we 
killed some chickens, and, with some 
sweet potatoes, made quite a meal. 
The strongest of us, myself and three 
others, got ready for a fight, while the 
rest manned the boat ready for our 
retreat. Shortly after this the chief 
came back, and about a hundred men 
with him. I told the chief I had come 
to pay him a visit, and we had a great 
palaver ; but he would not give us any- 
thing to eat, and we made up our 
minds that it was a dangerous neigh- 
borhood ; so we moved down on a 
sand-spit in sight of the ship, and there 
we stayed three days and nights. We 
built a tent and fortification, traded off 
most of our clothes for something to 
eat, and slept unpleasantly near several 
hundred yelling savages. All this while 
the ship could render no assistance ; 
but on the third day the Kroomen 
came on shore with some oars, and, 
after trying all one day, we managed, 
just at night, to get through the surf 
and back to the ship. It was a happy 
time for us, 3nd I may say for all on 
board, as they had been very anxious 
about us. Not far north of this, if you 
happen to get cast ashore, they kill and 
eat you at once, for cannibalism is by 
no means extinct among the negroes." 

The sequel of this perilous experi- 
ence was that all of them were stricken 
down with the dread African fever 
which, if it does not at all times kill, 
but too often shatters the constitution 
beyond remedy ; and the fact that five 
officers, including one commanding 
officer, and a proportionate number of 
men, had been invalided home, and 
another commanding officer had died, 
all due to climatic causes, attests the 
general unhealthfulness of the coast. 
Other interesting incidents and narrow 
escapes, in which Master Perkins had 



part, might be told, did not lack of 
space forbid ; but enough has been 
shown to impress the fact that African 
cruising, even in a well-found man-of- 
war, is not altogether the work and 
pleasure of a holiday ; yet, in looking 
over young Perkins's letters, we cannot 
forbear this description of the expert- 
ness of the Kroomen in landing 
through the surf. 

" When the boat shoves off from the 
ship, the Kroomen, entirely naked with 
exception of breech-clout, strike up a 
song, and pulling grandly to its rhyth- 
mic time, soon reach the edge of the 
surf, and lie on their oars. All eyes 
are now cast seaward, looking for a big 
roller, on the top of which we shall be 
carried on shore, and there is a general 
feeling of excitement. In a short time, 
the looked-for roller comes ; the Kroo- 
men spring to their oars with a shout, 
the natives on shore yell with all their 
might, the boat shoots forward on top 
of the wave at incredible speed, the 
surf thunders like the roar of a battery, 
and altogedier it seems as if the world 
had come to an end and all those 
fellows in the infernal regions were let 
loose. Now we must trust to luck 
wholly; there is no retreat and no 
help, for the boat is beyond the power 
of any human management, and go on 
shore you must, either in the boat or 
under it. The moment the boat strikes 
the beach, the Kroomen jump over- 
board, and you spring on the back of 
one of them, and he runs with you up 
on the beach out of the way of the 
next roller, which immediately follows, 
breaking over the boat, often upsetting 
it and always wetting everything inside. 
If you have escaped without a good 
soaking, you may consider yourself a 
lucky fellow." 

In the midst of this work came the 



) 



212 



Captain George Hamilton Perkins, U.S.N. 



[April, 



startling news of the portentous events 
at home. The infrequent mails began 
to bring the angry mutterings, the fate- 
ful tidings, that preluded the Rebellion. 
Every fresh arrival but added to the 
excitement and increased the bewilder- 
ment that had so unexpectedly come 
upon the squadron ; for, far removed 
from the scene, and not daily witnesses 
of the overt acts of the maddened 
South, they had mostly believed that 
the threatened conflict would be tided 
over, and the government be enabled 
to continue on in its wonted peaceful 
course. Now a wall, as of fire, rose 
up between the officers ; every mess in 
eve,ry ship was divided against itself ; 
brothers-in-arms of yesterday were 
enemies of to-day ; and no one spoke 
of the outlook at home except in bated 
breath and measured speech, from fear 
that the bitter cup would overflow then 
and there, and water turn to blood. 
Many Southern officers sent in their 
resignations at once, and all, both from 
North and South, were anxious to get 
home to do their part on one side or 
the other. 

" For some time past," wrote Master 
Perkins, " the foreigners here have 
shown us but little respect, and seem 
to regard us as a broken power; and 
this has been very provoking, for in my 
opinion it will be a long time before 
any power can afford to despise the 
United States." And he notes the fact 
that no more money could be had, — 
that the credit of the government was 
gone 1 Ah ! how happy the day to 
loyal but wearied hearts on that inhos- 
pitable shore, when the news came of 
the President's call for seventy-five thou- 
sand men, giving assurance that we still 
had a government, and meant to pre- 
serve it through the valor, the blood, 
the treasure of the nation, if need be ! 



After unaccountable and vexatious 
delay, the Sumter received orders, 
July, 1S61, to proceed to New York; 
meanwhile she had captured the slave 
brig Falmouth, a welcome finale to the 
cruise, and what with the officers trans- 
ferred to her and the resignations that 
had taken place, Mr. Perkins now 
became executive officer, a fine position 
at that day for one of his years. 

Making the homeward run in thirty- 
six days, the officers and men dispersed 
to their homes for a brief respite before 
entering upon the stern duties that 
awaited them, and Mr. Perkins had the 
satisfaction of receiving his commission 
as master. 

Recruiting his shattered health for a 
short time at his welcoming home, he 
was ordered as executive officer of the 
Cayuga, one of the so-called ninety- 
day gunboats, carrying a battery of 
one eleven-inch Dahlgren gun, a 
twenty pounder Parrott rifle, and two 
twenty-four pounder howitzers, and 
commanded by Lieutenant-Command- 
ing N. B. Harrison, a loyal Virginian, 
who had wavered never a moment as 
to his duty when his State threw down 
the gauntlet of rebellion. 

The exigencies of the war had soon 
exhausted the lists of regular officers 
and the few thousand seamen that had 
been trained in the service, and large 
drafts of officers and men were made 
upon the merchant marine as well as 
big hauls of green landsmen who had 
never dreamt of salt water; and First 
Lieutenant Perkins, as the only regular 
officer on board except the captain, 
soon found himself an exceeding busy 
man in organizing, disciplining, drilling, 
and shaping into place and routine, 
some ninety officers and men, all 
equally new to rnan-of-war life and 
methods, and requiring the necessary 



Captain George Hamilton Perkins, U.S.N. 



213 



time and instruction to fit them for 
their new duties. A fair soldier may 
be made in three months — a good 
seaman not in three years. 

The vessel was ordered to join Farra- 
gut's fleet in the Gulf, but, with the 
usual delays incident to new ships, did 
not get off from New York until the 
first week in March, arriving at Ship 
Island on the thirty-first, by way of Key 
West, and having made a prize on the 
way. As the young executive had been 



three corvettes of the Iroquois class ; 
nine gunboats of the Cayuga class, and 
the large side-wheel steamer Mississippi, 
carrying in the aggregate one hundred 
and fifty-four guns, principally of nine- 
inch and eleven-inch calibre ; but as 
the large ships carried their batteries 
mostly in broadside, the actual number 
that could be brought to bear, under 
the most favorable conditions, on every 
given point, would be cut down to the 
neighborhood of ninety guns. 




THE CAYUGA. 



promoted to a lieutenancy on the eve 
of departure from New York his visions 
of prize-money were doubtless propor- 
tionately enhanced by the capture ! 

The next day she sailed for the 
mouth of the Mississippi, where, and 
at the head of the passes, the rest of 
the fleet was assembled, and Flag- 
Officer Farragut busily engaged in com- 
pleting the preparations for the attack 
on New Orleans. 

The fleet consisted of four heavy 
sloops-of-w.ir of the Hartford class; 



Supporting this force as auxiliary to 
it, for the bombardment of Forts lack- 
son and St. Philip, was Porter's mortar 
fleet of twenty schooners, each mount- 
ing a thirteen-inch mortar, and a flotilla 
of five side-wheel steamers, and the 
gunboat Owasco, carrying, in all, thirty 
guns. 

The forts in question, forming the 
principal defences of New Orleans, 
were heavy casemated works with 
traverses on top for barbette guns, 
some ninety miles below the city at a 



1884,] 



Captain George Hamilton Perkins, U.S.N. 



215 



point where the river makes a sharp 
bend to the southeast. Fort St. Philip, 
on the left bank, mounted forty-two 
guns, and Fort Jackson, including its 
water battery, had sixty-seven guns in 
position, all of calibre from the long 
twenty-four pounder to the heavy ten- 
inch Columbiad, and including several 
six-inch and seven-inch rifles. 

Stretching across the river from 
bank to bank to bar the channel, nearly 
opposite Fort Jackson and exposed to 
the perpendicular fire of St. Philip, were 
heavy ship's chains, supported and 
buoyed by hulks, rafts, and logs, and 
half a dozen large schooners. The 
rebels had also established some works 
on the banks of the river about four 
miles from town, known as the McGehee 
and Chalmette batteries, the latter 
being located at the point ever memor- 
able in American history as the scene 
of General Jackson's overwhelming 
defeat of the British in 1815. 

Their reliance afloat was in the Lou- 
isiana, an ironclad, carrying nine rifles 
and seven smooth bores of heavy 
calibre ; the ram Manassas, one gun ; 
the McRae, seven guns ; the Moore 
and Quitman with two guns each ; six 
river steamers with their stems shod 
with iron 'to act as rams, and several 
iron-protected tugs. 

Assembling the fleet at the head 
of the passes, after much difficulty in 
getting the heavy ships over the bar, 
Farragut ordered the ships to strip like 
athletes for battle. Down came mast 
and spar till nothing was left standing 
but lower masts, — and even those were 
taken out of some of the gunboats, — 
and soon everything best out of reach 
of shot was landed, leaving clear decks, 
and no top hamper to be cut away by the 
enemy's projectiles, and come tumbling 
down about the heads of guns' crews. 



About this time the English and 
French men-of-war that had lain before 
New Orleans, giving aid and comfort to 
the enemy and making merry in singing 
rebel songs on board, especially on 
board the English vessels, left the river, 
their officers declaring it an impossibility 
for the fleet to pass the forts and 
obstructions. 

In this connection, it may be men- 
tioned that the cruisers of John Bull 
prowled along the coast during the 
entire war, with sometimes permission 
to enter the blockaded ports, conveying 
information and lending encourage- 
ment to the enemy, and rejoicing at 
every disaster that befell the Union 
arms, which, together with the tacit 
connivance of the British government 
in letting out the Alabama, and other 
hostile acts, ought to be treasured 
against Great Britain so long as the 
Republic endures. 

On the sixteenth of April, Farragut 
moved up to a point just below the 
forts, and on the eighteenth, having 
established the vessels of the mortar 
fleet at distances ranging from twenty- 
nine hundred and fifty yards to four 
thousand yards, from Jackson, and 
partially hidden by trees on one side 
the river, and disguised with bushes on 
the other, opened the bombardment, 
which was kept up with little interrup- 
tion for six days and nights ; the 
corvettes and gunboats taking part by 
turns in running up, delivering their 
fire, and dropping down with the 
current out of range again. The forts 
replied vigorously, and every night the 
enemy sent down fire-rafts, but to little 
purpose. 

Meanwhile, under cover of the night 
and the fire of the fleet, Fleet-Captain 
Bell, and Lieutenants - Commanding 
Crosby and Caldwell of the gunboats 



216 



Captain George Hamilton Perkins, U.S.N. 



[April, 



Pihola and Itasca, had succeeded in 
forcing a channel through the obstruc- 
tions, a piece of duty that had required 
the most robust and dauntless courage, 
and in which Caldwell — a son of 
Massachusetts — shone pre - eminent 
by the coolness of his methods and 
thoroughness of his work. And now, 
on the night of the twenty-third, after 
a last examination by Caldwell in a 
twelve-oared boat, all was pronounced 
clear, and the fleet was to weigh at 
two o'clock in the morning. 

The fleet was formed in three divi- 
sions, the first comprising the Hartford, 
flagship, the Brooklyn, and Richmond ; 
the second composed of eight vessels 
with the divisional flag of Captain Bailey 
on board the Cayuga ; and the third 
of six vessels, with Fleet-Captain Bell's 
flag flying from the Sciota ; but was 
ordered to pass through the obstructions 
in one column or single line ahead, the 
Cayuga leading. Farragut had intended 
to lead himself, but at Bailey's urgent 
request yielded that honor to him. 

The letters of Lieutenant Perkins, ever 
glowing with ardor for the good cause, 
were, at this time, full of patriotic fervor 
and aspiration, and when he said : "I 
hope the Cayuga will go down before 
she ever gives up, and l I guess' she 
will," he certainly meant it ! And the 
supreme moment had now come for 
him to inform this hope by valorous 
deeds, and all unfalteringly did he walk 
in the blazing light of heroism that 
none but the brave may dare to tread. 

The signal to weigh was promptly 
made at two o'clock, a.m., but work 
at night is always behind, and it was 
half-past three o'clock before the 
little Cayuga, leading the line, pressed 
gallantly through the obstructions at 
full speed, eager for the fray, closely 
followed by the heavy Pensacola, and 



ship after ship in the order assigned ; 
but lack of space forbids a general 
description of the battle, and we 
propose to do hardly more than to 
follow the fortunes of the Cayuga. 

Lieutenant - Commanding Harrison 
had paid his executive the high com- 
pliment of allowing him to pilot the 
vessel, and Perkins took position in 
the eyes of her, on the topgallant fore- 
castle, while Lieutenant - Commanding 
Harrison and Captain Bailey stood aft, 
near the wheel, and all the men except 
the helmsmen were made to lie flat on 
the deck until the time came for them 
to serve the battery. Prone on the 
deck at Perkins's feet, and with his 
head close down over the bow, was the 
captain of the forecastle, to watch the 
channel and give timely warning of 
anything barring the way that might 
escape the wider-ranging eye of the 
intrepid young pilot ; and as the 
Cayuga pressed on, receiving the first 
shock of the outburst from the forts, 
what finer subject for the painter, than 
that lithe young figure standing up in 
bold and unflinching relief, at the ex- 
treme bow of the ship, peering ahead 
in the morning starlight to pilot her 
safely on her way, amid the blinding 
flame and screaming bolts, the hurtle of 
shot and crash of shell, the explosion 
and deafening roar of a hundred shot- 
ted guns, as the vessel steamed into 
the jaws of death, leading the fleet 
into one of the most momentous and 
memorable conflicts in naval annals. 
Nor should cool and phlegmatic Harri- 
son nor grand old Bailey be overlooked, 
as the constant flashes of the thick 
exploding shells revealed them stand- 
ing, calm and grim, at their posts, in 
readiness to direct the movements of 
vessel and column, and engage the foe, 
ashore and afloat ; nor the impatient 



iSS 4 .j 



Captain George Hamilton Perkins, U.S.N. 



217 



officers and crew, who eagerly waited 
the order to spring to their guns and 
make reply to the withering fire pour- 
, ing in upon them as yet unavenged. 
-•_ " Noticing," said Perkins, "that the 
enemy's guns were all aimed for mid- 
stream, I steered right close under the 
walls of St. Philip, and although our 
masts and rigging were badly shot 
through, the hull was hardly damaged. 
After passing the last battery, I looked 
back for some of our vessels, and my 
heart jumped into my mouth, when I 
found I could not see a single one. I 
thought they must all have been sunk 
by the forts. Looking ahead, I saw 
eleven of the enemy's gunboats coming 
down upon us, and I supposed we 
were gone. Three made a dash to' 
board us, but a charge from our eleven- 
inch settled one, the Governor Moore. 
The ram Manassas just missed us 
astern, and we soon disposed of the 
other. Just then, some of our gun- 
boats came to the assistance of the 
Cayuga, and all sorts of things hap- 
pened ; it was the wildest excitement 
all round. The Varuna fired a broad- 
side into us instead of the enemy. 
Another attacked one of our prizes ; 
three had struck to us before any of 
our ships came up, but when they 
did come up we all pitched in and 
sunk eleven vessels in about twenty 
minutes." 

The brief encounter with the Moore 
had been very exciting. The vessels 
were alongside each other, and both 
were reloading, — the guns muzzle to 
muzzle, and but a few feet apart. The 
gun that could fire first would decide 
the fate of one or the other. Perkins 
sprang down, and, taking personal 
charge of the smoking eleven-inch, put 
fresh vigor into its loading, and firing 
the instant the rammer was withdrawn, 



swept the Moore's gun from its car- 
riage, and killed or disabled thirteen 
of its crew. 

The Cayuga still leading the way up 
the river came upon a regiment at 
daylight encamped close to the bank, 
and Perkins, as the mouthpiece of the 
captain, hailed them and ordered them 
to come on board and deliver up 
their arms or he would " blow them to 
pieces." 

It proved to be the Chalmette regi- 
ment, and, surrendering, the officers and 
men were paroled and the former 
allowed to retain their side-arms, 
"except," said Perkins, kt one captain, 
whom I discovered was from New 
Plampshire. I took his sword away 
from him and have kept it !" 

Now Farragut came up in the Hart- 
ford and signalled the fleet to anchor. 
This was near Quarantine, some five 
miles above the forts. All the vessels 
had succeeded in running the gauntlet 
of their fire except three gunboats, and 
New Orleans was now practically at the 
mercy of the fleet ; but the Varuna had 
been rammed and sunk in the hot 
fight with the enemy's flotilla just above 
St. Philip. 

The Cayuga had received forty-two 
hits in mast and hull, and six men had 
been wounded. 

The hurricane of projectiles had 
passed mostly too high to do mortal 
harm to her crew, due in part to the 
skilful manner in which Perkins had 
sheered in toward the bank from mid- 
stream so early in the fight. 

Resting until the next morning to 
care for the dead and wounded, and 
the repair of damages, the fleet again 
weighed, the Cayuga still in advance; 
and when the spires of the city hove in 
sight from her deck, "three rousing 
cheers and a tiger " went up from her 



218 



Captain George Hamilton Perkins, U.S.N. 



[April, 



gallant crew. But the plucky little 
gunboat was getting ahead too fast, for 
arriving close abreast the Chalmette 
battery, which seemed to be deserted, 
she suddenly received a fire that com- 
pelled a halt. Over-matched five to 
one, and having been struck fourteen 
times, with shot and shells dropping 
thick and fast about her, she slowed 
and dropped back a little with the 
current, until the Hartford and Brook- 
lyn coming up quickly silenced the 
enemy with their heavy broadsides, 
while the Pensacola cared for the 
hostile works on the opposite bank in 
like manner. The fleet then kept on 
without further obstruction, and arrived 
and anchored off the city about noon ; 
finding the levee along its entire length 
aflame with burning cotton, coal, ships, 
steamboats, and other property the 
infuriated enemy had devoted to 
destruction. 

The loss to the fleet in this daring 
and brilliant feat had been thirty-seven 
killed and one hundred and thirty-seven 
wounded. 

It is needless to say that Lieutenant 
Perkins not only received high commen- 
dation from Captain Bailey and Lieuten- 
ant-Commanding H.irrison, but won the 
praise and admiration of all on board 
and in the fleet, by the coolness and in- 
trepidity shown by him in every emer- 
gency of the fight and passage up the 
river. 

The first tidings received in Wash- 
ington foreshadowing the success of the 
attack was through rebel telegrams 
announcing, " one of the enemy's gun- 
boats " — the Cayuga — " above the 
forts." Some question subsequently 
arose between Bailey and Farragut as 
to the Cayuga's position in the passage, 
which in the diagrams accompanying 
the official reports contradicted the 



text, putting the Cayuga third instead of 
first in the van. Farragut cheerfully 
made the correction. 

Soon after anchoring, Bailey was 
ordered to go on shore and demand the 
unconditional surrender of the city, and 
he asked Lieutenant Perkins to accom- 
pany him. This duty was almost as 
dangerous and conspicuous as the 
passage of the forts had been, for' an 
infuriated and insolent mob followed 
them from the landing to the mayor's 
office, and while there with the mayor 
and General Lovell, besieged the doors, 
demanding the " Yankee officers " 
to be given up to them to be hung. 
The demonstration at last became so 
threatening, that the mayor drew off die 
attention of the mob by a speech to 
them in front of the building, while the 
Union officers took a close carriage in 
its rear and driving rapidly down to 
their boat, reached the ship in safety. 

Bailey had managed to hoist the fla^ 
over the mint, which a party of rebels 
tore down the next day. but the author- 
ities refused to surrender the city or 
to haul down the insignia of rebellion. 
Then ensued a correspondence which, 
to read at this day, makes the blood 
boil at rebel insolence, and the wonder 
grow at Farragut's forbearance ; but on 
the twenty -ninth of April, he sent 
Fleet-Captain Bell on shore with two 
howitzers manned by sailors and 
a battalion of two hundred and fifty 
marines and took possession of the 
city. Meanwhile the forts had sur- 
rendered to Porter of the mortar fleet, 
and General Butler, arriving on the first 
of May, relieved Farragut of further 
responsibility as to the city. 

The Cayuga had been so badly cut 
up by shot and shell that she was 
selected to take Captain Bailey north 
as bearer of dispatches, and landing 



220 



Captain George Hamilton Perkins, U.S.N. 



[April, 



him at Fortress Monroe, proceeded on 
to New York to be refitted. This 
enabled Lieutenant Perkins to make a 
short visit to Concord, where his father, 
now become judge of probate of Mer- 
rimack County, had removed, and both 
himself and the family received many 
congratulations, personal and written, 
at the brilliant record he had made in 
the recent memorable operations on 
the Mississippi. 

Modest and unassuming, with a 
genial frankness of manner that told 
pleasantly alike on quarter-deck or 
street, in family-circle or drawing-room, 
he wore his honors in the quietest way 
possible, never speaking of his own 
part in the brave deeds of the time, 
except when pressed to do so, and then 
with a reticence all too provoking, 
from the well-grounded suspicion that 
he kept back the pith of the real story 
of personal participation he might tell 
without tinge of exaggeration or boast- 
fulness. 

Returning to the Cayuga he found 
a new commanding officer, Lieutenant- 
Commanding D. McN. Fairfax, another 
loyal Virginian, who not only stood 
faithful to the flag under all circum- 
stances, but had, as the officer from the 
San Jacinto, boarded the Trent and 
taken from her the arch-conspirators, 
Mason and Slidell, suffering the con- 
tumely of rebel womanhood in the 
reception accorded him by Mr. Com- 
missioner Slidell's daughter. 

Fairfax and Perkins had known each 
other on the coast of Africa, and it was 
the meeting of old friends made doubly 
pleasant by the senior's hearty appre- 
ciation of the laurels so gallantly won 
by the junior, and self-congratulation in 
the promised comfort of retaining an 
executive of so much energy, ability, 
and reputation. 



Rejoining Farragut's squadron, Per- 
kins saw other gallant and varied 
service in the Cayuga until November, 
1862, when he was transferred to the 
Pensacola, and the following month 
commissioned lieutenant - commander, 
a new grade created by Congress to 
correspond with that of major in the 
army. 

In June, 1863, General Banks, then 
besieging Port Hudson, sent word to 
the now Rear- Admiral Farragut, that he 
must have more powder or give up the 
siege, wherefore the Admiral ordered 
the gunboat New London on the im- 
portant service of powder transporta- 
tion and convoy, and assigning Per- 
kins to the command until the officer 
ordered from the North by the depart- 
ment should arrive. The enemy had 
possession at that time of some three 
hundred miles of the river below Port 
Hudson, with batteries established at 
various points and sharpshooters dis- 
tributed along the banks. 

Five times Perkins ran the fiery 
gauntlet successfully, but on the sixth 
his vessel was disabled in a sharp 
fight at Whitehall's Point. One shot 
from the enemy exploded the New 
London's boiler, and another disabled 
her steam chest. In that critical con- 
dition, directly under the guns of the 
hostile battery, and exposed to the fire 
of sharpshooters on the bank, and de- 
serted by his consort, the Winona, his 
position seemed desperate almost be- 
yond remedy ; but fertile in expedients 
and daring to rashness in their execu- 
tion, he finally succeeded, after almost 
incredible exertion and perilous per- 
sonal adventure, in communicating with 
the fleet below, and the vessel was 
saved. 

Now the commanding officer from 
the North having arrived, Perkins was 



iSS 4 .] 



Captain George Hamilton Perkins^ U.S.N. 



221 



transferred to the command of the 
ninety-day gunboat Sciota, the best 
command at that time, in the squadron, 
for an officer of his years, and assigned 
to duty on the blockade off the coast of 
Texas. To one of his social disposition 
and active temperament, the blockade, 
ever harassing and monotonous, was, as 
he wrote, a " living death," adding that 
"we are all talked out, and sometimes 
a week passes and I hardly speak more 



than a necessary word." Venturing 
ashore several times on hunting excur- 
sions, he at last came near being 
captured by the enemy, and held after 
that, that " cabin'd confinement was 
preferable to a rebel prison," and so 
kept on board. Once during that 
weary nine months, the tedium was 
broken by the capture of a fat prize — 
a schooner loaded with cotton. Let 
us hope that the prize-court -and its 
attendant officials did not absorb too 
big a share of the proceeds ! 



Relieved from that command late in 
May, 1S64, with leave to proceed 
home, he arrived at New Orleans in 
June, to find active preparations for 
the Mobile fight going on, and though 
he had not been at home for two years, 
he could not stand it to let slip so 
glorious an opportunity for stirring 
service, and so volunteered to remain. 
Farragut, delighted at such determina- 
tion, quite different from the experi- 

i -imrryi TTimpTfTiLTI! 'L-LU j IJllUlllliJ^-^liilllH-' .., = ^^ cym '^ 




ence he had had with some officers, 
assigned to Perkins a command above 
his rank — the Chickasaw, — a double- 
turretted monitor, earning four eleven- 
inch guns and a crew of one hundred 
and forty-five men and twenty-five 
officers. She had been built, together 
with the Winnebago, a sister vessel, at 
St. Louis, by Mr. Joseph B. Eads, the 
eminent engineer, on plans of his own. 
Of light draught and frame, and 
peculiar construction, some officers 
distrusted her strength and sea-going 



THE CHICKASAW. 



222 



Captain George Hamilton Perkins, U.S.N. 



[April. 



qualities. The Chickasaw, too, was not 
yet completed, the mechanics being 
still at work on her machinery and 
fittings, and her crew, with exception 
of a half-dozen men - of- war's-men, 
were river-men and landsmen, knowing 
nothing of salt-water sailing or of naval 
discipline. But time pressed : every 
moment was of priceless value ; and 
Perkins, declining all social invitations, 
set about with characteristic energy to 
prepare his ship for the coming con- 
flict. Nor did his work of preparation 
and drill cease, either in the river or 
outside, until well into the night pre- 
ceding the eventful day in Mobile Bay 
that was to add another brilliant page 
to the annals of the navy. 

On the twenty-eighth of July, he 
left New Orleans to join the fleet off 
Mobile, and on the way down the river 
an episode occurred that came nigh 
settling the fate of the Chickasaw with- 
out risk or chance of battle ; for on 
nearing the bar, Perkins left the pilot- 
house a moment to look after some 
matters requiring attention outside. 
He had hardly reached the spot he 
sought, when, turning round, he saw 
that the pilot had changed the ship's 
course and was heading directly for a 
wreck close aboard, which to strike 
would end the career of the Chicka- 
saw then and there. Springing back 
into the pilot-house, he seized the 
wheel and brought the ship back on 
her course, then snatching a pistol 
from his belt, said to the traitorous 
fellow : u You are here to take this ship 
over the bar, and if she touches ground 
or anything else, I'll blow your d — d 
brains out ! " Pale with suppressed 
rage, and trembling with fear, the pilot 
expostulated that " the bottom was 
lumpy, and the best pilot in the river 
could not help touching at times." 



" No 'matter," rejoined Perkins, " if 
you love the Confederacy better than 
your life, take your choice ; but if you 
touch a single lump. I '11 shoot you ! " 
Needless to say, no lumps were found, 
nor that the pilot made haste to get 
out of such company the moment he 
was permitted to do so ; neither may 
we doubt that the recording angel 
traced, with lightest hand, the strong 
language used by the nearly betrayed 
captain ! 

The Chickasaw arrived off Mobile 
bar August i, where all was expect- 
ancy and preparation for the coming 
fight, a fight which perhaps had more 
in it of dramatic interest than any other 
naval battle of the war. The wooden 
ships pushing into the bay through the 
torpedo-strewn channel and under the 
fierce storm of shot and shell from 
Fort Morgan, lashed together in pairs 
for mutual support in case of disaster ; 
the sudden and tragic sinking of the 
Tecumseh by torpedo stroke, with the 
loss of the heroic Craven and most of 
his brave officers and men ; the halt 
of the Brooklyn in mid-channel in face 
of that dire disaster, which, with the 
threatened huddling of the ships 
together by the inward sw r eep of the 
tide, portended swift discomfiture and 
possible defeat ; the intuitive percep- 
tion and quick decision that literally 
enabled Farragut to take the flood that 
led to fortune, in the instant ordering of 
the Hartford to push ahead with his 
flag and assume the lead he had relin- 
quished only at the urgent request of 
the Brooklyn's commander ; the re- 
stored order and prompt following of 
the fleet, regardless of torpedoes, on 
the new course blazed out by the eagle 
eye and emphatic tongue of the fear- 
less old admiral as he grappled with 
the emergency from the futtock- 



ISS4-] 



Captain George Hamilton Perkins, U.S.N, 



223 



shrouds of the flagship ; the little 
boat putting off from the Metacomet, 
suddenly lighted up by its saucy en- 
sign, in the midst of the fiery chaos 
and thunderous roar of battle, to save 
the few souls struggling in the water 
from the ill-fated Tecumseh, calling 
forth admiration, alike from friend and 
foe, at the intrepidity of its mission ; 
the dash of the enemy's powerful ram 
Tennessee, clad in heaviest armor, 
down the Union line, endeavoring to 
strike each vessel in turn ; the separa- 
tion of the coupled ships when beyond 
the reach of Morgan's guns, and the 
dash of the gunboats led by Jouett, of 
the Metacomet, like hounds released 
from the leash, at the enemy's flotilla; 
the reappearance of leviathan Ten- 
nessee and the fierce tournament 
that ensued, with turtle-backed Chicka- 
saw following close under her stern 
with bulldog grip that knew no 
release ; the intrepid skill and des- 
perate valor never surpassed, with 
which the ram manoeuvred and with- 
stood the hammering and ramming of 
the wooden ships, the pounding and 
shattering of the ironclads, before she 
yielded to the inevitable fate that 
awaited her, — all conspired to form a 
scene of grand and dramatic circum- 
stance almost without parallel in naval 
warfare. 

The youngest officer in command on 
that day, — the fifth of August, — so 
fateful to the fading fortunes of the 
Confederacy, so glorious to the re- 
ascendant star of Union, no one contri- 
buted more to its glories and success 
than Perkins of the Chickasaw; and in 
any other service under the sun he would 
have received immediate promotion 
for what he did on that day. Had he 
been an Englishman, the honors of 
knighthood would have been conferred 



on him, as well as promotion, but as 
an American he still waits adequate 
recognition for deeds as brave as they 
were conspicuous and telling. 

Said Mr. Eads, the builder, when he 
heard the results of the battle and the 
surpassing part of the Chickasaw in it : 
" I would walk fifty miles to shake 
hands with the young man who com- 
manded her ! " And remembering the 
disparagement that had been put on the 
vessel and her sister ship, the Winne- 
bago, his enthusiasm knew no bounds, 
and he took pains to gather all the de- 
tails of the Chickasaw's brilliant work. 

With the loss of the Tecumseh, the 
ironclad portion of the fleet was re- 
duced to the Manhattan, armed with 
two fifteen-inch guns, and the Chicka- 
saw and Winnebago of two eleven-inch 
guns each ; but one of the Manhattan's 
guns became disabled early in the 
action, by a bit of iron lodging in the 
vent, and the Winnebago's turrets 
would not turn, so that her guns could 
be pointed only by manoeuvring the 
vessel. But the Chickasaw, owing to 
Perkins's foresight and hard work, was 
in perfect condition, as illustrated in all 
her service on that eventful day, as well 
as on all subsequent occasions, until 
the capitulation of Mobile ended the 
drama of rebellion on the Southern 
seaboard. 

The wooden ships, stripped as at 
New Orleans for the stem work in 
hand, numbered fourteen, and the 
number of guns carried by the fleet 
was one hundred and fifty-five, throw- 
ing, by added facility of pivot and 
turret, ninety-two hundred and eight 
pounds of metal in broadside, from 
which thirteen hundred and twenty must 
be deducted through the early loss of 
the Tecumseh and the disabled gun of 
the Manhattan. 



1 



224 



Captain George Hamilton Perkins, U.S.N. [April. 



The enemy's defences consisted of 
Fort Morgan, commanding the chan- 
nel at Mobile Point, mounting seventy 
guns ; Fort Gaines, on the eastern point 
of Dauphin Island, some three miles 
northwest of Fort Morgan, armed with 
thirty guns, and Fort Powell, about 
four miles from Gaines northwest, at 
Grant's Pass, with four guns. 

Across the channel, which runs close 
to Morgan, several lines of torpedoes 
were planted, and just beyond them 



iron spur projecting from the bow- 
some two feet under water. Her sides 
" tumbled home " at an angle of forty- 
five degrees and were clad in armor of 
five and six inches thickness, over a 
structure of oak and pine of twenty- 
five inches. Her guns, six heavy 
Brooke's rifles, were arranged, by port 
and pivot, for an effective all-round 
fire, and her speed was six knots. 

All was ready for the attack on the 
evening of the fourth of August, and at 




half-past five the next morning the 
signal was thrown out to weigh, and fall 
into the order prescribed ; the wooden 
ships in couples, and the ironclads 
in line by themselves; the Tecumseh 
in the van and the Chickasaw in rear, 
according to the rank of their com- 
manding officers. 

At half-past six the fleet was across 
the bar and in order of battle. No 
starlight or favoring clouds now, to par- 
tially mask its movements as at the 



to the northward of the fort, in line 
abreast waiting their opportunity, was 
the rebel squadron, comprising the 
Tennessee, flagship of Admiral Bu- 
chanan, and the gunboats Morgan, 
Gaines, and Selma, carrying in the 
aggregate twenty - two guns — eight 
rifles and fourteen smooth-bores. The 
Tennessee, the most powerful ship that 
ever flew the Confederate flag, was two 
hundred and nine feet in length, and 
forty-eight feet in width, with a heavy 



1884*] 



Captain George Hamilton Perkins , U.S.A r . 



225 



passage of Forts Jackson and St. Philip, 
but the joyous sunshine, flooding land 
and sea with its brightness, and mir- 
roring its revealing gleams upon fort 
and ship and pennon, serving friend 
and foe alike impartially. Alas ! for 
the brave souls to whom that gracious 
morning light was the last of earth, but 
we may hope they awoke in a light 
of still more radiance and glory, and 
amid paeans of a joyous host, choiring 
" Well done, thou good and faithful 
servants, that didst give thy lives to 
God and country ! " 

The soft south wind of that fair 
morn came like a benediction to the 
fleet now sweeping on with the flood 
tide, and stillness like a sentient pre- 
sence, only disturbed by the sound of 
screw or paddle-wheel as they turned 
ahead, hung over the ships till broken 
by the belching roar of the Tecumseh's 
monster guns, as she threw two fifteen- 
inch shells into Morgan — her first and 
last ! And now, at seven, " by the 
chime," the action became general, 
and the Tecumseh, having loaded with 
heaviest charge and solid steel shot, 
steamed on ahead of the Brooklyn to 
attack the Tennessee ; but Craven, 
thinking he saw a movement on the 
part of the ram to get out of the way, 
together with the seemingly too narrow 
space between the fatal buoy and the 
shore for manoeuvre in case of need, 
gave the order to starboard the helm, 
and head directly for the watchful 
Tennessee, waiting with lock-strings in 
hand to salute the monitor as she 
closed — gallant foeman worthy of 
her steel ! So near and yet so far, 
for hardly had the Tecumseh gone a 
length to the westward of the sentinel 
buoy, than the fate, already outlined, 
overwhelmed her, and her iron walls 
became coffin, shroud, and winding- 



sheet to Craven and most of the brave 
souls with him, and all so suddenly that 
those who had seen the disaster could 
hardly realize what had taken place. 

Ours is not the purpose to follow 
further the details of the fight, but to 
go with Perkins in the Chickasaw and 
see things as he saw them on that stir- 
ring day, as gathered from his letters 
and as fortified from other sources. 
Of tireless energy and restless activity, 
and sternly intent upon making the 
Chickasaw second to none in the grand 
work demanded of the fleet, he im- 
parted nerve and enthusiasm through- 
out the vessel ; now in the pilot-house, 
looking after the helmsman ; then in 
the forward turret, personally sighting 
the guns ; anon on top of the turret, 
taking in the surroundings. 

His fine spirit and high moral courage 
had characteristic illustration when, the 
night before the fight, calling his officers 
into the cabin, he thus addressed them : 
" Gentlemen, by this time to-morrow, 
the fate of this fleet and of Mobile 
will be sealed. We have all a duty 
to perform and a victory to win. I 
have sent for you to say, that not 
a drop of wine, liquor, or beer, is to 
be drunk on board of this vessel 
from this hour until the battle is over, 
and the victory won, or death has come 
to us. It is my wish that every officer 
and man shall go into battle with a 
clear head and strong nerves. I rely 
upon you to comply with this require- 
ment, confident that the Chickasaw 
and her crew can thus best perform 
their whole duty." 

An officer, who held high position on 
board the flagship, writes : " Perkins 
went into the fight in his shirt-leeves 
and a straw hat, and as he passed 
the Hartford, he was on top of the 
turret waving his hat and dancing 



226 



Captain George Hamilton Perkins, U.S.N. 



[April, 



around with delight and excitement." 
— "The ironclads," said Perkins, 
"were ordered to follow inside the 
fleet, between fleet and fort. I had 
orders to be reserve force and remain 
with wooden vessels after passing ob- 
structions. Our course was between 
a certain buoy and the shore. This 
passage was known to be free from tor- 
pedoes, and was left for the blockade 
runners. All the vessels had orders to 
keep between that buoy and the shore, 
but in other respects the ironclads 
had separate orders from the wooden 
vessels. In the confusion resulting 
from the destruction of the Tecumseh 
and the movements of the Brooklyn, 
the monitors received no orders and 
followed in the line of the other 
vessels." Be it said in passing, that 
Perkins had no pilot, and at sight of 
the Tecumseh's doom, one of the men 
in the pilot-house fainted, leaving only 
Perkins and one man to steer the 
vessel until the vigorous methods 
applied brought the man to, and fresh- 
ened his pluck ! The pilot-house was 
abaft the forward turret, not on top, as 
in the case of the Tecumseh class, and 
was entered through a trap-door which 
was kept open during the fight, for the 
vessel being unfinished, there was no 
way of opening it from inside when 
closed. 

" I pushed forward as rapidly as 
possible, but my ship anyway was sta- 
tioned last of the ironclads, as I was 
youngest in command. We fired at 
the fort to keep down its fire till the 
wooden ships had passed. When the 
Tennessee passed, it was on my port 
side ; she then steamed toward Fort 
Morgan. Some of our vessels anchored, 
others kept under weigh, and when the 
Tennessee approached the fleet again, 
she was at once attacked by the wooden 



vessels, but they made no impression 
upon her. An order was now brought 
to the ironclads by Fleet-Surgeon 
Palmer for them to attack the ram, but 
as they stood for her, she seemed again 
to move as if retiring toward the foru 
but the Chickasaw overtook her, and 
after a ' short engagement, succeeded 
in forcing her to surrender, having shot 
away her smoke-stack, destroyed her 
steering gear, and jammed her after- 
parts so that her stern guns were ren- 
dered useless. As she could not steer 
she drifted down the bay, head on, and 
I followed her close, firing as fast as I 
could, my guns and turrets, in spite of 
the strain upon them, continuing in 
perfect order. When Johnston came 
on the roof of the Tennessee and 
showed the white flag as signal of 
surrender, no vessel of the fleet was 
as near as a quarter of a mile, but the 
Ossipee was approaching, and her cap- 
tain was much older than myself. I 
was wet with perspiration, begrimed 
with powder, and exhausted by long- 
continued exertion. I drew back and 
allowed Captain Le Roy to receive the 
surrender, though my first lieutenant, 
Hamilton, said to me at the time : 
' Captain, you are making a mistake.' " 
Knowing full well that the Chicka- 
saw's eleven-inch shot would not pene- 
trate the stout side-armor of the Ten- 
nessee, Perkins made for the weakest- 
part of the vessel — her stern, and 
hung there close aboard, pouring solid 
shot of iron and steel into that vital part 
with the accuracy of pistol-shooting, 
until the ram surrendered ; then taking 
her in tow, carried her near the flag- 
ship. He had fired fifty-two shots, 
and, says the officer of the Hartford 
already quoted : " The guns of the 
Chickasaw jammed the steering gear 
of the ram, also the port stopper of 



iSS 4 .] 



Captain George Hamilton Perkins > U.S.N. 



22 J 



the after port disabling the after gun, 
and a shot from the Chickasaw broke 
Admiral Buchanan's leg." 

But said Commander Nicholson of 
the Manhattan, in his official report : 
" Of the six fifteen-inch projectiles fired 
from this vessel at the rebel ironclad 
Tennessee, I claim four as having 
struck, doing most of the real injuries 
that she has sustained " ; then enu- 
merating the injuries inflicted, which 
included most of those claimed for the 
Chickasaw. Upon which claim put 
forth by the Manhattan, the writer 
ventures the opinion : First, that four 
hits out of six shots was poor shooting 
for a monitor at a target like the Ten- 
nessee, and suggestive of considerable 

' DO 

distance between the vessels ; second, 
that eye-witnesses have affirmed that 
only one of the Manhattan's shot took 
effect, a solid shot that struck the ram 
on the port beam, crushing her armor 
and splintering the backing, but not 
entering the casemate, though leaving 
a clean hole through ; third, that the 
effect of that one shot showed what the 
Manhattan might have accomplished 
had she taken as favorable a position 
as that chosen by the Chickasaw ; fourth, 
that it is believed the report of a board 
of survey confirmed the opinion as to 
that one shot ; fifth, that, as between 
the great difference of sound in the firing 
of the fifteen-inch gun and an eleven- 
inch, and the greater destructive effect 
of the larger projectiles which could 
not but be felt by those receiving it, 
the enemy would best be likely to 
know from what source they sustained 
the most vital damage ; sixth, that 
the concurrent opinions of the day, as 
given by press correspondents, eye- 
witnesses to the conflict, magazine 
summaries, official reports, the praise 
of Perkins on every lip, the talk of his 



promotion by distinguished officers, and 
the testimony of the enemy themselves, 
including Admiral Buchanan and Cap- 
tain Johnston, all go to show that the 
surrender of the Tennessee was due 
more to the dogged and unrelenting 
effort and skilful management of 
Perkins of the Chickasaw than from 
any other cause. 

Asked the Tennessee's pilot of 
" Metacomet " Jouett : " Who com- 
manded the monitor that got under 
our stern?" adding, "D — n him! he 
stuck to us like a leech ; we could 
not get away from him. It was he who 
cut away the steering gear, jammed the 
stern port shutters, and wounded 
Admiral Buchanan." 

Said Captain Johnston, in the same 
vein : " If it had not been for that d — d 
black hulk hanging on our stern we 
would have got along well enough ; she 
did us more damage than all the rest 
of the Federal fleet." 

"The praise of Commander Per- 
kins," wrote a son of Concord, himself 
an active participant in the fight, "on 
the superb management of his com- 
mand, and the most admirable and 
efficient working of his ship, was upon 
the lips of all." 

Pages of similar commendation 
might be quoted, but what need multi- 
ply testimony so direct and conclusive 
as to Perkins's gallantry and achieve- 
ment, questioned only in quarters 
where the discretion of silence and 
suggestion of modesty had best been 
observed ! 

It only remains to add, in this con- 
nection, that so long as the Tennessee 
continued to flaunt her flag in face of 
the fleet, so long the work of that 
glorious day was of naught ; that her 
capture, due in greatest part to the 
efforts of the Chickasaw, completed 



228 



Captain George Hamilton Perkins, U.S.N. 



[April, 



the work and ensured, without em- 
barrassment, the continued operations 
against Fort Morgan and other de- 
fences in the bay. 

Perkins, not content with laurels 
already won, got under weigh after 
dinner, and steamed up to Fort Pow- 
ell, taking that work in rear. The 
shots from the Chickasaw destroyed 
the water-tanks, and Captain Anderson 
reported that, believing it to be impossi- 
ble to drive the ironclad from its posi- 
tion, and fearing that a shell from the 
Chickasaw would explode the maga- 
zine, he decided to save his command 
and blow up the fort, which was done 
that night at 10.30. In the afternoon, 
the Chickasaw had seized a barge load- 
ed with stores, from under the guns of 
Fort Powell, and towed it to the fleet. 

The next afternoon, the ever-ready 
and alert Chickasaw, under her inde- 
fatigable commander, went down to 
Fort Gaines and shelled that work 
until dusk with such telling effect, that, 
coupled with the fact that the land- 
force under General Granger, investing 
its rear, was now ready to open fire in 
conjunction with the fleet, the rebel 
commander capitulated the next morn- 
ing. 

Morgan was now the only remaining 
work of the outer line of Mobile's de- 
fences to be "possessed and occupied," 
and General Granger, after throwing a 
sufficient garrison into Gaines, trans- 
ferred his army and siege-train to the 
other side of the bay, and landing at 
Navy Cove, some four miles from 
Morgan, began its investment. 

While this was going on, the Chicka- 
saw was not idle, but continually using 
her guns at one point and another, 
with occasional exchanges of shotted 
compliments with the rams and bat- 
teries across the obstructions in Dog 



River, forming the inner line of de- 
fence of the city, some four miles 
distant. 

On the twenty-second of August, the 
approaches having been completed, the 
land and naval forces opened a terrific 
fire on devoted Morgan, and continued 
it throughout the day with such effect 
that General Page, commanding the 
garrison, struck his colors and surren- 
dered the next day. 

The Chickasaw was as conspicuous 
in the bombardment as she had been 
in all her work since entering the bay. 
It was not in Perkins's temperament to 
be otherwise, and said an eye-witness 
at the time : " It was a glorious sight to 
see the gallant Perkins in the Chicka- 
saw, nearly all the morning almost 
touching the wharf, and pouring in his 
terrible missiles, two at a time, making 
bricks and mortar fly in all directions, 
then moving ahead or astern a little to 
get a fresh place. He stayed there till 
nearly noon, when he hauled off to 
cool his guns and give his men some 
refreshment. In the afternoon, he took 
his ship in again, and turret after turret 
was emptied at the poor fort." 

Perkins sent home the flag that had 
flown over the fort during the bombard- 
ment ; he obtained it in this w T ise : 
"The sailors from this ship," said he, 
" hauled down the flag, and one of 
them seized it and hid it in his bosom ; 
there was not much left of it ; it was 
riddled and torn. He brought it to 
me, declaring that no one had a right 
to it but the captain of the Chickasaw. 
I hardly knew what to do about it, but 
the man seemed so earnest I could not 
refuse to take it from him." 

The bay was now sealed to blockade 
runners, and Mobile, measured as to its 
commercial importance to the Con- 
federacy, might as well have been 



ISS4-] 



Captain George Hamilton Perkins, U.S.N. 



229 



located among the mountains of north- 
ern Alabama as on the Gulf; and owing 
to strategic reasons, operations for its 
immediate reduction came to a halt. 
But on the twenty-seventh of March, 
1865, the land and naval forces began 
a joint movement against the defences 
surrounding the city, and on the twelfth 
of April the Union forces were in full 
possession. In these last operations, 
which cost the loss of two light draught 
ironclads, a gunboat, and several other 
smaller vessels by torpedoes, we may 
know that the Chickasaw was never in 
the background. 

In July, Perkins was relieved from 
the command and ordered home. He 
had volunteered for the Mobile fight 
bat had been detained on board the 
Chickasaw nearly thirteen months. 

On his arrival home, he was over- 
whelmed with congratulations upon his 
gallantry and achievements in Mobile 
Bay ; but his friends felt indignant that 
no promotion had followed them, be- 
lieving that at least the thirty numbers 
authorized by statute, "for eminent and 
conspicuous conduct in battle," could 
not be reasonably denied him. But he 
would not work personally toward that 
end, nor pull political wires to attain it. 
With him, the promotion must come 
unasked or not at all. It never came, 
and others disputed, with unblushing 
effrontery, the laurels he had won. 
Not only that, but he has seen, as well 
as others, those who did the least ser- 
vice during the war, given recognition 
and place over those who " bore the 
heat and burden of the day," during 
those four years so momentous in the 
annals of the Republic. 

The following winter he was sta- 
tioned at New Orleans, in charge of 
ironclads, and in May, 1866, was or- 
dered as executive officer of the Lack- 



awanna, for a cruise of three years in 
the North Pacific. The " piping times 
of peace " had come, and officers who 
had had important commands, now had 
to take a step back to the regular 
duties of their grade. Returning from 
the Pacific in the early spring of 1869, 
he was ordered to the Boston Navy 
Yard on ordnance duty, and in March, 
187 1, received his commission as com- 
mander. Two months later, he was 
selected to command the storeship 
Relief, to carry provisions to the suffer- 
ing French of the Franco-German 
war. On his return, after a lapse 
of six months, he resumed his duties at 
the Boston yard, until appointed light- 
house inspector of the Boston district, 
which position he held until January, 
1876. 

Meanwhile he had taken to himself 
a wife, having, in 1870, married Miss 
Anna Minot Weld, daughter of Mr. 
William F. Weld, of Boston. The 
issue of the marriage has been one 
child, a daughter, born in 1877. 

From March, 1877, until May, 1879, 
he was in command of the United 
States steamer Ashuelot on the Asiatic 
station, making a most interesting 
cruise, and having, for a time, the 
pleasure of General Grant's company 
on board, as a guest. 

Since his return from that cruise he 
has been on "waiting orders," varied by 
occasional duty as member of courts- 
martial, boards of examination, and the 
like. 

In March, 1882, he was promoted 
to a post-captaincy, as' the grade of 
captain in the navy was styled in the 
olden time, which grade corresponds 
with that of colonel in the army. 

Captain Perkins has a house in 
Boston, where he makes his home in 
winter, but nothing has ever weakened 



230 

his affection for the old Granite State, 
and nothing delights him more, when 
possible to do so, than to put behind 
him the whirl and distraction of the 
city for the quiet enjoyment of the 
fresh, exhilarating air, unpretentious, 
wholesome life, and substantial ways that 
await him among his dear native hills. 

In glancing over the " Portraits for 
Posterity," the writer notes the con- 
spicuous absence of naval representa- 
tion among the " counterfeit present- 
ments " that adorn the walls of the 



[April, 

Capitol at Concord and the halls of 
Dartmouth, and ventures to suggest to 
Governor Prescott, the distinguished 
and indefatigable collector of most of 
the pictures, that portraits of Thornton 
of the Kearsarge, and Perkins of the 
Cayuga and Chickasaw, might fittingly 
be given place among those who, in 
the varied walks of life, have lent 
distinction and added lustre to the 
Province and State of New Hampshire 
from Colonial times to this. Let not 
the men of the sea be forgotten ! 



From the White Horse to Little RJiody. 



FROM THE WHITE HORSE TO LITTLE RHODY. 

By Charles M, Barrows. 



Were other means lacking, the prog- 
ress of the human race might be pretty 
accurately gauged by its modes of 
locomotion. On such a basis of classi- 
fication there might be a pedestrian 
period, a pilgrim period, a saddle 
period, a road-wain period, a stage- 
coach period, and a railway period. 

Relatively considered, each mode of 
travel thus indicated would be an index 
of the necessities and activity of the 
times. The nomadic peoples dwelt in 
a leisurely world, and were content to 
go a-foot ; their wants were simple, 
their aspirations temperate ; subsist- 
ence for themselves and their flocks 
was their great care, and only when 
the grass withered and the stream dried 
up did they set forth in quest of fresh 
pasturage. At length, however, the 
•dull-thoughted tribular chieftain be- 
came curious to know what lay beyond 
the narrow horizon of his wilderness, 
and men bound on the sandal, girded 
up their loins, grasped staff, and beat 
paths up and down the valleys, trudging 
behind an ass or a pack-horse that 



carried their impedimenta. Another 
advance, and the man who drove his 
beast before him found that the creature 
was able to carry both his pack and 
himself; and training soon enabled the 
animal to mend his pace and transport 
his master rapidly across long stretches 
of waste country. Another period 
elapsed, and ambitious man discovered 
that, by clearing a passage for wheels, 
the load could be shifted from the 
back of the beast to a wagon drawn 
behind him ; thus carriages came 
into use, and the race went bowling 
along the great highway of progress at 
a wonderful rate. Then vehicles began 
to be improved, and the restless brain 
of the inventor contrived a stage-coach 
for the convenience of those who had 
no private carriages or did not care to 
use them ; though rude at first, it soon 
came to be luxurious, with thorough- 
braces, upholstery, and glass windows. 
But even this noisy vehicle, that 
abridged distance and brought far 
cities near together, outgrew its useful- 
ness and gave way to its rival, the 



iSS 4 -] 



From the White Horse to Little RJiody. 



231 



steam-car, which could hurry men 
through the land as on the wings of a 
tornado. And now the same race, 
which in the morning of the world was 
content to wander four or five miles 
between sun and sun, and had no wish 
to go faster, can scarcely abide the 
slowness of a palace-car sliding over 
a mile of steel rail each minute, and 
General Meigs is importuning the 
Legislature for leave to construct a rail- 
way on which trains shall run at three 
times that speed. 

It would be too much to ask this 
hurrying, restless, nineteenth-century 
world to retrace its way by rail and 
turnpike, saddle and sandal, back to 
the slow patriarch, who kept his youth 
a hundred years, and in all that time 
might not have traveled as far as a 
suburban gentleman of to-day does in 
going once from his home to his place 
of business in Boston, It might halt 
long enough, however, to enjoy a view 
of the stage-coach in which its grand- 
fathers got on so rapidly, rumbling 
before a cloud of dust over the straight 
pike that used to connect the metrop- 
olis with some lesser city. 

Such a highway was the Norfolk and 
Bristol Turnpike, the grand avenue of 
public travel between Boston and 
Providence, and one link of the con- 
tinuous thoroughfare connecting New 
England with New York and Washing- 
ton. It was opened during the years 
of intense activity that marked the 
infancy of the nation, and it had a dis- 
tinct corporate existence and history, 
like the railroad that ruined it, and was 
owned and operated by a stock com- 
pany. Though the entire road was not 
fifty miles in length, the original enter- 
prise contemplated only a section 
thereof, which, in accordance with an 
act of incorporation passed by the State 



Legislature in 1S02, was built from the 
court-house in Declham, the shire town 
of Norfolk County, to the north pre- 
cinct meeting-house in Attleborough, 
then a small border town of Bristol 
County. 

The members of the original corpora- 
tion that held the franchise of the road 
were Fisher Ames, James Richardson,, 
and Timothy Gay, Jr.. of Dedham ; 
Timothy Whitney and John Whiting, 
of Roxbury ; Eliphalet Slack, Samuel 
S. Blackinton, William Blackinton, 
Israel Hatch, Elijah Daggett, and 
Joseph Holmes, of Attleborough ; 
Ephraim Starkweather, Oliver Wilkin- 
son, and Ozias Wilkinson, of Paw- 
tucket, Rhode Island. They were all 
enterprising business men in their day, 
well known throughout Eastern Massa- 
chusetts, and the undertaking for which 
they combined seemed as vast to the 
rural denizens of the towns through 
which it passed as did the Pacific Rail- 
road enterprise to capitalists twenty 
years ago. To the surprise of the 
honest farmers, who considered the 
crooked county roads good enough for 
them, it made almost a straight line 
from one terminus to the other, and 
was laid out four rods in width — a 
reckless waste of land — as a preven- 
tive against snow blockades in winter 
Instead of following the windings of 
valley and stream as other roads did, 
this pike mounted directly over all 
interposing hills, in accordance with 
the most approved theories of civil 
engineers of that day ; and where sec- 
tions of those old thoroughfares still 
remain intact, it is amusing to observe 
at what steep, straight grades they were 
made to climb the most abrupt ascent, 
curving neither to the right nor to the 
left in merciful consideration for the 
horses. 



232 

But it must not be supposed that 
public stage-coach travel on the route 
here indicated began with the opening 
of the Norfolk and Bristol Turnpike. 
The first conveyance of the kind started 
on its devious way over the poor county 
roads from Boston to Providence in 
1767 ; and the quaint Jedediah Morse 
records that twelve years later the " in- 
tercourse of the country barely required 
two stages and twelve horses on this 
line " ; but the same authority states 
that in 1797 twenty stages and one 
hundred horses were employed, and 
that the number of different stages 
leaving Boston during the week was 
twenty. 

The first stage-coach that passed over 
this new turnpike was driven by Will- 
iam Hodges, familiarly called " Bill," 
a famous Jehu, whose exploits with 
rein and whip, being really of a high 
order of merit, were graphically set 
forth to any passenger who shared the 
box with him, after Bill's spirits had 
been raised and his tongue limbered 
with the requisite number of " nip- 
pers " ; and the increased comfort and 
rapidity of the journey were so clearly 
apparent, that the line was soon after 
extended to connect the capitals of the 
Bay State and Little Rhody. 

In those days there was but one way 
to drive out of Boston, and that a nar- 
row one known as the " Neck," beyond 
which was Roxbury. Across this 
isthmus all northward, westward, and 
southward-bound vehicles must pass, in 
leaving or entering the city. The 
narrowest place was at the present 
intersection of Dover Street with Wash- 
ington, or, as it was then called, Orange, 
Street. In ante-bellum times this was the 
southern limit of the city, and here a 
gate stood, which opened on to a cause- 
way that crossed the "salt marish," 



[Apr.: 

which at high tide was covered by the 
water. To this gateway, then, the tun; 
pike was extended from Dedham court- 
house ; and when the work was finished 
a coach, starting from the White Horse 
Tavern in Boston, which stood near the 
site of the Adams House, just opened 
by Messrs. Hall and Whipple, bowled 
along " a smooth and easy highway " to 
the bank of the Providence River, 
making the long journey within the in- 
credibly short space of six consecutive 
hours, when the wheeling was good. 

This great work, which was talked 
about years before it was undertaken, 
and then required years to finish, was 
a triumph of road-building, in which 
both owners and contractors took a 
pardonable pride ; and to those famil- 
iar with the region through which it 
passed, the course will be sufficiently 
indicated by noting here and there 
a way-mark. On leaving Boston Neck 
it followed the already well-graded road 
through the Highlands, to a point near 
the present station of the Boston and 
Providence Railroad corporation in 
Roxbury, thence through West Roxbury 
to Dedham, and on through Norwood 
to East Walpole ; it left the central 
village of Walpole a mile or so to the 
west, keeping near the Sharon line, 
struck into the westerly edge of Fox- 
borough to a point called the Four 
Corners, then through Shepardville in 
Wrentham to North Attleborough, Attle- 
borough " City," Pawtucket, and Provi- 
dence. A large portion of the road is 
still kept in repair, so that one might 
take a carriage and trace the route 
through its entire length. 

To support such an expensive turn- 
pike it was necessary to levy a tax on 
those who made use of it, and to that 
end several toll-gates were established, 
at which passengers were compelled to 



From the White Horse to Little Rhody. 



iSS 4 .] 



From the White Horse to Little RJiody. 



233 



halt and pay their lawful reckoning. 
These gates were located at Roxbury, 
Dedham, East Walpole, Foxborough 
Four Corners, North Attlebo rough, and 
Pawtucket ; and so great was the 
patronage of the road, that the annual 
income derived from these sources 
afforded the stockholders a handsome 
net dividend. 

With the disuse of stage-coaches has 
perished that public convenience, the 
country tavern, an institution with which 
the modern hotel has little in common. 
It was suited to the needs and tastes of 
a former generation, and to a time, it 
may be, 

"When men lived in a grander way, 
With ampler hospitality." 

But no hotel of the present day, with 
its showy furnishings and glitter, its 
gongs and bell-calls, its multitude of 
obsequious waiters, gauging their atten- 
tion by your clothes, will bear compar- 
ison with the old-time tavern for 
homelike comfort and hearty good 
service. The guest, on his arrival, tired 
and hungry, was not put off with the 
cold recognition of a clerk who simply 
wrote after his name the number of his 
room, and then with averted face said : 
H Waiter, show this gentleman to num- 
ber ninety-seven." On climbing out 
of the stage-coach, he was sure to see 
mine host, a fat, jolly man, who greeted 
him, whether friend or stranger, with a 
bow of genuine welcome, relieved him 
of his hand-luggage, ushered him in 
before the open fire of the bar-room, 
and actually asked what he would 
have for supper. Nor did this personal 
interest cease as soon as the guest had 
been comfortably bestowed ; for the 
landlord was sure to have some pleas- 
ant words with him in the course of 
the evening, and to make him fee), ere 
he went to rest, that, by coming at that 



particular time, he had conferred on the 
host or some other guest a special 
favor, so that he retired in the best of 
humor w T ith himself. 

Such inns of entertainment were to 
be found in every considerable New 
England town a hundred years ago, 
and each bore some special reputation 
for general hospitality, the cordiality of 
its landlord, or the excellence of its 
table or liquors. Each one of these 
ancient hostelries might also be aptly 
described as 

"A kind of old Hobgoblin Hall, 
Now somewhat fallen to decay, 
With weather-stains upon the wall, 
And stairways worn, and crazy doors, 
And creaking and uneven floors, 
And chimneys huge, and tiled and tall." 

Wherever a stage line was estab- 
lished, a good country tavern, every 
few miles along the route, became a 
necessity. It nourished on the patron- 
age that the coach brought to its door ; 
its kitchen and barns afforded a ready 
market for the produce of the farmers, 
and it was a grand centre for news and 
the idlers of the village. 

The Norfolk and Bristol Turnpike 
was fortunate in its taverns, which were 
accounted among the best in the State, 
from the White Horse, whence every 
stage-coach took its departure, to the 
last one met with on the very borders 
of the land of Roger Williams. There 
was the Billings Tavern in Roxbury, 
where it was considered quite the 
proper thing for outward-bound passen- 
gers to alight and get something to 
fortify them against the fatigues of the 
journey, especially if the weather were 
extremely cold or extremely warm. 

The next tavern on the line was 
widely known as Bride's, and later as 
Gay's, in Dedham, a place where all 
who took the early coach out of the 



234 



From the White Horse to Little Rhody. 



[April, 



city delighted to stop and breakfast. 
Here was to be found one of the best 
tables on the line, and tradition has it 
that Bill Hodges, who, by the way, 
must have been a competent judge, 
pronounced Bride's old Medford rum 
the finest he had ever tasted. In the 
palmy days of stage-coach travel, it 
was no uncommon thing for a hundred 
persons to breakfast at this inn before 
resuming their journey to Providence. 
It was here that President John Adams 
usually took the coach when he set out 
for Washington, being first driven to 
that point from Quincy in his own 
private carnage. 

There was a small public house at 
South Dedham, now Norwood, which 
was but little patronized, and the next 
tavern of note was PoDey's, at East 
Walpole, which had the name of fur- 
nishing the best board to be found 
between Boston and New York, and 
there all the travel on the road stopped 
to dinner. It was also a convenient 
point for taking up passengers from 
many adjacent towns, whence mail- 
carriages converged toward the com- 
mon centre, and scores of private 
teams were driven with small parcels 
or other commissions for the stage ; 
for it must be borne in mind that the 
driver exercised the functions of an 
expressman, or common carrier, and 
was entrusted with a variety of mes- 
sages and valuables to deliver along the 
route, the fees for such service being 
usually regarded as his rightful per- 
quisites. 

Shepard's Tavern in Foxborough was a 
customary stopping-place ; but the next 
grand halt, after leaving Polley's, was 
made at Hatch's, in North Attle- 
borough. Here the approach of each 
stage was announced by the winding of 
a horn, and the driver was wont to 



swing his long lash with a flourish 
around the sweaty flanks of his leaders 
in a way to assure them that he meant 
business, then give his wheel horses an 
encouraging cut, and dash up before 
the famous hostelry at a breakneck 
speed that said to the small boys, Get 
out of the way ! and caused the 
stock loafers, who always assembled on 
the piazza at the first blast of the horn, 
to envy the skill that could thus handle 
a whip, and guide, with apparent ease, 
the most mettlesome four-in-hand. 

Historically considered, no other 
tavern on the line possessed so much 
of antiquarian interest as Hatch's. It 
occupied the site of an old garrison 
built and occupied by John Woodcock, 
the famous Indian fighter, as a strong- 
hold against the attacks of his red foes. 
He went thither from the Providence 
Plantation about the middle of the 
seventeenth century, when the town 
was an unbroken wilderness in the 
northern part of the Rehoboth North 
Purchase, so called, took up his abode 
and reared his family in lonely solitude 
within the close stockades he planted 
around his home. The first house that 
went by the name of Hatch's Tavern 
was built upon this old garrison, which, 
indeed, formed a part of its very walls, 
and not until the proprietor found it 
necessary to erect a new and larger 
house, when the turnpike was opened, 
did the last vestiges of the Woodcock 
stronghold disappear. 

The landlord of this inn, Colonel 
Israel Platch, was also a man of im- 
portance in his time, who enjoyed an 
enviable reputation for military achieve- 
ments, and was very prominent in 
public affairs. At no point on the line 
was the traveler surer of a larger hos- 
pitality or a heartier welcome than was 
extended by Colonel Hatch, though its 



iSS 4 .] 



Dungeon Rock, Lynn. 



235 



best room, which was reserved for 
visitors of note, might not have con- 
tained the veritable inscription ascribed 
to Major Molineaux : — 

"What do you think? 
. Here is good drink. 

Perhaps you may not know it; 

If not in haste, do stop and taste; 

You merry folks will show it." 

On leaving North Attleborough, the 
remaining twelve miles to Providence 
were conveniently relieved by short halts 
at Bishop's and at Barrows's Taverns 
in Attleborough " City " and West 
Attleborough, and at one or two places 
in Pawtucket, so that no passenger was 
compelled to go hungry or dry for 
many miles. 

By far the most noted passenger ever 
conveyed over the Norfolk and Bristol 
road, and there were many worthy of 
mention, is reputed to have been Presi- 
dent James Monroe, who, shortly after 
his inauguration in March, 181 7, made 



a tour through the New England 
States, similar to that made by Presi- 
dent Hayes in 1S77. The occasion 
was a. great one, for Monroe and his 
party left Providence in the morning, 
halted at Hatch's for a lunch, dined at 
Policy's, and were met on their arrival 
at Dedham by a delegation from Boston 
who escorted them to the " Hub of 
the Universe." Great was the curiosity 
of the country-folk to behold a presi- 
dent, and the streets through which his 
barouche was to pass were thronged 
with an eager, expectant multitude, who 
greeted him with cheers, and were 
rewarded with a gracious bow. And 
one little boy, now a venerable and 
honored member of the Bristol County 
bar, was standing with his father in an 
open farm wagon, when the President 
alighted at North Attleborough, and 
exclaimed with evident disappointment : 
" Why, father, he 's no bigger than any 
other man ! " 



DUNGEON ROCK, LYNN, 

By Frank P. Harriman. 



All over the land there are localities 
to which, in some way or other, have 
become attached names that indicate 
something of the supernatural, or such 
as are intended to excite apprehension. 
What stout heart does not stand dis- 
mayed before a real dungeon? A 
prison under ground is something 
awful to contemplate. Whose hair 
does not stand on end at the thought 
of possible confinement in a dark, 
damp, cold stone prison-house, with 
rusty-hinged or even sealed doors, where 
no window opens to the light of day ; 
where no friendly voice is ever heard ; 
where liberation is impossible, and 



where, cursed with the remainder of 
life, one is doomed to a miserable exist- 
ence till the mortal and the immortal 
separate ? Deliver us from such terrors 
as these ! 

In visiting Dungeon Rock, however, 
like most places of a similar character, 
we find there is no especial reason for 
fear, notwithstanding the indicative 
name, and the many blood-curdling 
traditions connected therewith. 

It was a fine autumn day, when, 
together with some friends, we mustered 
courage to pay our respects to this now 
famous spot. We found our way thither 
from the city of Lynn by horse-cars, a 



236 



Dungeon Rock, Lynn. 



[April, 



part of the way by a barge and on foot. 
The driver of the barge, like most 
drivers of such vehicles, displayed no 
small amount of scientific driving. 
Why it is that almost all scientific 
driving generally results in some mis- 
hap, we are unable to determine. But 
we conclude that the particular science 
to which we refer is usually engendered 
by the driver having his elbow crooked 
at some bar before the journey com- 
mences. On all such occasions stops 
are quite common ; branches of trees 
are not avoided, and they threaten to 
destroy our best suits, or brush us 
altogether from our seats ; the brakes 
do not work ; the traces get unhitched ; 
an immense whip is flourished and 
cracked ; the horses become unmanage- 
able ; frightened women in a high key 
scream " Mercy ! " and the ride be- 
comes not only dangerous but unen- 
durable. 

After a ride up hill and down over 
a winding road skirted by forest trees 
on either hand, we were left in the 
woods at the foot of a steep hill. The 
remainder of our way was by a path of 
the most primitive nature, something, 
we should judge, like that of the native 
Pawtuckets, with the exception of the 
rapid ascent, for the natives were 
wiser than we in laying out their high- 
ways, for they avoided both hills and 
swamps. Shortly we found ourselves 
in the immediate vicinity of Dungeon 
Rock, which is situated on the summit 
of a granite-capped eminence overlook- 
ing the surrounding country. Quite 
a concourse of people had assembled 
on this occasion, apparently to spend 
the day and have a "good time" gener- 
ally. We should have said before that 
this is considered a kind of Mecca for 
those wjho hold to the Spiritual faith. 
There are several buildings which seem 



to have been dropped down without 
much order, and a large platform fur- 
nished with plank seats. An enter- 
tainment had been furnished, though 
for what purpose or by whom we knew 
not. There was some fine singing, in 
solos, duets, and quartettes, and a slen- 
der little girl showed a good lip, large 
lungs, and nimble fingers on a silver 
comet, out of which she fired repeated 
volleys of sputtering jigs at the over- 
elated spectators. 

Lynn's first historian, who dealt 
somewhat in tradition, among other 
things, says, in substance, " early in 1 65 8, 
on a pleasant evening, a little after sun- 
set, a small vessel was seen to anchor 
near the mouth of the Saugus River.' 
A boat was presently lowered from her 
side, into which four men descended 
and moved up the river a considerable 
distance, when they landed and pro- 
ceeded directly into the woods. They 
had been noticed by only a few individ- 
uals ; but in those early times, when 
the people were surrounded by danger 
and easily susceptible of alarm, such 
an incident was well calculated to 
awaken suspicion, and in the course of 
the evening the intelligence was con- 
veyed to many houses. In the morning 
the vessel was gone, and no trace of 
her or her crew could be found." He 
further states that on going into the 
foundry connected with the then exist- 
ing iron-works, a quantity of shackles, 
handcuffs, hatchets, and other articles of 
iron, were ordered to be made and left 
at a certain place, for which a return 
in silver would be found. " This was 
done" (so says the historian), and 
the mysterious contractors fulfilled their 
part of the obligation, but were undis- 
covered. Some months afterward the 
four men returned and made their 
abode in what has, to this day, been 



i as*.] 



Duiigeo7i Rock, Lynn. 



237 



called Pirates' Glen, where they built a 
hut and dug a well. It is supposed 
that they buried money in this vicinity, 
but our opinion is that most of the 
money then, as now, was kept above 
ground. Their retreat being discovered, 
one of the king's cruisers appeared on 
the coast, and three of them were 
arrested and carried to England and 
probably executed. The other, whose 
name was Thomas Veal, escaped to a 
rock in the woods, in which was 
a spacious cavern, where the pirates 
had previously deposited some of their 
plunder. There the fugitive practised 
the trade of shoemaking. He con- 
tinued his residence here till the great 
earthquake of 1658, when the top of 
the rock was unloosed and crashed 
down into the mouth of the cavern, 
enclosing the unfortunate man in what 
has been called to this day Pirates' 
Dungeon or Dungeon Rock. We 
cannot vouch for the complete truth- 
fulness of this historian's statements. 

In 1852, one Hiram Marble pur- 
chased from the city of Lynn a lot of 
woodland in which Dungeon Rock is 
situated. He came, as was claimed, 
influenced by Spiritualistic revelations. 

Directed by the spirit of the departed 
pirate Tom Veal, Mr. Marble com- 
menced to excavate from this very hard 
porphyry rock in search of a subter- 
ranean vault, into which had been 
poured, as was supposed, the ill-gotten 
gain of all the pirates, from Captain 
Kidd down to the last outlaw of the 
ocean. Twenty-seven years the sound 
of the hammer and the drill and the 
thud of blasting-powder echoed through 
the leafy forests, and then all was 
hushed. 

Hi ram Marble died in his lonely resi- 
dence at Dungeon Rock, November 10, 
1 868, aged sixty-five. He was widely- 



known for his perseverence in the work 
in which he was engaged. Sixteen 
years he labored without a realization 
of his ardent hopes. He remained a 
Spiritualist to the last, and those of a 
like faith were invited to the funeral 
services which took place on the day 
following his death. 

" His faith has not been without 
works, nor his courage barren of results, 
and centuries hence, if his name and 
identity should be lost, the strange 
labor may be referred to some recluse 
Cyclops who had strayed hither from 
mystic lands." 

" Edwin Marble, who succeeded his 
father in the strange search for treas- 
ure, died January 16, 1880, aged forty- 
eight years. He was buried near the 
foot of the rock on the southwestern 
slope, it having been his express desire 
to be interred near the scene of his 
hopeful, though fruitless, labors." 

The broken rock, which they removed 
solely with their own hands, makes quite 
a mountain of itself. 

We decided to enter the place where 
so many years of fruitless toil had been 
spent. A wooden gate on rusty hinges 
opened and we passed in, and the gate 
closed behind us. 

The excavation is high enough and 
broad enough for two tall men to walk 
abreast, and on its winding way, screw 
fashion, doubling upon itself, it leads 
down one hundred and fifty feet into the 
bowels of the earth, all the way through 
solid rock that had remained undis- 
turbed for centuries on centuries, until 
the work of this ill-directed Marble com- 
menced. Down, down we went, out of 
the warm sunlight into this cold, damp 
subterranean passage, winding hither 
and thither, till we reached an ice-cold 
pool of water which is constantly being 
supplied from some hidden fountain, 



238 



Dungeon Rock, Lynn. 



[April. 



and, were it not removed by pumps, 
would fill the place to the brim. 

This rock-hewn passage is lighted 
with lanterns hung at the various turns, 
so that the descent and ascent, notwith- 
standing the way is rough, can be 
made with safety. Though the day 
was warm outside, we were in a very 
short time chilled through and glad to 
make our escape. How these men 
could have endured many long years of 
labor in this vast refrigerator, and retain 
any degree of health, is a problem. 
Faith and zeal doubtless kept the blood 
moving through their veins. It is said 
that a knife, or dirk, and a pair of scissors 
of very ancient origin, which we were 
shown, were found by Mr. Marble in 
a fissure of this solid rock. That they 
were left there by pirates, years on 
years ago, no sane man can for a 
moment believe. The probabilities are 
that some one deceived Mr. Marble. 

When this misguided adventurer 
commenced this work, he was possessed 
of about fifteen hundred dollars, which 
he expended long before his death, 
after which, he depended upon the 
charities of those who sympathized 
with him in his undertaking. 

In one of the buildings named 
above, there are several portraits of 
pirates and their wives, drawn, it is said, 
by some one under the influence of 
the spirits, in a marvelously short space 
of time. Several wives of Captain 
Kidd are among them. 

Captain Kidd must have been a re- 
markable man, to want more than one 
such character for a companion, pro- 
vided the likenesses are true to nature ; 
at any rate we are not at all surprised 
that he was a pirate, under the circum- 
stances. 

To illustrate how Mr. Marble pro- 
fessed to have been directed, we give 



the following correspondence with the 
spirits : — 

Mr. Marble wrote : " I wish Veal or 
Harris would tell what move to make 
next." 

This query was covered by fifteen 
thicknesses of paper and then the 
medium was called in, and, merely 
feeling of the exterior of the paper, 
wrote what the spirit of Veal revealed 
through him. Captain Harris, named 
in the communication, is supposed to 
have been the leader of the piratical 
band. 

Response of Veal : " My Dear 
Charge, — You solicit me or Captain 
Harris to advise you as to what to next 
do. Well, as Harris says he has 
always had the heft of the load on his 
shoulders, I will try and respond myself 
and let Harris rest. Ha ! ha ! Well, 
Marble, we must joke a bit; did we 
not, we should have the blues, as do 
you some of those rainy days when 
you see no living person at the rock, 
save your own dear ones. Not a sound 
do you hear, save the woodpecker and 
that little gray bird [Mr. Marble's pet 
canary], that sings all day long, more 
especially wet days, tittry, tittry, tittry. 
But, Marble, as Long [a deceased 
friend of Marble] says, ' Don't be dis- 
couraged.' We are doing as fast as we 
can. As to the course, you are in the 
right direction at present. You have 
one more curve to make before you 
take the course that leads to the cave. 
We have a reason for keeping you from 
entering the cave at once. Moses was 
by the Lord kept forty years in his cir- 
cuitous route, ere he had sight of that 
land that flowed with milk and honey. 
God had his purpose in so doing, not- 
withstanding he might have led Moses 
into the promise, in a very few days 
from the start. But no ; God wanted 



1884.] 



Lancaster in Acadie and the Acadicns in Lancaster. 



239 



to develop a truth, and no faster than 
the minds of the people were prepared 
to receive it. Cheer up, Marble, we 
are with you and doing all we can. 
"Your guide, 

"Tom Veal." 

Another communication, from C. B. 
Long, contains the following : " The 
names of Hiram and Edwin Marble 
will live when millions of years shall, 
from this time, have passed, and when 
even kings and statesmen shall have 
been forgotten." 

And so the man and, after him, his 
son worked on till, so far as they were 
concerned, death closed the scene. 
Whether any person in the years to 
come will follow these misguided labor- 



ers, and take up the work where they 
left it, is a question. 

The legendary lore of Dungeon 
Rock is eclipsed by the dominant im- 
pulse of lives absorbed in an idea, 
based upon supernatural agency. While 
it is an evidence of a misguided zeal, 
unequaled by anything the whole world 
has heretofore probably known, in and 
of itself it is no mystery. 

The mystery is that there ever lived 
human beings to undertake such an 
unpromising work, where such hard- 
ship and perseverance were required, 
and where the folly of any hope of 
success must have been apparent to an 
intelligent person every day, from the 
commencement to the close of the 
twenty-seven years of servile toil. 



LANCASTER IN ACADIE AND THE ACADIENS IN 
LANCASTER. 

By Henry S. Nourse. 



It is almost one hundred and thirty 
years 

**. . . since the burning of Grand-Pre, 
When on the falling tide the freighted vessels 
departed, 

Bearing a nation, with all its household gods, 
into exile ; 

Exile without an end, and without an example 
in story." 

Of the numerous readers of Evan- 
geline in I,ancaster, few now suspect 
how nearly the sad tale of wantonly- 
ravaged Acadie touched their own 
town history. From the archives of 
Nova Scotia all details of that deed of 
merciless treachery were left out, for 
very shame ; but upon the crown offi- 
cials then in authority over the Prov- 
ince, history and poetry have indelibly 
branded the stigma of an unnecessary 
edict of expulsion, which devastated 



one of the fairest regions of America, 
and tore seven thousand guileless and 
peaceful people from a scene of rural 
felicity rarely equaled on earth, to 
scatter them in the misery of abject 
poverty, among strangers speaking a 
strange tongue and hating their re- 
ligion. The agents who faithfully exe- 
cuted the cruel decree were Massachu- 
setts men, reluctantly obedient to " his 
Majesty's orders," given them specifi- 
cally in writing by Charles Lawrence, 
Governor of Nova Scotia. 

On the twentieth of May, 1755, 
Lieutenant-Colonel John Winslow em- 
barked at Boston with a force of about 
two thousand men, organized in two 
battalions. They were enlisted for the 
term of one year, unless sooner dis- 
charged, for the special service of 



240 Lancaster in Acadie and tJie Acadiens in Lancaster. [April, 



dislodging the French from their newly 
fortified positions along the north side 
of the Bay of Fundy, and on the 
isthmus connecting New Brunswick and 
Nova Scotia. Among the vessels of 
the fleet was the sloop Victory, and to 
this was assigned a company belonging 
to the second, or Lieutenant-Colonel 
Scott's, battalion, largely composed of, 
and officered by, Lancaster men, a list 
of whose names is subjoined : — 



Captain Abijah Wiilard. 




First Lieutenant " HaskaL" [Henry Haskell?] 


Second Lieutenant Wiilard. [Levi ?] 




Ensign Wiilard. [Aaron ?] 




Sergeants. 




Thomas Benian, husbandman . . 


. aced 2^ 


James Houghton, „ 


11 25 


UUKrUKALo. 




Jacob Wiilard, husbandman . . 


. aged 21 


Thomas Wiilard, „ . . 


„ 23 


Drummers. 




Joseph Farnsworth, husbandman 


. aged 20 


Joseph Phelps, „ 


,. 21 


Privates. 




Benjamin Atherton, laborer . 


aged 20 


Phineas Atherton, „ ... 


. „ 10 


Daniel Atherton, ,, . . . 


11 21 


Jonathan Broun, „ ... 


,. 17 


Joseph Bailey, ,, ... 


,. 3° 


Phineas Divoll, „ ... 


it 22 


Abel Farnsworth, husbandman 


■• 22 


John Farnsworth, laborer .... 


,, 30 


T^rprrii^ n TmpIH 

1 r ~ 1 1 1 1 1 <J I 1 J. 1 - 1 ■ J , • • • • 


18 


Ephraim Goss, „ .... 


„ 22 


Thomas Henderssn, „ .... 


„ 40 


Daniel Harper, „ .... 


„ 21 


Elias Haskell, cooper 


,, 19 


William Hutson, cordwainer . . . 


ii 22 


John Johnson, laborer 


„ 22 


Samuel Kiiham 


„ 20 


Matthias Larkin 


30 


Joseph Metcalf, cooper 


,, 21 


Joseph Pratt, laborer 


„ 30 


Joseph Priest, „ 


45 


Daniel Sanders, „ 


,, 19 


Isaac Sollendine, laborer .... 


21 


Jacob Stiles, housewright .... 


. 19 


Lemuel Turner, laborer .... 


„ 18 


Nathaniel Turner, „ .... 


,. 18 


William Turner, „ .... 


18 


Aaron Wilder, „ .... 


M 3° 


William Warner, „ .... 


H 20 


David Wilson, „ .... 


„ 18 



Levi Woods, laborer aged 23 

Silas Wiilard, „ „ l*> 

Uziah Wyman, apothecary ,,21 

John Warner, laborer ,,20 

James Wiilard, „ , xS 

John Wilson, „ ,,20 

Besides the above forty-five, there 
were, in other companies, three natives 
of Lancaster : — 

Nathaniel Johnson, yeoman .... aged 25 

Jonas Moor, „ ,32 

John Rugg, husbandman „ 31 

What special part these men took in 
the investment and capture of the for- 
midable fort of Beau Sejour, or in the 
assaults upon the minor forts, neither 
record nor tradition tell, and we are 
equally uninformed respecting their 
participation in the pitiable scenes 
enacted along the shores of Minas and 
Chignecto Bays. The Massachusetts 
Archives contain no pay-rolls of this 
expedition, and no papers of Captain 
Abijah Wiilard are known to exist 
throwing any light upon its history. 
That the service was not only inglorious 
in part, and ungrateful to the truly 
brave, but attended with much hard- 
ship, is attested by the following docu- 
ments copied from Massachusetts 
Archives, lv, 62 and 63. They are 
there in the handwriting of Secretary 
Jos i ah Wiilard : — 

"Sir: I have received your Letter 
giving me an acct. of the Hardships 
your poor Soldiers are exposed to. I 
sincerely Compassionate their unhappy 
case & I pray God to find out some 
Way for their Relief. The Governor is 
not expected here till the month of 
Decemb r . When he arrives I shall 
endeavour to mention the affair to him. 
In the mean time, I have written a Let- 
ter to Major General Winslow which I 
have left open, Leaving it with you to 
deliver it or not as you shall judge best, 



i8S*J 



Lancaster in Acadic and the Acadiens in Lancaster. 



241 



First sealing it before you deliver it. 
The Council being informed that I had 
a Letter from you upon the subject of 
these Hardships of the Soldiers desired 
me to communicate it to them, which 
I did. What they will do upon it I 
know not. 

" Octobr 31, 1755. To Abijah Willard." 

" Boston, Oct. 31, 1755 

" Sir : I have lately rec d a Letter 
from my Kinsman Cpt. Abijah Willard 
expressing his tender concern for his 
soldiers who are exposed to ly in Tents 
in this cold season now coming on and 
their cloath now worn out. I would 
fain use any Interest I could make that 
may contribute to the Relief of these 
and other the Provincial soldiers in 
Nova Scotia in the like circumstances, 
but I am a perfect stranger both to 
Governor Lawrence & Coll. Monkton. 
But the acquaintance I have of you & 
my knowledge of your compassionate 
spirit, especially towards the soldiers 
under your command in like circum- 
stances, urges me to write to you on 
this occasion (not from any Distrust 
I have of your care in these matters, 
but possibly as your Distance from the 
Place where this Company is quartered 
may keep you in some Ignorance of the 
Difficulties these poor men labour 
under) to desire you would interpose 
your best offices for their Relief. It 
seems that these men can be of little 
service in act of Duty required of them 
while they are so destitute of the 
necessary Comforts & Refreshments 
of Life. You will excuse this Free- 
dom. With my earnest desires of the 
gracious Presence of God with you & 
particularly to prosper your enterprises 
for the Good of your nation & Countrey 
I am, Sir, Your very humble servt, 

" Josiah Willard." 



This was not Captain Willard 's first 
experience of Nova Scotia, nor was it 
to be his last. Ten years before he 
enlisted in the expedition against Louis- 
burg, being first lieutenant of Captain 
Joshua Pierce's company, in the Fourth 
Massachusetts Regiment, of which his 
father, Samuel Willard, was colonel. 
He was there promoted to a captaincy, 
July 31, 1745, three days after his 
twenty-first birthday. Little more than 
twenty years had passed from the time 
when he had assisted in forcing the 
broken-hearted Acadien farmers into 
exile, and again he sailed for Nova 
Scotia, himself a fugitive, proscribed as 
a Tory, his ample estate confiscated, 
and his name a reproach among his 
life-long neighbors. As thousands of 
French Neutrals from Georgia to Mas- 
sachusetts Bay sighed away their lives 
with grieving for their lost Acadie, so 
we know Abijah Willard, so long as he 
lived, looked westward with yearning 
heart toward that elm-shaded home so 
familiar to all Lancastrians. On the 
coast of the Bay of Fundy, not far 
west of St. John, is a locality yet called 
Lancaster. Colonel Abijah Willard 
gave it the name. It was his retreat in 
exile, and there he died in 1789. 

Of the thousand Acadiens appor- 
tioned to the Province of Massachusetts, 
the committee appointed by General 
Court for the duty of distributing them 
among the several towns, sent three 
families, consisting of twenty persons, 
to Lancaster. These were Benoni 
Melanson, his wife Mary, and children, 
Mary, Joseph, Simeon, John, Bezaleel, 
" Carre," and another daughter not 
named ; Geoffroy Benway, Abigail, his 
wife, and children, John, Peter, Joseph, 
and Mary ; Theal Forre, his wife Abi- 
gail, and children, Mary, Abigail, Mar- 
garet. The Forre family were soon 



242 Lancaster in Acadie and the Acadiens in Lancaster, [April, 



transferred to Harvard. They arrived 
in February, 1756, and the accounts of 
the town's selectmen for their support 
were regularly rendered until February, 
1 76 1. They were destitute, sickly, and 
apparently utterly unable to support 
themselves, and were billeted now here, 
now there, among the farmers, at a 
fixed price of two shillings and eight- 
pence each per week for their board. 
Sometimes a house was hired for them, 
and, in addition to rent paid, we find 
in the selectmen's charges such items 
as these : — 

£ * d qr 

To cash pd for an Interpreter and 

paper, 3 4 

To what Nessecareys we found them, i o 80 
To 472 weight of Befe cost, 33 21 

To Cora that they have had & 

yoused, with Sauss, 10 8 

To one Bushel of Salt & Salting the 

Befe, 5 6 

to one washing tub, 2 earthen pots 

& pail, 4 o 

to wood for the winter season for the 

year 1757, 168 

Direct evidence to the helpless con- 
dition of the two families of French 
Neutrals in Lancaster is given in a letter 
from the selectmen, dated January 24, 
1 75 7, found in Massachusetts Archives, 
xxiii, 330 : — 

" and here Foloweth an account of 
the curcumstances, age and sexes of 
those people, thare Is two famles Con- 
sisting of fifteen In Number, the whole 
to witt. Benoni M elan so with his wife 
of about fourty four or five years of age, 
and they have seven children thre Boyes 
and four Girlls, the Eldest Girl about 
17 years old, the boye Next about 15 
years old, Sickly. Can Do Nothing, 
ye Next Boy 12 years old. ye Next 
boy 10 years old, and ye four Girles all 
under them Down to two years old, 
and the woman almost a Criple. . . . 



The Name of the others Is Jefray — 
& his wife, he almost an Idot and 
aboute 46 years old, . . . they haw- 
four children 3 Boyes & one Girll. ye 
Eldest Boye 10 yeares old & ye Rest 
Down to two years old. 

"Wm. Richardson ~\ Selectmen 
" John Carter >■ of 
"Joshua Fairbank j Lancaster." 

Shortly after the date of the above, 
these unhappy people suddenly dis- 
appeared from their habitation. Reck- 
less with homesickness, they had stolen 
away, and made a bold push for the 
sea, in the vain hope that on it they 
might float back to the Basin of Minas. 
This was in the depth of winter, 
February, 1757. They came to the 
coast at Weymouth. There they soon 
encountered the questioning of local 
authority, and to excuse their intrusion 
Melanson made complaint against his 
Lancaster guardians, the history of 
which is in Massachusetts Archives, 
xxiii, 356. 

" The Committee to whom was re- 
ferred the Petition of Benoni Melanzan 
in behalf of himself and sundrie other 
French People, Having met and heard 
the Petition and one of the Selectmen 
of Lancaster, relating to the several 
matters therein Complained of and 
also have heard the Representative of 
Weymouth where the French People 
mentioned in s d Petition at present 
reside : Beg leave to report as follows. 
Viz : That it doth not appear that ye 
Petitioner had any Grounds to complain 
of the selectmen of Lancaster or either 
of them relating the matter complained 
of, and therefore Beg leave further 
Report that the Committee are of 
oppinion that the said French People 
be ordered forthwith to Return to 
Lancaster from whence they in a dis- 



iSS 4 .] 



Gifts to Colleges and Universities. 



243 



orderly manner withdrew themselves, 
all which is Humbly submited. 

" pr order of the Comitte 

"Silvanus Bourn." 

" In Council, February 24, 1757. 

" Read and ordered that this Report 
be so far accepted as relates to the 
Petitioners Complaint of his Treatment 
at Lancaster being without Grounds, 
but inasmuch as the Petitioner offers 
to undertake for the support of himself 
and the other French removed from 
Lancaster except in the article of Firing 
and House Room, and is likewise will- 
ing that two of his sons be placed out 
in Families and inasmuch as the Peti- 
tioner is by employment a Fisherman, 
which cannot be exercised at Lancaster, 
therefore, Ordered that he have liberty 
to reside in the Town of Weymouth 
untill this Court shall otherwise order, 
and the Selectmen of said Town are 
impowered to place two of his sons in 
English families for a reasonable term 
and to provide House Room for the 
Rest, & the liberty of cutting as much 
Firewood as is necessary in as conven- 
ient a Lot as can be procured. The 
account of the Charge of House Rent 



and Firewood to be allowed out of the 

Province Treasury'. 

" Sent down for concurrence. 

"Thos. Clarke, Dpty. Secy. 

"Feb. 25, 1757." 

" In the House of Representatives. 

" Read and unanimously non concur- 
red, and ordered that Report of the 
Com tee be accepted & y* the said French 
Neutrals so called be directed to return 
forthwith to ye Town of Lancaster 
accordingly. 

" Sent up for Concurrence. 

"T. Hubbard, Spk r ." 

" In Council, Feb. 25, 1757. 

" Read & Concurred. A. Oliver, Secy. 
" Consented to. S. Phips." 

They were soon again in the quarters 
whence they fled. In June, 1760, the 
Melanson family were divided between 
Lunenburg, Leominister, and Hardwick, 
while the Benways remained. Among 
the petitioners for leave to go to " Old 
France," a little later, appear " Benoni 
Melanson and Marie, with family of 
seven," and from that date the waifs 
from Acadie appear no more in the 
annals of Lancaster. 



GIFTS TO COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES. 

By Charles F. Thwing. 



The generosity of the American 
people, in the making of gifts to their 
institutions of learning, is munificent. 
The generosity is keeping pace with 
the increase of wealth. In 1847, 
Abbott Lawrence gave fifty thousand 
dollars to Harvard University, to found 
the school of science which now bears 
his name. This gift is declared to be 
" the largest amount ever given at one 
time, during the lifetime of the donor, 



to any public institution in this coun- 
try.'' But since the year 1847, ^ ls 
probable that not less than fifty mill- 
ions of dollars have been donated by 
individuals to educational institutions. 
In several instances, gifts, each ap- 
proaching, or even exceeding, a million 
of dollars, have been bestowed. The 
Baltimore merchant, Johns Hopkins, 
gave not less than three millions of 
dollars to a great university, which, like 



244 



Gifts to Colleges and Universities. 



[April, 



Harvard, bears the name of its found- 
er. Henry W. Sage and Ezra Cornell 
contributed more than a million to the 
endowment of Cornell University. The 
gifts of Amasa Stone to the Adelbert 
University at Cleveland aggregate mOre 
than half a million. Since 1864, Ario 
Pardee has given to Lafayette College 
more than five hundred thousand dol- 
lars ; and the donations of John C. 
Green to Princeton aggregate toward a 
million of dollars. Alexander Agassiz, 
worthy son of a worthy father, has 
donated more than a quarter of a mill- 
ion of dollars to the equipment of the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology and 
Anatomy which his father founded. 
Joseph E. Sheffield endowed the scien- 
tific school at New Haven which bears 
his name. The late Nathaniel Thayer, 
of Boston, contributed about two hun- 
dred and fifty thousand dollars to Har- 
vard. Among various institutions in 
the West, South, and North, Mrs. Vale- 
ria G. Stone, of Maiden, Massachusetts, 
has, within the last five years, distributed 
more than a million of dollars. George 
Peabody's benevolences amount to 
eight millions of dollars, about one 
fourth of which forms the Southern 
Educational Fund, and about one 
eighth endowed the Peabody Institute 
at Baltimore. John F. Slater gave a 
million of dollars to the cause of 
Southern education. The amounts 
contributed to college and university 
education in the last ten years mav be 
thus summarized : * 

1872 $6,282,461 

1873 8,238,141 

1874 1,845,354 

1875 2,703,650 

1876 2,743,348 

1877 1,273,991 

1878 1,389,633 

♦Compiled from various Reports of the United States 
Commissioner of Education. 



1879 $3,878,648 

ISSO 2,666,571 

lS8l 4,601,069 

In the nineteen years since the close 
of the war, many institutions have been 
founded with munificent endowments, 
as Johns Hopkins, Smith at Northamp- 
ton, YVellesley ; and many more institu- 
tions have vastly increased their re- 
sources. Harvard's property has per- 
haps tripled in amount ; Princeton's 
income, under the presidency of Dr. 
McCosh, has greatly enlarged ; Yale's 
revenue has also received large addi- 
tions. Colleges in every State have 
been the recipients of munificent gifts. 

Notwithstanding, however, these be- 
nevolences, most colleges are in a con- 
stant state of poverty. Indeed, it may 
be said that every college ought to be 
poor; that is, it ought to have needs 
far outrunning its immediate means of 
supplying them. Harvard is frequently 
making applications for funds, which 
appear to be needed quite as much in 
Cambridge, as in the new college of a 
new town of a new State. At the present 
time, colleges stand in peculiar need of 
gifts for general purposes of administra- 
tion. Funds are frequently given for 
a special object, as the foundation of 
a professorship. But the amount may 
be inadequate. It is not expedient to 
decline the gift. Properly to endow the 
new chair, therefore, revenue must be 
drawn from the general funds, which 
thus suffer diminution. Donations are 
of the greatest advantage to a college, 
which are free from conditions relative 
to their use. 

The demand of institutions of learn- 
ing for endowment receives special 
emphasis at the present by the decreas- 
ing rate of interest. It is difficult, every 
college treasurer knows well, so to invest 
funds with safety as to cause them to 



iSS 4 .] 



Gifts to Colleges and Universities. 



245 



return more than five per cent, interest. 
Ten years ago in the East it was as easy 
to secure seven, as it is now to secure 
five, per cent. In one year one college 
saw its income decrease many thousand 
dollars by reason of this decrease in the 
rate of interest. Bowdoia College is 
distinguished for the success with which 
its funds are administered. At the 
present these funds are said to pay 
about six per cent, interest, but it is 
a rate higher than many colleges are 
able to gain. By this decrease the 
salaries of professors, the income of 
scholarships, and the entire revenue, 
suffer. 

Many reasons might be urged in 
behalf of benevolence to institutions 
of learning. Funds thus given are as 
a rule administered with extraordinary 
financial skill. Their permanence is 
greater than the permanence of funds 
in trust companies and savings banks. 
Harvard, the oldest college, Yale, the 
next to the oldest (with the exception 
of William and Mary), have funds still 
unimpaired, still applied to the designs 
of those who gave them in the first 
years of their incorporation. 

Gifts to a college are, moreover, an 
application of the right principle of 
benevolence of helping those who help 
themselves. The trustees, the profes- 
sors, are, in proportion to their income, 
the most generous. Not seldom do 
they pledge a year's salary for the bene- 
fit of the institutions which they offi- 
cially serve. The first nineteen donors 
to Tabor College, Iowa, several of 
whom were its officers, gave no less 
than sixty per cent, of the assessed value 
of their property. The efficient presi- 
dent of Colorado College has been en- 
gaged in making money for his college 



in legitimate business, in preference to 
making his own fortune. The students, 
as well as the officers, of colleges en- 
deavor to help themselves to an educa- 
tion in all fitting ways. The keeping 
of school, the doing of chores, the Tun- 
ing of errands, the tutoring of fellow- 
students, suggest the various ways in 
which they endeavor to work their way 
through college. 

Those who thus donate their money, 
in amounts either large or small, foster 
the highest interests of the nation. 
From institutions of learning flow the 
best forces of the national life. Litera- 
ture, the fine arts, patriotism, philan- 
throphy, and religion, thus receive their 
strongest motives. The higher educa- 
tion in the United States is most inti- 
mately related to the master-minds of 
American literature. Longfellow, Haw- 
thorne, Lowell, Holmes, were in part 
created by Bowdoin and Harvard. 
Among the most efficient officers of the 
late war were the graduates of the col- 
leges. Without the college the minis- 
try would become a " sounding brass 
and a tinkling cymbal " indeed, and 
without a learned ministry the church 
would languish. In the early years of 
the century, Mr. John Norris, of Salem, 
proposed to give a large sum of money 
to the cause of foreign missions. He 
was persuaded, however, to transfer the 
gift to the foundation of the Andover 
Theological Seminary, assured that 
thus he was really giving it to the mis- 
sionary cause. So the event proved. 
For the first American missionaries 
were trained at Andover. Thus, he 
who gives his money to the college, 
gives it to the fostering of the highest 
and best forces in American thought 
and character. 



246 



Song of the Winds. 



[April, 



SONG OF THE WINDS. 

By Henry B. Carrington. 
I. 

Thin as the viewless air, 

Swifter than dreams can be, 
Above, around, and everywhere, 

We speed with pinions free. 
No barrier bounds our path, 

But, ever, to and fro, 
Angels of mercy and of wrath, 

Onward, in haste we go. 

II. 

Our birth, mid Chaos rude, 

Ere Earth had formed its shell ; 
And nursed we w r ere, in solitude, 

Where hoary night did dwell. 
We tossed her raven hair, 

Ere sun began to glow, 
And whirled the atoms through the air, 

To form the moon, I trow. 

III. 

We heard the Eternal Voice 

Pronounce, " Let there be Light ! " 
And, shrieking, fled, beneath the wings 

Of the escaping Night. 
We saw the earth arise, 

Childlike, from Nature's womb, 
And flew to it, with joyous cries, — 

We knew it was our home. 

IV. 

How brilliant, then, its dyes, 

O'er past we could not grieve ; — 
We # rocked the trees of Paradise, 

And whisked the locks of Eve. 
Mid things so gay and calm, 

With wings, as those of doves, 
We floated o'er those fields of balm, 

As lightest zephyr roves. 



\ 



I8S4-1 



Song of tJie Winds. 



247 



V. 

All changed from peace to wrath 

When stern Archangel came 
And drove that pair from garden path, 

With sword of lambent flame. 
Our wings grew strong and broad, 

Our anger burst on high, 
We tore huge trees, — we dashed along, 

Our shadows gloomed the sky. 



VI. 

Our home, the boundless air 

Or Ocean's surging breast, — 
We meet the lightnings' lurid glare, 

Or hang on rainbow's crest ; 
At touch, the forests bow, 

The lake uplifts its voice, 
The long grass hums its anthem low, 

And ocean waves rejoice. 

VII. 

Our flocks, the drifting clouds 

That sweep across the plain, 
Like vessels seen, with netted shrouds, 

At rest upon the main. 
We laugh to see them spread 

With darkened fleece, afar, — 
While thunders mutter, overhead, 

Like trumpet notes of war. 

VIII. 

We scorn the pride of man; 

With us he dare not cope, 
Build vessel strong as e'er he can, 

We shiver mast and rope. 
Too long we tarry now — 

Away, — with speed, away, 
More than a thousand miles we go, 

To sink a ship to-day. 



\ 



248 



British Losses in the Revolution. 



[April, 



BRITISH LOSSES IN THE REVOLUTION, 

From April 19, 1775, to the Surrender of General Burgoyne, October 

17, 1777. 

[The following account of the losses of the British in the Revolution, for the first thirty months of the war, 
is taken from The London Magazine of February, 1778, and is interesting in that it differs from all the statements 
that appear in our United States Histories of that portion of the war. — Ed.] 

In March, 1776, the Parliament of Great Britain Voted 42,390 Men for the 
Service of America; These troops Landed Accordingly, And have Lost agreeable 
to their Returns as Followeth : — 



Places Where 


Killed. 


Wounded. 


Prisoners. 




43 


70 






746 


1,150 






81 


no 


350 




93 


64 






191 


264 






40 


70 






129 


175 


40 




840 


660 


60 




236 


773 


43 




57 


100 




White Plains, General McDougal 


450 


4QO 


270 




900 


1,500 






20 


30 






35 


6O 


948 




74 


IOO 


210 




52 


90 


750 








39° 




260 


350 


40 




59 


8O 


20 




800 


1,170 






40 


6O 






94 


150 


278 




200 


I,IOO 


1,100 




580 


70O 




Fort Mifflin and Red Bank 


328 


53 


84 




2,100 


1,126 


5.572 












8,448 


10,495 


10,155 



iSS 4 .] 



The Boston. Young Men s Christian Association. 



249 



THE BOSTON YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION, 



By Russell Sturgis, Jr. 



In the year of our Lord 1844, a 
young clerk, named George Williams, 
consulted with a few others and 
determined that something should be 
done to save the young men, who 
came by thousands to London, from at evening's 
the terrible temptations 
and snares to which they 
were exposed. The old 
times had passed when 
the young man came to 
the city recommended to 
some friend who would 
feel a personal interest in 
him, either take him into 
his own house or find some 
good home for him ; who 
felt responsible for him and 
bound to know where he 
went and with whom he 
associated ; who often had 
him at his own board, if not 




OLD BUILDING. 



summer's flower-decked green is a con- 
tinuous feast, and winter's glories a de- 
light no less. Whether upon the snow 
in sleigh, or hillside coasting, or the 
swift skate on the frozen river, or 
cozy fireside before 
the blazing logs, all re- 
joice in simple pleasures, 
and prayer closes the day. 
Dear country home, where 
ever)' sound is ministry ; 
the morning cock and 
cackling hen, the birds' 
hopeful morning song, the 
twittering swallow, noon's 
rest and healthy appetite, 
the lowing cattle, the birds' 
thankful evening note, the 
village bell — old curfew's 
echo, the pattering on 
the pane, the wind in the 



treetops, the watchdog's 

regularly there, and who expected to distant bark for lullaby, and quiet restful 

see him in his family pew on Sunday, sleep; his greatest sports — those of the 

Perhaps this state of things had, evening village-green — the apple bee, 

from necessity, ceased to be ; perhaps the husking, and the weekly singing- 

the introduction of machinery and the school. 

employment of large numbers of young He stands at evening gazing at the 
men in the cities made this personal splendors of the blacksmith's glowing 
relation no longer possible. Whether forge, and in the morning says " good- 
possible or no, the fact remains that this by" to all, and starts upon his journey 
close relation between employer and to the city. 

employed ceased. There are, even now, Arrived, and having found employ- 
some noble exceptions to this, as in the ment, he works from a fixed hour 
case of Mr. Williams himself, and the in the morning till evening, then he 
firm of Samuel Morlay and Company, goes home — where? 'T is all the 
The young man to-day comes fresh home he has — all he can afford : a 
from the pure air and clear lavish sun- room, or perhaps a part of a room, on 
shine of his country home, where the upper floor of a tall house, in a 

Note. — The illustrations arc furnished by the architects of the new building, Messrs. Sturgis and I'righam. 



250 The Boston Young Men 

narrow street — houses all about — the 
view all brick and slate, — the sunshine 
never penetrates to him — the air is close 
and heavy ; not one attraction is there 
for him here. But on his way from work 
he must perforce pass many a front, 
where the electric light casts its brilliant 
beams quite across the street. Yes, this 
proprietor can well afford the costly 
allurement — it pays — a very wrecker's 
light to lure to destruction. Its bane- 
ful brightness makes day of that dark 
narrow street. Within is warmth, 
companionship, music, wine, play, — all 
that appeals to a young man's nature. 
What wonder that he turns in here 
rather than go on to his cold, dreary 
room. 

Once in, he is welcomed j hearty 
good fellows they seem. True, they 
are very different from his old friends 
in appearance, manner, and language, 
and he at first shrinks from them, but 
the wine-cup soon obliterates distinc- 
tions, and he feels that he has never 
met such choice spirits before. Laugh- 
ing at their jokes and coarse stories, 
he forgets all in the wild excite- 
ment of the moment. His voice is 
now the loudest. He sings, shouts, 
and, at length, losing consciousness, 
only wakes sick and utterly miserable. 
He determines it shall be the last. 
Never will he be seen there again. But 
he has entered upon a path of easy 
descent, and lower and lower he falls. 
He is hurrying to death. 

His employer cares only that he is 
at his place in the morning and remains 
there at work till the evening. He 
cannot follow him, and should the 
young man's habits become such that 
it " no longer pays " to employ him, he 
is dismissed and another is quickly 
found to take his place. Vast numbers 
of young men were going down to 



*s Christian Association. [April, 

death in the cities, when George Will- 
iams and his friend determined to do 
something to keep them from destruc- 
tion, and thus they formed the first 
Young Men's Christian Association in 
the world, on the sixth day of June, 
1844. 

In the autumn of 185 1, a corre- 
spondent of the Watchman and Re- 
flector, a religious paper published in 
Boston, wrote an account of his visit 
to the London rooms. Captain Sulli- 
van saw the article, and having him- 
self visited the London Association, he 
spoke to others, and the result was a 
meeting in the vestry of the Central 
Church, on December 15, 1851, of 
thirty-two men, representing twenty 
congregations of the different denomi- 
nations. 

This meeting was adjourned to 
December 22, at the Old South Chapel, 
in Spring Lane. A constitution was 
adopted on December 29. Officers 
were chosen January 5 and 10, and the 
work began in earnest. 

Mr. Francis O. Watts, of St. Paul's 
Episcopal Church, was the first presi- 
dent of this, the first Young Men's 
Christian Association of the United 
States. It is a strange coincidence, 
easily understood by the Christian, that 
on the twenty-fifth of November, one 
month previous, without any knowledge 
on the part of Boston, the first Young 
Men's Christian Association of America 
had been organized at Montreal, in 
Canada. 

The constitution adopted was based 
upon that of the parent Association, and 
provided that, while any young man 
could be a member and enjoy all other 
privileges of the Association, only mem- 
bers of evangelical churches could hold 
office or vote. The reason for this was 
clear and right. Those who originated 



iSS 4 .] 



Tlic Boston Young Mat 's Christian Association, 
<_> 



251 



the parent Association, and those who 
formed this, believed in the doctrines 
of the Universal Church of Christ — in 
the loss of the soul and its redemption 
only by the blood of the Lord Jesus 
Christ ; nor could they be satisfied with 
any work for young men which did not 
at least aim at conversion. 

The chairman of the international 



special or peculiar interest." The tenth 
annual report thus speaks upon this 
point : " The tie which binds us to- 
gether is a common faith. We hold 
this faith most dearly, and believe it to 
be essential, and therefore worthy to be 
protected by every means. We can- 
not be expected, surely, to do so 
suicidal a thins; as to admit to the right 





NEW BUILDING. 



committee thus speaks, in February last : 
"When any Association sinks the reli- 
gious element and the religious object 
which it professes to hold high beneath 
secular agencies and powers, it ceases to 
deserve the name of Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association. It belongs then to a 
class of societies of which we have many, 
and in which, as Christian young men 
looking to the conversion of our fellows 
as the supreme object, we have no 



of equal voice in the government of 
our society those who are directly 
opposed to the very essence of our 
being." 

The benefits of the Association are 
for all — its management alone is re- 
stricted. 

There are now nearly twenty - five 
hundred Associations in the world, all. 
upon what is called the evangelical 
basis, and in the United States and 



252 The Boston Young Mens Christian Association. [April, 



British Provinces only Associations 
upon this basis have membership or 
representation in the International 
Organization, formulated in Paris, in 
1855, thus: — 

" The Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciations seek to unite those young men 
who, regarding Jesus Christ as their 
God and Saviour according to the Holy 
Scriptures, desire to be his disciples in 
their doctrine and in their life, and to 
associate their efforts for the extension 
of his kingdom among young men." 

It is a fact that whenever the attempt 
has been made, and it often has, in any 
Association, to give an equal right in 
the management to those who are not 
of our faith, that Association has either 
soon adopted our basis or ceased to 
exist. 

The spiritual benefit of its members 
having thus always been its ultimate 
end, the London Association, during 
its early years, did no other work ; and 
no sooner was the Boston Association 
formed than it, too, took it up. For 
a while, it carried on a Bible-class and 
a weekly prayer-meeting ; but in May, 
1857, a daily prayer-meeting was estab- 
lished, and has been continued almost 
without intermission to the present time. 
The visitation of sick members, the dis- 
tribution of tracts, and the conduct of 
general religious meetings, have been 
the regular work of special committees. 
These last have been held when and 
where they seemed to be called for : 
on the Common, at the wharves, on 
board the ships in the harbor, and, 
especially during our Civil War, on 
board the receiving-ship Ohio ; in the 
theatres, at Tremont Temple, and at 
the Meionaon, where, at various times, 
for weeks, a noon meeting has been 
held for business men. 

The Association has also been the 



rallying- point and chief instrumentality 
in great revival movements, under the 
direction of the churches, and especially 
in that under Mr. Moody in the great 
Tabernacle. The Boston Association 
has never forgotten the chief object of 
its existence, nor, though not without 
some fluctuation, has it intermitted its 
religious work. 

We have said that in London the 
work was at first wholly religious. In 
this country, however, the social and 
intellectual element in young men was 
immediately recognized and measures 
taken to satisfy them. Therefore pleas- 
ant rooms were at once secured, car- 
peted, furnished, hung with pictures, 
and supplied with papers, magazines, 
and books ; and, as the work enlarged 
and additional and more commodious 
rooms were obtained, the literary class 
and the occasional lecture in the room 
at the Tremont Temple building, ex- 
panded, in its first own building at the 
corner of Tremont and Eliot Streets, 
into evening classes, social gatherings, 
readings, and concerts ; and here first 
we were able to give to our members 
•who wished them the advantages of 
the gymnasium and bathrooms. And 
when, through the munificence of the 
business men, the Association was 
enabled to take possession of its pres- 
ent building, certainly excelled by no 
other in the world, either in beauty 
of exterior or accommodation, every 
appliance for physical, social, intellec- 
tual and spiritual work has been made 
possible. 

Visit the building with us. There it 
stands, at the corner of two broad 
streets, and in the midst of the finest 
public and private buildings in the city. 
Unique in architecture, simple in de- 
sign, warm in color, and beautiful in 
its proportions, it is a building of which 



iSS 4 -] 



The Boston Young- Men's Christian Association. 



253 



Boston may well be proud, while every hung with good paintings, are the two 

Christian man must rejoice in the parlors. Here the members have with- 

thought that it is built for His glory drawing-rooms equal to those even in 

whose blessed emblem crowns its top- this favored neighborhood. The few 

most gable. By its broad stone stair- whom we find here certainly appreciate 




case, under the motto of Associations, 
" Teneo et teneor," and through its 
vestibule, we enter the great reception- 
room. Immediately on the left, a 
white marble fountain supplies ice-cold 
water to all who wish it • beyond, richly 
carpeted and well furnished, the walls 



their comfort. The pleasant room 
adjoining is that of the general secre- 
tary, where he is usually to be found, 
and where each member is cordially 
welcomed for converse or advice. 
Beyond, again, is the office, where 
three men find it no sinecure to attend 



254 



The Boston Young Mens Christian Association. 



[April, 



to the continuous stream of comers 
for welcome, membership, or informa- 
tion. The library is a large, handsome, 
sunny room, well furnished with shelves, 
but not these so well with books ; and 
yet, from twenty to fifty men are here 
quietly reading. The next room is for 
general reading. Around the walls on 
every side are papers from almost every- 
where, and on the tables all the peri- 
odicals of this country, and many from 
abroad. All about the room sit or stand 
the readers, many, for the time, at home 
again as they gather the local news of 
their own town or village. The room 
beyond is called the "game-room." 
At each little table sit the chess or 
draught-players, while many interested 
are looking on. 

Here is the lavatory, complete in all 
its appointments, except, perhaps, that 
the long towel on the roller has been 
already this evening used by too many 
hands. The smell of blacking, too, in- 
dicates the wearer's pleasure in his 
cleaned and polished boots. In that 
little hall, which seats about three hun- 
dred, a lecture is being given to young 
men, on the care of the body, by 

Dr. . This is one of six which 

are given gratuitously by Boston 
physicians. 

We mount the stairs to the next 
story. These two rooms are rented to 
a commercial college. This door oppo- 
site admits you to the hall, which has 
seats for nine hundred persons. It is 
extremely simple, but the tints of the 
walls and ceiling are delightful, and you 
have only to listen to those members of 

the Club, who have leased it for 

their concerts, to realize that its acous- 
tic properties are perfect. 

Still higher, we find the room of the 
board, where, once at least in each 
month, the directors sup at their own 



expense, and manage the affairs of the 
Association. Here, too, its various 
committees meet. In the room adjoin- 
ing, a French lesson is going on ; in 
that, German ; in this, penmanship. 
Still higher up we find the " Tech " 
Glee Club practising, and this large 
room adjoining is filled with those who 
are learning vocal music. The build- 
ing seems a very hive — something 
going on everywhere. 

Let us now descend to the basement. 
The gymnasium is here in full blast. 
Men in every kind of costume and in 
every possible and, to many persons, 
impossible position, while the super- 
intendent is intently watching each to 
see that he is properly developing ; every 
kind of bath and many of them are 
right at hand, and dressing-rooms with 
boxes for eight hundred persons. 

And this great building and all these 
appliances are the gift of the citizens 
of Boston to the young men from the 
country. Many of the donors remem- 
ber the time when they came lonely to 
the city, and determined, if they could 
prevent it, that no young man, to-day, 
in the same position, should be with- 
out a place where all of which they so 
greatly felt the need is supplied. 

These needs are thus supplied. 
Early in the history of the Association, 
a circular was sent to every evangelical 
pastor in New England, asking him to 
give information of each young man 
coming to the city, that he might be 
met at the station or received at the 
rooms. 

Let us sketch a case : We have 

received word that John is to 

arrive from G by such a train. 

During the journey, thoughts of the 
dear ones he has left crowd upon him. 
He is already sick for home, as he looks 
about him and sees no familiar face. 



iSS4-] 



The Boston Young Men s Christian Association. 



255 



He has left harbor for the first time. 
All before him is uncertain : all about 
him strange. He reaches the city ; 
friends are there at the station to wel- 
come this and that one of his fellow- 
travelers. He knows no one. No one 
cares for his coming. No one? Yes, 
tfrere is a young man scanning closely 
the faces which pass. Suddenly his 



grand ! " Here, too, is the electric 
light, but not baneful this, no wrecker's 
false gleam, but like the light upon the 
pier, showing safe entrance and anchor- 
age. "This is our secretary. Mr. D., 

this is John ." "Glad to see 

you. Had you a pleasant journey? 
What can we do for you ? You want a 
boarding-place ! Well, here is the 




eye encounters our traveler, and at 
once the question : " Are you John 

? Tis well. I am from the 

Association. We are expecting you." 
Together they go to the building, and, 
even before reaching it, our stranger is 
not quite a stranger. One man at least 
is interested in him. "This is the 
building." " What, this fine place 
ready to welcome me? Why, this is 



book. What can you pay ? Very well, 
Mrs. B. has a vacancy and it is just the 
place you want. I will send some one 
with you there. Your recommendation 
was such that we have found a situation 
for you, and they will be ready to see 
you to-morrow. We have an entertain- 
ment this evening, and I shall be glad 
to introduce you to several young men." 
Imagine, if you can, what such an intro- 



256 



The Boston Young Mais Christian Association. [April, 



duction to city life is to a young man, 
and what is his coming to the city with- 
out it. He is no stranger now. He 
has found comfort, companionship, 
sympathy, occupation. His heart goes 
home indeed, but it is in thankful- 
ness that he writes and describes his 
surroundings, and glad is he at the close 
of the evening to join with others in 
prayer and thanksgiving to his mother's 
God, for the blessings of the Asso- 
ciation ; and later, in the quiet of his 
own room, he renews his thanks, sleeps 
peacefully, and, full of hope, takes hold 
of work in the morning. He is direct- 
ed to the church of his choice and is 
introduced to the pastor. Thus, at the 
very first, he is surrounded by good 
influences in a city where thousands 
are on the watch with every allurement 
to tempt just such strangers to destruc- 
tion of both soul and body. Should 

John be ready, in his turn, to help 

others, work enough can be found for 
him in one of the several departments 
of social or spiritual life. 

Should he fall sick, a committee of 
the Association visit and care for him, 
and, if necessary, watch with him. 
There have been many cases where 
young men have been carefully tended 
during a long illness, and a few where 
even the funeral expenses have been 
borne by the Association, and even 
burial given to the body in the Associ- 
ation lot at Forest Hills Cemetery. 
This is no fancy sketch. Many, many 
actual Johns are here pictured, and 
many souls will, by-and-by, be found 
thanking God that he put it into the 
hearts of his servants to establish the 
Young Men's Christian Association. 

But whence this well-appointed build- 
ing? Within the first year of its life, a 
building fund was projected, and, as far 
as we know, this was absolutely the first 



step in this direction taken by any 
Association, either in this country or 
elsewhere. A library fund was also 
started at the same time. 

A few subscriptions towards 
a building were obtained, 
which, in 1S5S, amounted 

to $1,200 

In 1859-60 were added 1.644 

In 1873 (for altering and 

furnishing), 5.700 

In 1873-74, 4400 

In 1S74-75, • 7,800 

In 1882, the estate of Daniel 

P. Stone gave 25,000 

Inspired by this, a meeting 
of citizens was held at the 
Brunswick, where com- 
mittees on finance and 
building were appointed, 
and the result was a sub- 
scription of 175,000 $220744 

By will have been bequeathed : 

By Charles H. Cook, 300 

„ Miss Xabby Joy, 5,000 

„ J. Sullivan Warren, 13,059 

„ Dr. George E. Hatton, 5,000 23,359 

And by subscriptions in con- 
nection with Fairs : 

1859 — Chinese Fair, 4,787 

1873 — Bazaar of Nations, 12,246 17,033 

$261, 136 

We have mentioned " Fairs." These 
have been three in number ; each being 
held in the Music Hall, and owed their 
success, not only to the energy of the 
young men, but to the hearty sympathy 
and untiring exertions of the ladies of 
the Boston churches. 

The first was held in 1858, and netted $9,650 
The second was called the Chinese 
Fair, all the decorations being Chi- 
nese, — a pagoda reaching fifty-six 
feet to the very height of the hall, 
which netted 33,ooo 
The third was the most elaborate — the 
Bazaar of the Nations; the Music 
Hall being made to represent a street 
of foreign houses, where, by persons 
in costume, the goods of the differ- 
ent nations were sold. It came in 
the spring and immediately after the 
fire, but netted 28,673 

£71,323 



iSS 4 .] 



The Boston Young Metis Christian Association, 



257 



It is certainly to the credit of the 
Association that up to 1SS2, when the 
large subscription of $ 2 00,000 was 
secured, the amount raised through the 
exertions of the young men and the 
ladies exceeded by more than Si 0,000 
all moneys subscribed. 

The influence of the Boston Associa- 
tion has not been merely local. Through 
Mr. L. P. Rowland, long its general 



State committee, a present member of 
the board, and an ex- president is now 
chairman of the same. In national 
matters, also, the Boston Association has 
responded to every call. In the early 
days of the war a drill-club was organ- 
ized by one of its board, and he, as 
well as a large number of his men, went 
into service. And at the call of Mr. 
Stuart, of Philadelphia, the committee 




secretary, and now the veteran secretary 
of the United States, in his capacity 
of corresponding secretary of the inter- 
national committee, the first State 
work was done and Associations formed 
in all parts of Massachusetts. The 
present Boston building is now the 
headquarters of the Massachusetts com- 
mittee, where the State secretary may 
always be reached. The secretary of 
the Association is a member of the 



of the Christian Commission was repre- 
sented by an ex-president and an army 
committee formed in the Association, 
which sent the large sum in money of 
$333,237.49, and immense stores of all 
kinds to the field. 

The same committee acted as 
almoners at the time of Chicago's great 
fire, and also when the Western woods 
fires caused such suffering. 

Without boasting, for much more 



2 S 8 



The Ohio Floods. 



[April, 



might have been done, the Boston 
Association has no cause to be ashamed 
of its history. Beginning with all ready 
to criticize, and many disapproving, the 
Association has worked itself into the 
confidence of the community ; and the 
Reverend Joseph Cook, who was intro- 
duced as a lecturer to Boston under 
its auspices, thus speaks of the Associa- 
tion at the close of its quarter-century. 
He says : — _ 

" First, That there is a vast amount of 
work which should be done for young 
men in cities, and that, as the propor- 
tion of the American population living 
in cities had increased since the opening 
of this century from one twenty-fifth to 
one fifth, the importance is great and 
growing. 

"Second, That neither individual 
churches taken separately, nor individ- 
ual denominations taken separately, can 
do this work easily or adequately. 

"Third, That all the evangelical 
denominations united in a city can do 
this work easily by the organization of 
a Young Men's Christian Association 
as their representative." 



A short time ago a committee of 
conference, made up of eight leading 
city clergymen and as many laymen, 
two of each denomination, unanimously- 
passed the following resolutions : — 

"Resolved, That the great and pecu- 
liar dangers to which young men are 
exposed in this, as in other cities, clearly 
calls, for the work of the Young Men's 
Christian Association. 

" Resolved, That the Association rep- 
resents the Church working through its 
young men for the redemption of young 
men, and, therefore, it is entitled to the 
continued confidence, support, and co- 
operation of the churches." 

After long years of patient and steady 
work, the Boston Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association has secured the confi- 
dence of the Christian community to 
the extent of more than $300,000, in 
the palpable form of stone and brick, 
which beautifies one of the finest sites 
in our city. It stands also as a monu- 
ment of the liberality of Christian Boston 
and her appreciation of this great work 
for young men in the Master's name. 



THE OHIO FLOODS. 

By the Hon. George E. Jenks. 



Several causes are assigned for the 
excessive rise of water in the Ohio 
valley. This water-shed is accredited 
with an area of two hundred thousand 
square miles, and it lies upon the 
border-line of hot and cold tempera- 
tures. It is subject to heavy storms, 
and sometimes, in winter, to large 
accumulations of snow. It is presum- 
able also, the rainfall is greater than the 
average of the country. When, follow- 
ing great deposits of snow, warm, 



heavy, and prolonged rains occur, 
excessive floods must be the result. 
Add to these coincidents the fact that 
forests, once existing, are now so nearly 
annihilated that little protection is 
offered against a rapid dissolution of 
the snow, and the sudden freezing of 
the earth in an interval of the late 
storm preventing absorption of rain 
falling thereafter. The waters thus 
produced fall into the main streams 
without hindrance, like rain from roofs 



ISS4-] 



The Ohio Floods. 



259 



of buildings. An aggregation of waters 
in this valley, rising from fifty to 
seventy-one feet, is of annual occur- 
rence, intensified according to excesses 
and completeness of coincidents. 

The damage arising from the Ohio 
flood of 1882 has been estimated at 
twelve millions of dollars; that of 1883 
at thirty-five to forty millions of dollars. 
If these estimates are approximately 
correct, what must have been the 
damage from the flood of 1884 ! 

There are other causes for the floods 
in the Ohio valley, and in all Southern 
streams, that have been but little con- 
sidered, which exercise undoubted and 
immense influence in solving the pecu- 
liarities of the question under consider- 
ation, and afford striking contrasts in 
different sections of this country. 

There are two water systems pre- 
sented in North America. North of 
about the forty-first degree of latitude 
— probably the southern limit of the 
once glacial region — a reservoir system 
prevails toward the headwaters of all 
the streams. It includes New England, 
New York, Michigan, Wisconsin, Min- 
nesota, Dakota, and to the Rocky 
Mountains divide, and all of the 
British Provinces to the Arctic Circle. 
It also somewhat occurs on the western 
slope of the Rockies. This region is 
notable for the great lake system, and 
the immense number of smaller lakes 
and ponds — natural inland reservoirs, 
supposed to be largely of glacial for- 
mation — to hold back considerable 
portions of the cumulative waters upon 
any given water-shed, and serving to 
restrain the outflow, even after they 
are filled. These basins exercise a 
happy and protective influence in many 
ways. 

South of the forty-first parallel, the 
rivers have no reservoirs to hold any 



part of the flow from their water-shed. 
Within this vast area few lakes or ponds 
exist. The superabundance of water 
has no restraint, but at once takes to 
the bottom lands. To this southern 
system the Ohio River notably belongs, 
with all its tributaries. Within its two 
hundred thousand square miles of area, 
scarcely a natural reservoir is to be 
found. No other part of the country 
is so devoid of basins. Its feeders 
drain the western slopes of the Alle- 
ghany and Cumberland Mountains — 
Western Pennsylvania and West 
Virginia, representing sixty thousand 
square miles, the southern portions of 
Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, and most 
of Kentucky and Tennessee. These 
States are without lakes or ponds. 
Nothing intervenes to hold back any 
portion of the vast flow from these 
coincidents of nature before spoken of, 
and therefore the excessive floods of 
last year and this. Such results must 
continue to follow. 

During the summer droughts the 
other extreme prevails. For lack of a 
reservoir system to withhold and con- 
trol the flow of water, the river falls 
from flood-tide — seventy-one feet — 
to points so low as to seriously impede 
or prevent navigation. Sometimes even 
the smallest steamers and barges fail 
to pass between Pittsburgh and Cincin- 
nati, and coal famines have not been 
unfrequent, resulting from difficult navi- 
gation. An equable flow of this stream 
is impossible. It will always be subject 
to these extremes. Nothing but an 
extensive method of filling or diking is 
likely to prevent the inundation of 
cities and villages that are not seventy 
feet above low-water mark, with attend- 
ing suffering and destruction of life 
and property. All Southern rivers are 
liable to like extremes. 



26o 



The Ohio Floods. 



[April. 



In contrast, it may be noted that the 
St. Lawrence River but slightly varies 
its flow, above Montreal, because of 
the restraining power of the Great 
Lakes, its feeders. The upper Missis- 
sippi rises not to excess because of the 
thousands of lakes and lakelets in 
Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Dakota, its 
sources. The floods occur in its south- 
ern portion, chiefly below St. Louis. 
But for this reservoir system its naviga- 
tion in the upper portion would be 
seriously impeded in summer seasons. 

Disastrous floods can scarcely occur 
on the St. John's, St. Croix, Penobscot, 
Kennebec, Androscoggin, Saco, Piscata- 
qua, Merrimack, Connecticut, or Hud- 
son Rivers, except from damming of 
the ice in winter or springtime (and 
that cause is of rare occurrence), such 
is the elaborate system of reservoirs 
about the headwaters of these streams. 
This northern country is greatly bene- 
fited by these excavations occurring 
from geological causes. 

The Merrimack River has a water- 
shed of about four thousand square 
miles — one fiftieth part of that of 
the Ohio. It has the YVinnipiseogee, 
Squam, and Newfound Lakes, and hun- 
dreds of ponds to fill, that store a large 
amount of water, before any consider- 
able rise can take place in the river, 
and then they restrain the flow. No 
excess of water comes through the 
Winnipiseogee River, though it is the 
outlet of a water-shed nearly as great as 
of the Pemigewasset. The freshets of 
the Merrimack come chiefly from the 
last-named stream and minor tribu- 
taries. Without these reservoirs, the 
manufacturing establishments at Law- 
rence, Lowell, and Manchester, would 
cease to be operated by water-power 
during the summer droughts. The 
highest flow of water in the Merrimack 



known in forty-six years, as measured 
at the Lowell dam, was thirteen and 
seven-twelfths feet. This occurred in 
1852. Only a few times have freshets 
exceeded ten feet rise over that dam. 

The greatest fall of water and rise of 
the freshet, in this vallev, known at 
Concord, New Hampshire, occurred 
in August, 1826. This storm notably 
caused the land-slide in the Saco valley» 
which buried the Willey family. The 
next was in early October, 1S69, which 
caused the slide of seventy-five acres 
of land on the western side of Tri- 
Pyramid Mountain into Mad River, 
in Waterville. 

Messrs. Rand, McNally, and Company, 
of Chicago, in their Atlas of the World, 
give data to illustrate the two river sys- 
tems of the country spoken of. Names 
of sixty-seven lakes are given in Maine, 
and beside these are ponds almost in- 
numerable. By census statistics given, 
her reservoir and land areas are as 1 
to 13. New Hampshire is accredited 
with three hundred and sixty-two lakes 
and ponds, being as 1 acre to 41 of 
land. Vermont has forty-one lakes 
and ponds, including Lake Champlain, 
being as 1 acre to 24 of land. Massa- 
chusetts, forty-seven lakes and ponds ; 
Rhode Island, forty-seven ; Connecti- 
cut, eighteen ; New York, two hundred 
and sixty, beside her great lakes ; New 
jersey, ten ; Pennsylvania (chiefly north- 
eastern portion), fifty-eight; Michigan, 
ninety-eight lakes, and ponds in great 
number ; Wisconsin, seventy-two lakes, 
and a large number of ponds; Minne- 
sota, one hundred and forty-two lakes, 
and ponds innumerable ; Dakota, fif- 
teen lakes, and a great number of 
ponds ; and Iowa, forty-eight lakes. 

In contrast, Virginia has only Lake 
Drummond — really a part of the Dis- 
mal Swamp ; West Virginia, Ohio, 



iSS 4 .] 



The Boston Tea -Party. 



26 



Kentucky, and Tennessee, none ; In- 
diana, eleven lakes, and Illinois, eight, 
— all on northern water-shed. The 
Carolinas, Georgia, and Alabama have 
no reservoirs. Lagoons exist in the 
States bordering the Mississippi River 
and the Gulf, which are filled by the 
overflow of the rivers. 

A consultation of any good atlas of 



our country will confirm these state- 
ments. 

The two sections are thus contrasted. 
The Northern States have reason to be 
very thankful for their more equable 
system, for the motive power its reser- 
voirs furnish, and for exemption from 
disastrous floods, as well as from 
cyclones and tornadoes. 



THE BOSTON TEA-PARTY, 



[This account of the Boston Tea-Party is taken, verbatim, from " The Boston Evening Post, Monday, 
December 20, 1773. Thomas and John Fleet, at the Heart and Crown, in Cornhill, Messi'rs Printers." It adds 
another link in the chain of evidence to prove that the patriots were disguised as Indians. — Ed.] 



Having accidentally arrived at Bos- 
ton upon a visit to a Friend the evening 
before the meeting of the Body of the 
People on the 29th of November, 
curiosity, and the pressing invita- 
tions of my most kind host, induced 
me to attend the Meeting. I must con- 
fess that I was most agreeably, and I 
hope that I shall be forgiven by the 
People if I say so unexpectedly, enter- 
tained and instructed by the regular, 
reasonable and sensible conduct and 
expression of the People there collected, 
that I should rather have entertained 
an idea of being transported to the 
British senate than to an adventurous 
and promiscuous assembly of People 
of a remote Colony, were I not con- 
vinced by the genuine and uncorrupted 
integrity and manly hardihood of the 
Rhetoricians of that assembly that they 
were not yet corrupted by venality or 
debauched by luxury. 

The conduct of that wise and consid- 
erate body, in their several transactions, 
evidently tended to preserve the prop- 
erty of the East India Company. I 
must confess I was very disagreeably 
affected with the conduct of Mr. 
Hutchinson, their pensioned Governor, 



on the succeeding day, who very un- 
seasonably, and, as I am informed, very 
arbitrarily (not having the sanction 
of law), framed and executed a 
mandate to disperse the People, which, 
in my oppinion, with a people less pru- 
dent and temperate would have cost 
him his head. The Force of that body 
was directed to effect the return of the 
Teas to Great Briton ; much argument 
was expended. Much entreaty was 
made use of to effect this desirable 
purpose. Mr. Rotch behaved, in my 
estimation, very unexceptionably ; his 
disposition was seemingly to comport 
with the desires of the People to convey 
the Teas to the original proprietors. 
The Consignees have behaved like 
Scoundrels in refusing to take the con- 
signment, or indemnify the owner of 
the ship which conveyed this detesta- 
ble commodity to this port. Every 
possible step was taken to preserve this 
property. The People being exaspera- 
ted with the conduct of the administra- 
tion in this affair, great pains were 
taken and much policy ^exerted to pro- 
cure a stated watch for this purpose.* 

* This watch consisted of 24 to 34 Men, who served 
as volunteers 19 Days and 23 Hours. 



262 



The Boston Tea-Party. 



[April, 



The body of the People determined 
the Tea should not be landed ; the 
determination was deliberate, was 
judicious ; the sacrifice of their Rights, 
of the Union of all the Colonies, would 
have been the effect had they conducted 
with less resolution : On the Committee 
of Correspondence they devolved the 
care of seeing their resolutions season- 
ably executed ; that body, as I have 
been informed by one of their members, 
had taken every step prudence and 
patriotism could suggest, to effect the 
desirable purpose, but were defeated. 
The Body once more assembled, I was 
again present ; such a collection of the 
people was to me a novelty ; near seven 
thousand persons from several towns, 
Gentlemen, Merchants, Yeomen, and 
others, respectable for their rank and 
abilities, and venerable for their age 
and character, constituted the assembly ; 
they decently, unanimously and firmly 
adhered to their former resolution, that 
the baleful commodity which was to 
rivet and establish the duty should never 
be landed ; to prevent the mischief they 
repeated the desires of the Committee 
of the Towns, that the owner of the 
ship should apply for a clearance ; it 
appeared that Mr. Rotch had been 
managed and was still under the influ- 
ence of the opposite party ; he resisted 
the request of the people to apply for 
a clearance for his ship with an obsti- 
nacy which, in my opinion, bordered on 
stubbornness — subdued at length by 
the peremptory demand of the Body, 
he consented to apply, a committee 
of ten respectable gentlemen were 
appointed to attend him to the collector ; 
the Body meeting the same morning 
by adjournment, Mr. Rotch was directed 
to protest in form, and then apply to 
the Governor for a Pass by the Castle ; 
Mr. Rotch executed his commission 



with fidelity, but a pass could not be 
obtained, his Excellency excusing him- 
self in his refusal that he should not 
make the precedent of granting a pass 
till a clearance was obtained, which was 
indeed a fallacy, as it had been usual 
with him in ordinary cases, — Mr. 
Rotch returning in the evening reported 
as above ; the Body then voted his 
conduct to be satisfactory, and 
recommending order and regularity 
to the People, dissolved. Previous to 
the dissolution, a number of Persons, 
supposed to be the Aboriginal Natives 
from their complection, approaching 
near the door of the assembly, gave the 
"War Whoop, which was answered by 
a few in the galleries of the house where 
the assembly was convened ; silence 
was commanded, and prudent and 
peaceable deportment again enjoined. 
The Savages repaired to the ships which 
entertained the pestilential Teas, and 
had began their ravage previous to the 
dissolution of the meeting — they apply 
themselves to the destruction of the 
commodity in earnest, and in the space 
of about two hours broke up 342 chests 
and discharged their contents into the 
sea. A watch, as I am informed, was 
stationed to prevent embezzlement and 
not a single ounce of Teas was suffered 
to be purloined by the populace. One 
or two persons being detected in en- 
deavouring to pocket a small quantity 
were stripped of their acquisitions and 
very roughly handled. It is worthy 
remark that, although a considerable 
quantity of goods of different kinds 
were still remaining on board the 
vessels, no injury was sustained ; such 
attention to private property was ob- 
served that a small padlock belonging 
to the Captain of one of the ships being 
broke another was procured and sent 
to him. I cannot but express my admi- 



Publishers Department. 



263 



ration of the conduct of this People. 
Uninfluenced by party or any other 
atachment, I presume I shall not be 
suspected of misrepresentation. The 
East India Company must console 
themselves with this reflection, that if 
they have suffered, the prejudice they 
sustaine does not arise from enmity to 
them. A fatal necessity has rendered 
this catstrophe inevitable — the landing 
the tea would have been fatal, as it 
would have saddled the colonies with a 
duty imposed without their consent, and 
which no power on earth can effect. 
Their strength and numbers, spirit and 
illumination, render the experiment 
dangerous, the defeat certain : The 
Consignees must attribute to themselves 
the loss of the property of the East 



India Company : had they seasonably 
quieted the minds of the people by a 
resignation, all had been well ; the 
customhouse, and the man who dis- 
graces Majesty by representing him, 
acting in confederacy with the inveter- 
ate enemies of America, stupidly 
opposed every measure concerted to 
return the Teas. — That Americans may 
defeat every attempt to enslave them, 
is the warmest wish of my heart. I 
shall return home doubly fortified in 
my resolution to prevent that depre- 
crated calamity, the landing the teas in 
Rhode Island, and console myself with 
the happiest assurance that my brethren 
have not less virtue, less resolution, than 
their neighbours. 

An Impartial Observer. 



PUBLISHERS' 

We give with this number of the Bay 
State a fac-simile reproduction, from a 
rare copy in our possession, of " An 
Oration, pronounced at Hanover, New 
Hampshire, the Fourth Day of July, 
1800," by Daniel Webster. This ora- 
tion was delivered when the future 
statesman was in his eighteenth year. 
It cannot fail to interest every reader 
of the Magazine, and will be a treat to 
every collector of Americana. 

Our Lowell article in the March 
number of The Bay State Monthly has 
been severely criticized — especially the 
cuts. To the older residents of that 
city each picture was of interest from 
association. We should have given 
credit to the excellent History of 
Lowell, written by Charles Cowley, 
ll.d., and to the Year Book, published 
by the Mail. 



DEPARTMENT. 

A System of Rhetoric is the title of 
a book by C. W. Bardeen, published 
in 18S4 by A. S. Barnes and Company, 
of New York. 

The subject is divided into sentence- 
making, conversation, letter-writing, the 
essay, oratory, and poetry. The book 
under consideration is an able and 
exhaustive treatise and must become 
highly prized as a textbook. 

A Brief History of Ancient, Mediaeval, 
and Modern Peoples, with some account 
of their monuments, institutions, arts, 
manners, and customs, is the tide of a 
book of six hundred pages, with two 
hundred and forty illustrations, issued 
by the same publishers. 

There is a large amount of informa- 
tion crowded within its covers, made 
available by a thorough index. 



264 



Publishers Department 



(April, 18S4. 



m 

ill 



I 1 ■ p 

^| if 

' % ■ ; -- - 

if teg 





< 'J 















•_ 



ORNAMENTAL FIREPLACE. (Magee Fine-Art Castings.) 

The unique designs, massive beauty, and artistic grace of Magee's fine-art cast- 
ings place them in competition with the finest work in brass and bronze. Prom 
the antique suit of armor, platinum plated, to the light and graceful leaf, for 
holding the quill and pencil, their designs include a great variety of ornamental 
articles : tiles, shields, panels, sconces, brackets, plaques, arms, trays, fireplaces, 
and jewelry-boxes. 

Their reproduction of the strange and fantastic hand-made studies of Chinese 
and Japanese artists would puzzle the Celestials, especially in the coloring and 
finish. Professional critics are often deceived as to the materials employed, so 
fine a finish will iron receive. 

This class of work is in its infancy — its possibilities are very numerous. 

Note. — By the delay of the artist, this pac;e, designed for the Chelsea article in the February number of 
The Bay State Monthly, was not ready in season. — Ed. 



AN 

ORATION, 

PRONOUNCED AT 
HANOVER, New-Hampshire, 

the 4th Day of July, 

1800 ; 

BEING THE TWENTY— FOURTH 

ANNIVERSARY 

OF 

AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE. 



by DANIEL WEBSTER, 
'Member of the Junior Clafs, Dartmouth University. 

" Do thou, great Liberty, infpire our fouls, 
" And make our lives in thy poffefiion happy, 
" Or our deaths glorious in thy juft defence !" 

ADDISON. 

(published by request of the subscribers.) 



PRINTED AT HANOVER, 
by MOSES DAVIS. 



1800. 



an ORATION. 



COUNTRYMEN, BRETHREN, and FATHERS, 

We are now affembled to celebrate 
an anniverfary, ever to be held in dear remem- 
brance by the fons of freedom. Nothing lefs 
than the birth of a nation, nothing lefs than the 
emancipation of three millions of people, from 
the degrading chains of foreign dominion, is the 
event we commemorate. 

Twenty four years have this day elapfed, fince 
United Columbia firft raifed the flandard of 
Liberty, and echoed the fhouts of Independence ! 

Those of you, who were then reaping the iron 
harvefl of the martial field, whofe bofoms then 
palpitated for the honor of America, will, at this 
time, experience a renewal of all that fervent 
patriotifm, of all thole indefcribable emotions, 
which then agitated your breafts. As for us, who 
were either then unborn, or not far enough advanc- 
ed beyond the threfhold of exiftence, to engage 
in the grand conflict for Liberty, we now moft 
cordially unite with you, to greet the return of 
this joyous anniverfary, to hail the day that gave 
us Freedom, and hail the rifing glories of our 
country ! 

On occafions like this, you have heretofore 
been addreffed, from this ftage, on the nature, the 
origin, the expediency of civil government. — 
The field of political fpeculation has here been 
explored, by perfons, poiTeffing talents, to which 
the fpeaker of the day can have no preteniions. 

Declining 



( 4 ) 



Declining therefore a difTertation on the princi- 
ples of civil polity, you will indulge me in 
flightly fketching on thole events, which have 
originated, nurtured, and raifed to its prefent 
grandeur the empire of Columbia. 

As no nation on the globe can rival us in the 
rapidity of our growth, fince the conclulion of 
the revolutionary war — fo none, perhaps, ever 
endured greater hardfhips, and dilltrefTes, than 
the people of this country, previous to that 
period. 

We behold a feeble band of colonifts, engaged 
in the arduous undertaking of a new iettlement, 
in the wilds of North America. Their civil 
liberty being mutilated, and the enjoyment of 
their religious fentiments denied them, in the 
land that gave them birth, they fled their coun- 
try, they braved the dangers of the then almoft 
unnavigated ocean, and fought, on the other fide 
the globe, an afylum from the iron grafp of 
tyranny, and the more intolerable fcourge of 
ecclefiaftical perfecution. But gloomy, indeed, 
was their profpecl, when arrived on this fide the 
Atlantic. Scattered, in detachments, along a 
coaft immenfely extenlive, at a remove of more 
than three thoufand miles from their friends on 
the eaftern continent, they were expofed to all 
thole evils, and endured all those difficulties, to 
which human nature feems liable. DefUtute of 
convenient habitations, the inclemencies of the 
feafons attacked them, the midnight beafbs of 
prey prowled terribly around them, and the more 
portentous yell of favage fury inceffantly affailed 
them ! But the fame undiminifhed confidence 
in Almighty God, which prompted the flrft fet- 
tlers of this country to forfake the unfriendly 
climes of Europe, ftill fupported them, under all 

their 



( 5 ) 



their calamities, and infpired them with fortitude 
almoft divine. Having a glorious iffue to their 
labors now in profpect, they cheerfully endured 
the rigors of the climate, purfued the lavage beaft 
to his remoteft haunt, and flood, undiimayed, in 
the difmal hour of Indian battle ! 

Scarcely were the infant fettlements freed 
from thofe dangers, which at firft evironed them, 
ere the clafhing interefts of France and Britain 
involved them anew in war. The colonifts were 
now deftined to combat with well appointed, well 
difciplined troops from Europe ; and the horrors 
of the tomahawk and the fcalping knife were 
again renewed. But thefe frowns of fortune, 
diftreffing as they were, had been met without a 
figh, and endured without a groan, had not im- 
perious Britain prefumptuoufly arrogated to her- 
ielf the glory of victories, achieved by the bravery 
of American militia. Louifburgh muft be taken, 
Canada attacked, and a frontier of more than one 
thoufand miles defended by untutored yeomanry ; 
while the honor of every conqueit mult be af- 
cribed to an Englifh army. 

But while Great-Britain was thus ignomini- 
oufly ftripping her colonies of their well earned 
laurel, and triumphantly weaving it into the ftu- 
pendous wreath of her own martial glories, fhe 
was unwittingly teaching them to value them- 
felves, and effectually to refill, in a future day, 
her unjuft encroachments. 

The pitiful tale of taxation now commences — 
the unhappy quarrel, which iffued in the difmem- 
berment of the British empire, has here its origin. 

England, now triumphant over the united 
powers of France and Spain, is determined to 
reduce, to the condition of Haves, her American 
fubjedts. We 



( 6 ) 



We might now difplay the Legiflatures of the 
feveral States, together with the general Congrefs, 
petitioning, praying, remonftrating ; and, like 
dutiful fubjecls, humbly laying their grievances 
before the throne. On the other hand, we could 
exhibit a Britifh Parliament, affiduoufly deviling 
means to fubjugate America — difdaining our pe- 
titions, trampling on our rights, and menacingly 
telling us, in language not to be milunderftood, 
" Ye fhall be flaves ! " — We could mention the 
haughty, tyrannical, perfidious Gage, at the head 
of a Handing army ; we could fhow our brethren 
attacked and flaugditered at Lexington \ our 
property plundered and deftroyed at Concord ! 
Recollection can ftill pain us, with the fpiral 
flames of burning Charlefton, the agonizing 
groans of aged parents, the fhrieks of widows, 
orphans and infants ! — Indelibly impreiled on 
our memories, ftill live the difmal fcenes of Bun- 
ker's awful mount, the grand theatre of New- 
England bravery ; where flaicghter ftalked, grimly 
triumphant ! where relentlels Britain law her 
foldiers, the unhappy inftruments of delpotifm, 
fallen, in heaps, beneath the nervous arm of in- 
jured freemen ! There the great Warren 

fought, and there, alas, he fell ! Valuing life only 
as it enabled him to serve his country, he freely 
refigned himfelf, a willing martyr in the caufe of 
Liberty, and now lies encircled in the arms of 
glory! 

Peace to the patriot's fhades — let no rude blast 

Difturb the willow, that nods o'er his tomb. 

Let orphan tears bedew his facred urn, 

And fame's loud trump proclaim the heroe's name, 

Far as the circuit of the fpheres extends. 

But, haughty Albion, thy reign fhall foon be 
over, — thou fhalt triumph no longer ! thine em- 
pire already reels and totters ! thy laurels even 

now 



( 7 ) 



now begin to wither, and thy fame decays ! Thou 
haft, at length, roufed the indignation of an in- 
fulted people — thine oppreffions they deem no 
longer tolerable ! 

The 4th day of July, 1776, is now arrived; 
and America, manfully fpringing from the tor- 
turing fangs of the Britifh Lion, now rifes majef- 
tic in the pride of her fovereignty, and bids her 

Eagle elevate his wings ! The folemn decla- 

ration of Independence is now pronounced, a- 
midft crowds of admiring citizens, by the fu- 
preme council of our nation ; and received with 
the unbounded plaudits of a grateful people ! ! 

That was the hour, when heroifm was prov- 
ed, when the fouls of men were tried.. It was then, 
ye venerable patriots, it was then you ftretched 
the indignant arm, and unitedly fwore to be free ! 
Defpifing fuch toys as fubjugated empires, you 
then knew no middle fortune between liberty 
and death. Firmly relying on the patronage of 
heaven, unwarped in the refolution you had 
taken, you, then undaunted, met, engaged, defeat- 
ed the gigantic power of Britain, and rofe tri- 
umphant over the ruins of your enemies ! 

Trenton, Princeton, Bennington and Saratoga 
were the fucceffive theatres of your victories, and 
the utmoft bounds of creation are the limits to 

your fame ! The facred fire of freedom, then 

enkindled in your breafts, fhall be perpetuated 
through the long defcent of future ages, and 
burn, with undiminifhed fervor, in the bofoms of 
millions yet unborn. 

Finally, to clofe the fanguinary conflict, to 
grant America the bleffings of an honorable 
peace, and clothe her heroes with laurels, Corn- 
wallis, at whofe feet the kings and princes of 

Alia 



( 8 ) 



Afia have fince thrown their diadems, was com- 
pelled to fubmit to the fword of our father 

WASHINGTON. The great drama is now 

completed — our Independence is now acknow- 
ledged ; and the hopes of our enemies are Diall- 
ed forever ! Columbia is now feated in the 

forum of nations, and the empires of the world 
are loft in the bright effulgence of her glory ! 

Thus, friends and citizens, did the kind hand 
of over-ruling Providence conduct us, through 
toils, fatigues and dangers, to Independence and 
Peace. If piety be the rational exercife of the 
human foul, if religion be not a chimera, and if 
the veftiges of heavenly affiftance are clearly 
traced in thofe events, which mark the annals of 
our nation, it becomes us, on this day, in confide- 
ration of the great things, which the Lord has 
done for us, to render the tribute of unfeigned 
thanks, to that God, who fuperintends the Uni- 
verfe, and holds aloft the fcale, that weighs the 
deftinies of nations. 

The conclufion of the revolutionary war did 
not conclude the great achievements ~ of our 
countrymen. Their military character was 
then, indeed, fufficiently eftablifhed ; but the 
time was coming, which should prove their po- 
litical fagacity. 

No fooner was peace reftored with England, 
the firft grand article of which was the acknow- 
ledgment of our Independence, than the old fyf- 
tem of confederation, dictated, at firft, by necef- 
lity, and adopted for the purpoies of the moment, 
was found inadequate to the government of an 
extenfive empire. Under a full conviction of 
this, we then faw the people of thefe States, en- 
gaged in a tranfaction, which is, undoubtedly, the 

greatefb 



( 9 ) 



greateft approximation towards human perfection 
the political world ever yet experienced ; and 
which, perhaps, will forever ftand on the hiftory 
of mankind, without a parallel. A great Repub- 
lic, compofed of different States, whofe intereft 
in all reipecls could not be perfectly compatible, 
then came deliberately forward, difcarded one 
fyftem of government and adopted another, with- 
out the lofs of one man's blood. 

There is not a lingle government now exifling 
in Europe, which is not bafed in ufurpation, and 
eftablimed, if eftablifhed at all, by the facrifice of 
thoufands. But in the adoption of our prefent 
fyftem of jurifprudence, we fee the powers necef- 
fary for government, voluntarily fpringing from 
the people, their only proper origin, and directed 
to the public good, their only proper object. 

With peculiar propriety, we may now felici- 
tate ourfelves, on that happy form of mixed gov- 
ernment under which we live. The advantages, 
refulting to the citizens of the Union, from the 
operation of the Federal Conftitution, are utterly 
incalculable ; and the day, when it was received 
by a majority of the States, fhall ftand on the 
catalogue of American anniverfaries, fecond to 
none but the birth day of Independence. 

In confequence of the adoption of our prefent 
fyftem of government, and the virtuous manner 
in which it has been adminiftered, by a Wash- 
ington and an Adams, we are this day in the 
enjoyment of peace, while war devaftates Europe ! 
We can now fit down beneath the fhadow of the 
olive, while her cities blaze, her ftreams run pur- 
ple with blood, and her fields glitter, a foreft of 
bayonets ! — The citizens of America can this day 
throng the temples of freedom, and renew their 

B oaths 



( io ) 



oaths of fealty to Independence ; while Holland, 
our once lifter republic, is eraied from the cata- 
logue of nations ; while Venice is deftroyed, Italy- 
ravaged, and Switzerland, the once happy, the 
once united, the once flourifhing Switzerland lies 
bleeding at every pore ! 

No ambitious foe dares now invade our coun- 
try. No Handing army now endangers our liber- 
ty. — Our commerce, though fubjecr. in fome de- 
' gree to the depredations of the belligerent powers, 
is extended from pole to pole ; and our navy, 
though juft emerging from nonexiftence, fhall 
foon vouch for the fafety of our merchantmen, 
and bear the thunder of freedom around the ball ! 

Fair Science too, holds her gentle empire a- 
monorft us an d almoft innumerable altars are 
raifed to her divinity, from Brunfwick to Florida. 
Yale, Providence and Harvard now grace our 
land ; and Dartmouth, towering majeftic above 
the groves, which encircle her, now infcribes her 
glory on the regifters of fame ! — Oxford and 
Cambridge, thole oriental ftars of literature, fhall 
now be loft, while the bright fun of American 
fcience difplays his broad circumference in un- 
eclipfed radiance. 

Pleasing, indeed, were it here to dilate on the 
future grandeur of America ; but we forbear ; 
and paufe, for a moment, to drop the tear of af- 
fect-ion over the graves of our departed warriors. 
Their names fhould be mentioned on every anni- 
verfary of Independence, that the youth, of each 
fucceffive generation, may learn not to value life, 
when held in competition with their country's 
fafety. 

Wooster, Montgomery and Mercer, fell 
bravely in battle, and their afhes are now entomb- 
ed 



( II ) 



ed on the fields that witnefled their valor. Let 
their exertions in our country's cauie be remem- 
bered, while Liberty has an advocate, or grati- 
tude has place in the human heart. 

Greene, the immortal hero of the Carolinas, 
has fince gone down to the grave, loaded with 
honors, and high in the eftimation of his country- 
men. The courageous Putnam has long flept 
with his fathers ; and Sullivan and Cilley, 
New - Hampfhire's veteran fons, are no more 
numbered with the living ! 

With hearts penetrated by unutterable grief, 
we are at length conftrained to afk, where is our 
WASHINGTON ? where the hero, who led us 
to victory — where the man, who gave us free- 
dom? Where is he, who headed our feeble army, 
when deftruction threatened us, who came upon 
our enemies like the ftorms of winter ; and fcat- 
tered them like leaves before the Borean blaft ? 
Where, O my country ! is thy political faviour ? 
where, O humanity ! thy favorite fon ? 

The folemnity of this aflembly, the lamenta- 
tions of the American people will answer, " alas, 
he is now no more — the Mighty is fallen ! " 

Yes, Americans, your WASHINGTON is 
gone ! he is now conligned to dufb, and " fleeps 
in dull, cold marble." The man, who never felt 
a wound, but when it pierced his country, who 
never groaned, but when fair freedom bled, is now 
forever filent ! — Wrapped in the fhroud of death, 
the dark dominions of the grave long fince re- 
ceived him, and he refhs in undiflurbed repofe ! 
. Vain were the attempt to exprefs our lofs — vain 
the attempt to defcribe the feelings of "our fouls ! 
Though months have rolled away, fince he left 
this terreftrial orb, and fought the mining worlds 

on 



( 12 ) 



on high, yet the fad event is flill remembered 
with increased forrow. The hoary headed pat- 
riot of '76 flill tells the mournful ftory to the 
liftening infant, till the lofs of his country touches 
his heart, and patriotiim fires his breaft. The 
aged matron flill laments the lofs of the man, 
beneath whole banners her hufband has fought, 
or her fon has fallen. At the name of Wash- 
ington, the fympathetic tear ftill gliflens in the 
eye of every youthful hero, nor does the tender 
figh yet ceafe to heave, in the fair bofom of Co- 
lumbia's daughters. 

Farewel, O WASHINGTON, a long farewell 
Thy country's tears embalm thy memory : 
Thy virtues challenge immortality ; 
Impreffed on grateful hearts, thy name fhall live, 
Till diffolution's deluge drown the world! 

Although we rnufl feel the keener! forrow, at 
the demife of our Washington, yet we confole 
ourfelves with the reneclion, that his virtuous 
compatriot, his worthy fucceifor, the firm, the 
wife, the inflexible ADA M S ftill furvives. — 
Elevated, by the voice of his country, to the 
fupreme executive magiftracy. he conflantly ad- 
heres to her effential interefts ; and, with fteady 
hand, draws the dilguifing veil from the intrigues 
of foreign enemies, and the plots of domefbic foes. 
Having the honor of America always in view, 
never fearing, when wifdom dictates, to ftem the 
impetuous torrent of popular refentment, he 
{lands amidft the flucluations of party, and the 
explofions of faction, unmoved as Atlas, 

" WTiile ftorms and tempefts thunder on its brow, 
" And oceans break their billows at its feet." 

Yet, all the vigilance of our Executive, and all 
the wifdom of our Conerefs have not been fufn- 
cient to prevent this country from being in fome 

degree 



( 13 ) 



degree agitated by the convulfions of Europe. 
But why ihall every quarrel on the other iide the 
Atlantic intereft us in its iffue ? Why (hall the 
rife, or deprellion of every party there, produce 
here a correiponding vibration ? Was this conti- 
nent defigned as a mere latellite to the other ? — 
Has not nature here wrought all her operations 
on her broadeft fcale ? Where are the Miffifip- 
pis and the Amazons, the Alleganies and the 
Andes of Europe, Alia or Africa ? The natural 
fuperiority of America clearly indicates, that it 
was defigned to be inhabited by a nobler race of 
men, pofleffing a fuperior form of government, 
fuperior patriotifm, fuperior talents, and fuperior 
virtues. Let then the nations of the Eaft vainly 
wafte their ftrength in deftroying each other. 
Let them afpire at. conquefb, and contend for do- 
minion, till their continent is deluged in blood. 
But let none, however elated by victory, however 
proud of triumphs, ever prefume to intrude on 
the neutral ftation affumed by our country. 

Britain, twice humbled for her aggreffions, 
has at length been taught to refpecV us. But 
France, once our ally, has dared to infult us ! fhe 
has violated her obligations ; fhe has depredated 
our commerce — fhe has abufed our government, 
and riveted the chains of bondage on our unhap- 
py fellow citizens ! Not content with ravaging 
and depopulating the faireft countries of Europe, 
not yet fatiated with the contortions of expiring 
republics, the convulfive agonies of fubjugated 
nations, and the groans of her own flaughtered 
citizens, fhe has fpouted her fury across the Atlan- 
tic; andtheftars andfhripes of Independence have 
almoft been attacked in our harbours ! When we 
have demanded reparation, fhe has told us, " give 

us your money, and we will give you peace." 

Mighty Nation 1 Magnanimous Republic ! — 

Let 



( 14 ) 



Let her fill her coffers from thofe towns and 
cities, which me has plundered ; and grant peace, 
if fhe can, to the fhades of those millions, whofe 
death fhe has caufed. 

But Columbia floops not to tyrants ; her fons 
will never cringe to France ; neither a fupercili- 
ous, five-headed Directory, nor the gafconading 
pilgrim of Egypt will ever dictate terms to fove- 
reign America. The thunder of our cannon fhall 
infure the performance of our treaties, and fulmi- 
nate deftruclion on Frenchmen, till old ocean is 
crimfoned with blood, and gorged with pirates ! 

It becomes us, on whom the defence of our 
country will ere long devolve, this day, moll 
ferioufly to reflect on the duties incumbent upon 
us. Our anceftors bravely fnatched expiring 
liberty from the grafp of Britain, whofe touch 
is poifon ; fhall we now confign it to France, 
whofe embrace is death ? We have feen our 
fathers, in the days of Columbia's trouble, aflume 
the rough habiliments of war, and feek the hoftile 
field. Too full of forrow to fpeak. we have feen 
them wave a lafl farewel to a difconfolate, a woe- 
flung family ! We have feen them return, worn 
down with fatigue, and fcarred with wounds ; 
or we have seen them, perhaps, no more ! — 
For us they fought ! for us they bled ! for us 
they conquered ! Shall we, their defcendants, 
now bafely difgrace our lineage, and pufilanim- 
oufly difclaim the legacy bequeathed us ? Shall 
we pronounce the fad valediction to freedom, and 
immolate liberty on the altars our fathers have 
raifed to her ? NO ! The refpojife of a nation is, 
" NO /" Let it be regiftered in the archives of 
Heaven / — Ere the religion we profefs, and the 
privileges we enjoy, are facrificed at the fhrines 
of defpots and demagogues, let the pillars of 

creation 



( i5 ) 



creation tremble ! let world be wrecked on 
world, and fyftems rufh to ruin ! — Let the fons 
of Europe be vaflals ; let her hofts of nations be a 
vaft congregation of Haves ; but let us, who are 
this day free, whofe hearts are yet unappalled, 
and whofe right arms are yet nerved for war, 
afiemble before the hallowed temple of Colum- 
bian Freedom, AND SWEAR, TO THE GOD 
OF OUR FATHERS, TO PRESERVE IT 
SECURE, OR DIE AT ITS PORTALS ! 



seeeeeoeoeg 




13 . Apple ton &. Co 



THE 



GRANITE MONTHLY 

A NEW HAMPSHIRE MAGAZINE. 

Devoted to Literature, Biography, History, and State Progress. 



Vol. VII. 



SEPTEMBER AND OCTOBER, 1884. Nos. 9 AND 10. 



CHESTER ALAN ARTHUR. 

By Ben: Perley Poore. 



Chester Alan Arthur was born 
at Fairfield, Vermont, October 5, 1830. 
His father, the Reverend Doctor William 
Arthur, was a Baptist clergyman, who 
emigrated from county Antrim, Ireland, 
when only eighteen years of age. He 
had received a thorough classical educa- 
tion, and was graduated from Belfast 
University, one of the foremost institu- 
tions of learning in Ireland. Marrying 
an American, Miss Malvina Stone, soon 
after his arrival, he became the father 
of several children. Chester was the 
eldest of two sons, having four sisters 
older and two younger than himself. 
While fulfilling his clerical duties as the 
pastor, successively, of a number of 
Baptist churches in New York State, 
Dr. Arthur edited for several years 
The Antiquarian, and wrote a work on 
Family Names, which is highly prized by 
genealogists. Of Scotch-Irish descent, 
he was a man of great force of character, 
impatient of restraint, at home in a con- 
troversy, and frank in the expression of 
his opinions. He was a pronounced 
emancipationist, although he never ex- 
pected to see the overthrow of slavery, 



which it was his good fortune to 
witness, as his life was spared until the 
twenty-seventh of October, 1875, when 
he died at Newtonville, near Albany. 
He was a personal friend of Gerrit 
Smith, and they had participated in 
the organization of the New York State 
Anti- Slavery Society, which was dis- 
persed by a mob during its first meeting 
at Utica, on the twenty-first of October, 
1835 (the day on which William Lloyd 
Garrison was mobbed in Boston, and 
was lodged in jail for his own pro- 
tection). A friend of the slave from 
conscience and from conviction, Dr. 
Arthur was never backward in express- 
ing his convictions, and his children 
imbibed his teachings. 

When a lad, young Arthur enjoyed at 
home the tutelage of his father, whose 
thorough knowledge of the classics 
enabled him to lay the foundation of 
his son's future education broad and 
deep. He entered Union College in 
1845, when only fifteen years of age. 
His collegiate course was full of promise, 
and every successive year he was 
declared to be one of those who had 



266 



Chester Alan Arthur. 



taken " maximum honors," although he 
was compelled to absent himself during 
two winters, when he taught school 
to earn the requisite funds for defraying 
his expenses, without drawing upon his 
father's means. Yet he kept up with 
his class, and when he was graduated in 
1848, he was one of six out of a class 
of over one hundred, who were elected 
members of the Phi Beta Kappa, an 
honor only conferred on the best 
scholars. 

Following the natural inclination of 
his mind, young Arthur began the study 
of law. supporting himself by teaching 
and by preparing boys for college. It 
so happened that two years after he 
was the preceptor of an academy at 
North Pownal, Vermont, a student from 
Williams College, named James A. 
Garfield, came there and taught pen- 
manship in the same academy for several 
months. 

In 1853, young Arthur went to New 
York City, by the invitation of the Honor- 
able Erastus D. Culver, whose acquaint- 
ance he had made when that gentle- 
man represented the Washington County 
district, and Dr. Arthur was the pastor 
of the Baptist Church at Greenwich. 
Mr. Culver had been noted in Congress 
as an advanced anti-slavery man, and 
he was prompted to take an interest 
in the son of a clergyman-constituent, 
who did not fear to express anti-slavery 
sentiments, at a time when the occu- 
pants of pulpits were generally so con- 
servative that they were dumb upon 
this important question. Before the 
close of the year, young Arthur dis- 
played such legal ability and business 
tact, that he was admitted into partner- 
ship, and became a member of the firm 
of Culver, Parker, and Arthur. The 
firm had numerous clients, and the 
junior partner soon became a successful 



practitioner, uniting to a thorny 
knowledge of the law a vigorous 
understanding and an untiring induv 
try which gained for him an enviable 
reputation. 

Among other cases' on the docket 
of Culver, Parker, and Arthur, was one 
known as the Lemon slave-case. A 
Virginian named Jonathan Lemon un- 
dertook to take eight slaves to Texas 
on steamers, by the way of New York. 
While in that city a writ of habeas 
corpus was issued, and the slaves were 
brought into the court before Judge 
Elijah Paine ; Mr. Culver and John Jay 
appearing for the slaves, while H. D. 
Lapaugh and Henry L. Clifton were 
retained by Lemon. Judge Paine, after 
hearing long arguments, declared that 
the fugitive slave law did not apply to 
slaves who were brought by their mas- 
ters into a free State, and he ordered 
their release. The Legislature of Vir- 
ginia directed the attorney-general of 
that State to employ counsel to appeal 
from Judge Paine 's decision to the 
Supreme Court of the State of New 
York. Mr. Arthur, who was the attor- 
ney of record in the case for the 
people, went to Albany, and after 
earnest efforts procured the passage of 
a joint resolution, requesting the gov- 
ernor to employ counsel to defend the 
interests of the State. Attorney-General 
Hoffman, E. D. Culver, and Joseph 
Blunt were appointed by the governor 
as counsel, and Mr. Arthur as the 
State's attorney. The Supreme Court 
sustained Judge Paine's decision. The 
slave-holder, unwilling to lose his 
"property," then engaged Charles 
O'Conor to argue the case before the 
State Court of Appeals. There the 
counsel for the State were again suc- 
cessful in defending the decision of 
Judge Paine, and from that day no 



Chester Alan Arthur, 



267 



slave-holder dared to bring his slaves 
into the city of New York. 

Mr. Arthur, who had naturally taken 
a prominent part in this case, was re- 
garded by the colored people of New 
York as a champion of their interests, 
and it was not long before they sought 
his aid. At that time, colored people 
were not permitted to ride in the 
street-cars in New York City, with the 
exception of a few old and shabby 
cars set aside for their occupation. The 
Fourth -avenue line permitted them 
to ride when no other passenger made 
objection. 

One Sunday, in 1855, Lizzie Jen- 
nings, a colored woman, returning from 
having fulfilled her duties as superin- 
tendent of a colored Sunday-school, 
entered a Fourth-avenue car, and the 
conductor took her fare. Soon after, a 
drunken white man objected to her 
presence, and insisted that she be made 
to leave the car. The conductor pulled 
the bell, and when the car stopped, 
told her that she must get out, offering 
to return her fare. She refused, and 
the conductor then offered to put her 
off by force. She made vigorous re- 
sistance, exclaiming : " I have paid my 
fare, and I have a right to ride." 
Finally, the conductor called in several 
policemen, and, by their joint efforts, 
she was removed from the car, her 
clothing having nearly all been torn 
from her in the struggle. When the 
leading colored people of the city heard 
of this, they sent a committee to the 
office of Culver, Parker, and Arthur, 
and requested them to make it a test 
case. 

Mr. Arthur brought suit against the 
railroad company fur Miss Jennings, in 
the Supreme Court, at Brooklyn. The 
case came on for trial before Judge 
Rockwell, who then sat upon the bench 



there. He had just decided, in a 
previous case, that a corporation was 
not liable for the wrongful acts of its 
agent or servant, and when Mr. Arthur 
handed him the pleadings, he said that 
the railroad company was not liable, 
and was about to order a nonsuit. 
Mr. Arthur called his attention, how- 
ever, to a recently revised section of 
the Revised Statutes, making certain 
railroad corporations which carried 
passengers liable for the acts of their 
conductors and drivers, whether wilful 
or negligent, under which the action 
had been brought. The judge was 
silenced, the case was tried, and the 
jury rendered a verdict of five hundred 
dollars damages in favor of the colored 
woman. The railroad company paid 
the money without further contest, and 
issued orders to its conductors to per- 
mit colored people to ride in its cars, 
an example that was followed by all the 
other street railroads in New York. 
The colored people, especially " The 
Colored People's Legal Rights Associa- 
tion," were very grateful to Mr. Arthur, 
and for years afterward they celebrated 
the anniversary of the day on which he 
won the case that asserted their rights 
in public conveyances. 

When a lad, young Arthur had always 
taken a great interest in politics, and it 
is related of him that during the Clay- 
Polk campaign of 1844, while he and 
some of his companions were raising an 
ash pole in honor of Harry Clay, they 
were attacked by some Democratic boys, 
when young Arthur, who was the leader 
of the party, ordered a charge, and 
drove the young Democrats from the 
field with sore heads and subdued 
spirits. His first vote was cast in 1852 
for W'infield Scott for President, and he 
identified himself with the Whigs of 
his ward when he located in New York 



268 



Chester Alan Arthur. 



City. In those days the best citizens 
served as inspectors of elections at the 
polls, and for some years Mr. Arthur 
served in that capacity at a voting- 
place in a carpenter's shop, which 
occupied the site of the present Fifth 
Avenue Hotel. When, in 1S56, the 
Republican party was formed, Mr. 
Arthur was a prominent member of the 
Young Men's Vigilance Committee, 
which advocated the election of Fre- 
mont and Dayton. It was during this 
campaign that he became acquainted 
with Edwin D. Morgan, and gained his 
ardent life-long friendship. 

Animated by a military spirit, Mr. 
Arthur sought recreation by joining the 
volunteer militia of New York, and he 
was appointed judge-advocate-general 
on the staff of Brigadier-General Yates, 
who commanded the second brigade. 
The general was a strict disciplinarian, 
and required his field, line, and staff 
officers to meet weekly for drill and 
instruction. Mr. Arthur thus acquired 
the rudiments of a military education, 
and became acquainted with many of 
those who aftersvards distinguished 
themselves as officers in the volunteer 
army of the Union. 

General Arthur was married in 1859 
to Ellen Lewis Herndon, of Fredericks- 
burg, Virginia, a daughter of Captain 
William Lewis Herndon, of the United 
States Navy, who had gained honorable 
distinction when in command of the 
naval expedition sent to explore the 
river Amazon. His heroic death, in 
1857, is recorded in history among 
those " names which will never be for- 
gotten as long as there is remembrance 
in the world for fidelity unto death." 
In command of the steamer Central 
America, which went down, with a loss 
of three hundred and sixty lives, he 
stood at his post on the wheelhouse, 



and succeeded in having the women 
and children safely transferred to the 
boats, remaining himself to perish with 
his vessel. General Sherman has char- 
acterized this grand deed of unselfish 
devotion as the most heroic incident 
in our naval history. Mrs. Arthur was 
a lady of the highest culture, and in 
the varied relations of life — wife, 
mother, friend — she illustrated all 
that gives to womanhood its highest 
charm, and commands for it the purest 
homage. She died in 1880, after an 
illness of but three days, leaving a son 
and a daughter, with a large number of 
mourning friends, not only in society, 
of which she was an ornament, but 
among the poor and the distressed, 
whose wants and whose sufferings she 
had tenderly cared for. 

When the Honorable Edward D. 
Morgan was elected Governor of the 
State of New York, he appointed Mr. 
Arthur engineer-in-chief on his staff, 
and when Fort Sumter was fired upon, 
the governor telegraphed to him to go 
to Albany, where he received orders to 
act as state quartermaster-general in 
the city of New York. General Arthur 
at once began to organize regiments, — 
uniform, arm, and equip them, — and 
send them to the defence of the capital. 
His capacity for leadership and organ- 
ization was soon manifest. There was 
no lack of men or of money, but it 
needed organizing powers like his to 
mould them into disciplined form, to 
grasp the new issues with a master- 
hand, and to infuse earnestness and 
obedience into the citizens, suddenly 
transformed into soldiers. His accounts 
were kept in accordance with the army 
regulations, and their subsequent settle- 
ment with the United States, without 
deduction for unwarranted charges, was 
an easy task. It was by his exertions, 



Chester Alan Arthur, 



269 



to a great extent, that the Empire State 
was enabled to send to the front six 
hundred and ninety thousand men, 
nearly one fifth of the Grand Army 
of the Union. 

There were, of course, many adven- 
turers who sought commissions, and 
some of the regiments were recruited 
from the rough element of city life, who 
soon refused to obey their officers. 
General Arthur made short work of 
these cases, exercising an authority 
which no one dared to dispute. Neither 
would he permit the army contractors 
to ingratiate themselves with him by 
presents, returning everything thus sent 
him. Although a comparatively poor 
man when he entered upon the duties 
of quartermaster-general at New York, 
he was far poorer when he gave up the 
office. A friend describing his course 
at this period, says : " So jealous was 
he of his integrity, that I have known 
instances where he could have made 
thousands of dollars legitimately, and 
yet he refused to do it on the 
ground that he was a public officer 
and meant to be, like Caesar's wife, 
above suspicion." 

When the rebel ironclad steamer 
Merrimac had commenced her work 
of destruction near Fortress Monroe, 
General Arthur, as engineer-in-chief, 
took efficient steps for the defence 
of New York, and made a thorough 
inspection of all the forts and defences 
in the State, describing the armament 
of each one. His report to the Legis- 
lature, submitted to that body in a 
little more than three weeks after his 
attention was called to the subject by 
Governor Morgan, was thus noticed 
editorially in the New York Herald 
of January 25, 1S62 : — 

"The report of the engineer-in-chief, 
General Arthur, which appeared in 



yesterday's Herald, is one of the most 
important and valuable documents that 
have been this year presented to our 
Legislature. It deserves perusal, not 
only on account of the careful analysis 
it contains of the condition of the forts, 
but because the recommendations, with 
which it closes, coincide precisely with 
the wishes of the administration with 
respect to securing a full and complete 
defence of the entire Northern coast." 

Governor Morgan appointed General 
Arthur state inspector-general in Feb- 
ruary, 1862, and ordered him to visit 
and inspect the New York troops in 
the army of the Potomac. While there, 
as an advance on Richmond was daily 
expected, he voluntered for duty on 
the staff of his friend, Major-General 
Hunt, commander of the Reserve 
Artillery. He had previously, when 
four fine volunteer regiments had been 
organized under the auspices of the 
metropolitan police commissioners of 
of the city of New York, and consoli- 
dated into what was" known as the 
" Metropolitan Brigade," been offered 
the command of it by the colonels of 
the regiments, but on making formal 
application, based on a desire to see 
active service in the field, Governor 
Morgan was unwilling that he should 
accept, stating that he could not be 
spared from the service of the State, 
and that while he appreciated General 
Arthur's desire for war-service, he knew 
that he would render the country more 
efficient aid for the Union cause by 
remaining at his State post of duty. 

When, in June, 1862, the situation 
had an unfavorable appearance, and 
there were apprehensions that a general 
draft would be necessary, Governor 
Morgan telegraphed General Arthur, 
then with the Army of the Potomac, to 
return to New York. The General did 



270 



Chester Alan Arthur. 



so, and was requested, on his arrival, to 
act as secretary at a confidential meet- 
ing of the governors of loyal . States, 
held at the Astor House, on the twenty- 
eighth of July, 1862. After a full and 
frank discussion of the condition of 
affairs in their respective States, the 
governors united in a request to the 
President to call for more troops. 
President Lincoln, on the first of July, 
issued a proclamation, thanking the 
governors for their patriotism, and call- 
ing for three hundred thousand three- 
years volunteers, and three hundred 
thousand nine -months militia -men. 
Private intimation that such a call was 
to be issued would have enabled army 
contractors to have made millions ; but 
the secret was honorably kept by all 
until after the issue of the proclama- 
tion. The quota of New York was 
59>7°5 volunteers, or sixty regiments, 
and it was desirable that they should 
be recruited and sent to the front with- 
out delay. General Arthur, by special 
request of Governor Morgan, resumed 
his duties as quartermaster-general and 
established a system of recruiting and 
officering the new levies, which proved 
wonderfully successful. In his annual 
report, made to the governor on the 
twenty-seventh of January, 1863, he 
said : — 

" In summing up the operations of 
the department during the last levy of 
troops, I need only state as the result 
the fact that through the single office 
and clothing department of this depart- 
ment in the city of New York, from 
August 1 to December 1, the space of 
four months, there were completely 
clothed, uniformed, and equipped, sup- 
plied with camp and garrison equi- 
page, and transported from this State 
to the seat of war, sixty-eight regiments 
of infantry, two battalions of cavalry, 



and four battalions and ten batteries 
of artillery." 

In December, 1S63, the incoming of 
the Democratic state administration 
deprived General Arthur of his office. 
His successor, Quartermaster-General 
Talcott, in a report to Governor Sey- 
mour, paid the following just tribute to 
his predecessor : — 

" I found, upon entering on the dis- 
charge of my duties, a well-organized 
system of labor and accountability, for 
which the State is chiefly indebted to 
my predecessor, General Chester A. 
Arthur, who, by his practical good 
sense and unremitting exertion, at a 
period when everything was in con- 
fusion, reduced the operations of the 
department to a matured plan by which 
large amounts of money were saved to 
the government, and great economy of 
time secured in carrying out the details 
of the same." 

Resuming his professional duties, at 
first in partnership with Mr. Gardiner 
and afterward alone, he became coun- 
sel to the city department of taxes and 
assessments, with an annual salary of 
ten thousand dollars, but he abruptly 
resigned the position when the Tam- 
many Hall city officials attempted to 
coerce the Republicans connected with 
the municipal departments. 

When the next presidential election 
drew near, General Arthur entered 
enthusiastically into the support of 
General Grant, and was made chair- 
man of the Grant Central Club, of 
New York. He also served as chairman 
of the executive committee of the 
Republican State Committee of New 
York. In 187 1, he formed the after- 
wards well-known firm of Arthur, 
Phelps, Knevals, and Ransom. 

President Grant, without solicitation 
and unexpectedly, appointed General 



iSS 4 .] 



Chester Alan Arthur. 



271 



Arthur collector of the port of New 
York, on the twentieth of November, 
1S71. He accepted the position with 
much hesitation, but it met with the 
general approval of the business com- 
munity, many of the merchants having 
become personally acquainted with his 
business ability during the war. He 
instituted many reforms in the manage- 
ment of the custom-house, all calcu- 
lated to simplify the business and to 
divest it, to a great extent, of all the 
details and routine so vexatious to the 
mercantile classes. The number of 
his removals during his administration 
was far less than during the rule of any 
other collector since 1S57, and the 
expense of collecting the duties was 
far less than it had been for years. So 
satisfactory was his management of the 
custom-house, that, upon the close of 
his term of service, December, 1875, 
he was renominated by President 
Grant. The nomination was unani- 
mously confirmed by the Senate with- 
out reference to a committee, a com- 
pliment very rarely paid, except to 
ex- senators. He was the first collector 
of the port of New York, with one or 
two exceptions, who in fifty years ever 
held the office for more than the whole 
term of four years. 

Two years later General Arthur was 
superseded as collector by General 
Merritt. The Honorable John Sherman, 
secretary of the treasury, on being 
questioned as to the cause of the 
removal of General Arthur as collector 
of customs at New York, said : — 

" I have never said one word im- 
pugning General Arthur's honor or 
integrity as a man and a gentleman, 
but he was not in harmony with the 
views of the administration in the 
management of the custom-house. I 
would vote for him for Vice-President 



a million times before I would vote for 
W. H. English, with whom I served 
in Congress." 

General Arthur, in a letter written 
by him to Secretary Sherman, on his 
administration of the New York custom- 
house, said : — 

" The essential elements of a correct 
civil service I understand to be : First, 
permanance in office, which, of course, 
prevents removals, except for cause. 
Second, promotion from the lower to 
the higher grades, based upon good 
conduct and efficiency. Third, prompt 
and thorough investigation of all com- 
plaints and prompt punishment of all 
misconduct. In this respect I challenge 
comparison with any department of 
the Government, either under the 
present or under any past national 
administration. I am prepared to de- 
monstrate the truth of this statement 
on any fair investigation." 

Appended to this letter was a table 
in which General Arthur showed that 
during the six years he had managed 
the office the yearly percentage of 
removals for all causes had been only 
two and three-quarters per cent, against 
an annual average of twenty-eight per 
cent, under his three immediate pre- 
decessors, and an annual average of 
about twenty-four per cent, since 1857, 
when Collector Schell took office. Out 
of nine hundred and twenty-three 
persons who held office when he be- 
came collector on December 1, 1871, 
there were five hundred and thirty- 
one still in office on May 1, 1877, 
having been retained during his entire 
term. Concerning promotions, the 
statistics of the office show that during 
his entire term the uniform practice 
was to advance men from the lower 
to the higher grades, and almost with- 
out exception on the recommendation 



2/2 



Chester Alan Arthur. 



of heads of departments. All the 
appointments, excepting two, to the 
one hundred positions paying two 
thousand dollars salary a year, and 
over, were made on this method. 

Senator George F. Edmunds, at a 
ratification meeting, held in Burlington, 
Vermont, on the twenty-second of 
June, 1SS0, said : — 

" I have long known General Arthur. 
The only serious difficulty I have had 
with the present administration was 
when it proposed to remove him from 
the collectorship of New York. No 
one questioned his personal honor and 
integrity. I resisted the attempt to 
the utmost. Since that time it has 
turned out that all the reforms suggested 
had long before been recommended 
by General Arthur himself, and pigeon- 
holded at Washington." 

Meanwhile General Arthur had 
rendered great services as a member, 
and subsequently a chairman, of the 
Republican State Committee, and had 
united his party from one success to 
another through all the mazes and 
intricacies which characterize the 
politics of New York City. Vice- 
President Wheeler said of him : — 

" It is my good fortune to know well 
General Arthur, the nominee for Vice- 
President. In unsullied character and 
in devotion to the principles of the 
Republican party no man in the organ- 
ization surpasses him. No man has 
contributed more of time and means 
to advance the just interests of the 
Republican party." 

The National Republican Convention, 
which assembled at Chicago, in June, 
18S0, was an exemplification of the 
popular will. The respective friends 
of General Grant and of Mr. Blaine, 
equally confident of success, indulged 
during a night's session in prolonged 



demonstrations of applause when the 
candidates were presented that were 
unprecedented and that will not prob- 
ably ever be repeated. Neither side 
was successful until the thirty-sixth 
ballot, when the nomination of Presi- 
dent was finally bestowed on General 
Garfield, who had, as a delegate from 
Ohio, eloquently presented the name 
of John Sherman as a candidate. 

The convention then adjourned for 
dinner and for consultation. When it 
reassembled in the evening, the roll of 
States was called for the nomination for 
Vice-President. California presented 
E. B. Washburne ; Connecticut, ex- 
Governor Jewell ; Florida, Judge Settle ; 
Tennessee, Horace Maynard. These 
successive names attracted little atten- 
tion, but when ex-Lieutenant-Governor 
Woodford, of New York, rose, and, 
after a brief reference to the loyal sup- 
port which New York had given to 
General Grant, presented the name of 
General Chester A. Arthur for the 
second place on the ticket, it was re- 
ceived with applause and enthusiasm. 
The nomination was seconded by ex- 
Governor Denison, of Ohio, Emory A. 
Storrs, of Illinois, and John Cessna, of 
Pennsylvania. A vote was then taken 
with the following result : Arthur, 468 ; 
W T ashburne, 19; Maynard, 30; Jewell, 
44 ; Bruce, 8 ; Davis, 2 ; and Wood- 
ford, 1. The nomination of General 
Arthur was then made unanimous, and 
a committee of one from each State, 
with the presiding officer of the con- 
vention, Senator Hoar, as chairman, 
was appointed to notify General 
Garfield and General Arthur of their 
nomination. The convention then 
adjourned sine die. 

Returning to New York, General 
Arthur was welcomed by a large and 
influential gathering of Republicans, 



iSSf-1 



Chester Alan Arthur. 



273 



who greeted him with hearty cheers. 
That night he was serenaded by a large 
procession of Republicans, which as- . 
sembled in Union Square and marched 
past his residence in Lexington Avenue, 
with music and fireworks. A few 
weeks later, a letter was addressed to 
him, signed by Hamilton Fish, Noah 
Davis, and upwards of a hundred other 
prominent Republicans, inviting him to 
dine with them at the Union League 
Club, and stating that, in common with 
all true Republicans, they rejoiced at 
the happy issue of the earnest struggle 
in the Chicago convention. They 
hailed the general approval of its work 
as an auspicious omen, and looked 
forward confidently to the labors of 
the canvass. They felt an especial and 
personal gratification in the fact that 
the ticket selected at Chicago bore his 
name. His faithfulness in public 
duties, his firmness and sagacity in 
political affairs, so well understood by 
his fellow-citizens in New York, had 
met with national recognition and won 
for him this well-deserved honor. Their 
efforts in his support would be prompted, 
not only by personal zeal and enthu- 
siasm, but by the warmth and zeal of 
strong personal friendship and esteem. 
That they might have an opportunity 
more fully to express to him their 
sincere congratulations and hearty good 
wishes, they invited him to meet them 
at dinner at the Union League Club. 

General Arthur, in acknowledging 
the receipt of this letter, expressed his 
sense of the kindness which had 
prompted both the invitation itself and 
the flattering assurances of confidence 
and regard by which it was accom- 
panied. If circumstances had per- 
mitted, he should have been pleased to 
have accepted the proffered hospitality, 
and for that purpose no more congenial 



spot could have been selected than 
the headquarters of the Union League 
Club, an association so widely famed for 
its patriotic zeal and energy, and so 
efficient in the support of the principles 
and policy of the Republican party. 
He was constrained, however, from 
considerations of a private nature 
known to many, to decline the invita- 
tion. 

On the fifteenth of July, 1SS0, Gen- 
eral Arthur formally accepted the posi- 
tion assigned to him by the Chicago 
convention, and expressed at length his 
own personal views on the election 
laws, public service appointments, the 
financial problems of the day, common 
schools, the tariff, national improve- 
ments, and a Republican ascendency, 
saying, in conclusion, that he did not 
doubt that success awaited the Repub- 
lican party, and that its triumph would 
assure a just, economical, and patriotic 
administration. 

The political campaign of 1880 was 
earnestly contested by the great polit- 
ical parties. The Republicans were 
victorious, and their ticket bearing the 
names of Garfield and Arthur was 
triumphantly elected. On the fourth 
of March, 1881, General Arthur took 
the oath of office in the Senate 
Chamber as Vice-President of the 
United States, and half an hour later 
General Garfield was inaugurated on 
a platform before the east front of 
the Capitol, in the presence of the 
imposing military and civil procession 
which had escorted him w r ith music 
and banners. When the ceremony was 
concluded, the distinguished personages 
around the new President tendered 
their congratulations, the assembled 
multitude cheered, and a salute fired 
by a light battery stationed near by 
was echoed by the guns at the navy 



274 



Chester Alan Arthur. 



[Mar, 



yard, the arsenal, and the forts around 
the metropolis. 

Republicans congratulated each other 
on the indications of a vigorous admin- 
istration, governed by a conscientious 
determination to promote harmony. 
But a few months had elapsed, however, 
before President Garfield was cruelly 
assassinated, in the full vigor of his 
manhood, and the Republican party 
was at first stricken with apprehensions. 
These gloomy doubts, however, soon 
disappeared as the incidents of Mr. 
Arthur's patriotic and useful life were 
recalled, and a generous confidence 
was soon extended to the new 
President. 

President Arthur took the oath of 
office in New York immediately after 
the death of General Garfield, and he 
repeated it in the Capitol on the 
twenty-second of September, in the 
Vice-President's room. The members 
of General Garfield's cabinet, who had 
been requested by his successor to con- 
tinue for the present in charge of their 
respective departments, were present, 
with General Sherman in full uniform, 
ex- Presidents Hayes and Grant, and 
Chief Justice Waite in his judicial 
robes, escorted by Associate Justices 
Harlan and Matthews. There were, 
also, present Senators Anthony, Sher- 
man, Edmunds, Hale, Blair, Dawes, 
and Jones, of Nevada, and Represent- 
atives Amos Townsend, McCook, 
Errett, Randall, Hiscock, and Thomas. 
Ex-Vice-President Hamlin, of Maine, 
and Speaker Sharpe, of New York, 
were also present. 

When President Arthur entered the 
room, escorted by General Grant and 
Senator Jones, he advanced to a small 
table, on which was a Bible, and 
behind which stood the Chief Justice, 
who raised the sacred volume, opened 



it, and presented it to the President, 
who placed his right hand upon it. 
Chief Justice "VYaite then slowly admin- 
istered the oath, and at its conclusion 
the President kissed the book, respond- 
ing, "I will, so help me God." He 
then read the following address : — 

THE INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

For the fourth time in the history 
of the Republic its Chief Magistrate 
has been removed by death. All hearts 
are filled with grief and horror at the 
hideous crime which has darkened our 
land ; and the memory of the murdered 
President, his protracted sufferings, his 
unyielding fortitude, the example and 
achievements of his life and the pathos 
of his death, will forever illumine the 
pages of our history. For the fourth 
time the officer elected by the people 
and ordained by the Constitution to 
fill a vacancy so created is called to 
assume the executive chair. The wis- 
dom of our fathers, foreseeing even the 
most dire possibilities, made sure that 
the Government should never be im- 
periled because of the uncertainty of 
human life. Men may die, but the 
fabrics of our free institutions remain 
unshaken. No higher or more assuring 
proof could exist of the strength and 
permanence of popular government 
than the fact that, though the chosen 
of the people be struck down, his con- 
stitutional successor is peacefully in- 
stalled without shock or strain except 
the sorrow which mourns the bereave- 
ment. All the noble aspirations of my 
lamented predecessor which found 
expression in his life, the measures 
devised and suggested during his brief 
administration to correct abuses and 
enforce economy, to advance prosperity 
and promote the general welfare, to 
insure domestic security and maintain 



Ouster Alan Arthur. 



275 



friendly and honorable relations with. 
the nations of the earth, will be gar- 
nered in the hearts of the people, and 
it will be my earnest endeavor to profit, 
and to see that the Nation shall profit, 
by his example and experience. Pros- 
perity blesses our country ; our fiscal 
policy is fixed by law, is well grounded, 
and generally approved. No threaten- 
ing issue mars our foreign intercourse, 
and the wisdom, integrity, and thrift of 
our people may be trusted to continue 
undisturbed the present assured career 
of peace, tranquillity, and welfare. The 
gloom and anxiety which have en- 
shrouded the country must make repose 
especially welcome now. No demand 
for speedy legislation has been heard. 
Xo adequate occasion is apparent for 
an unusual session of Congress. The 
Constitution defines the functions and 
powers of the executive as clearly as 
those of either of the other two 
departments of the government, and 
he must answer for the just exercise 
of the discretion it permits and 
the performance of the duties it 
imposes. Summoned to these high 
duties and responsibilities, and pro- 
foundly conscious of their magnitude 
and gravity, I assume the trust imposed 
by the Constitution, relying for aid on 
Divine guidance and the virtue, patriot- 
ism, and intelligence of the American 
people. 

■ As President Arthur read his message 
his voice trembled, but his manner was 
impressive, and the eyes of many pres- 
ent were moistened with tears. The 
first one to congratulate him when 
he had concluded was Chief Justice 
Waite, and the next was Secretary 
Blaine. After shaking him by the 
hand, those present left the room, which 
was closed to all except the members 



of the Cabinet, who there held their 
first conference with the President. 
At this cabinet meeting the following 
proclamation was prepared and signed 
by President Arthur, designating the 
following Monday as a day of fasting, 
humiliation, and prayer : — 

By the President of the United States of America; 

A PROCLAMATION: 

Whereas, in his inscrutable wisdom, 
it has pleased God to remove from us 
the illustrious head of the Nation, 
James A. Garfield, late President of the 
United States ; and whereas it is fitting 
that the deep grief which fills all hearts 
should manifest itself with one accord 
toward the throne of infinite grace, and 
that we should bow before the Almighty 
and seek from him that consolation in 
our affliction and that sanctification of 
our loss which he is able and willing to 
vouchsafe : 

Now, therefore, in obedience to 
sacred duty, and in accordance with 
the desire of the people, I, Chester A. 
Arthur, President of the United States 
of America, do hereby appoint Monday 
next, the twenty-sixth day of Septem- 
ber, on which day the remains of our 
honored and beloved dead will be con- 
signed to their last resting-place on 
earth, to be observed throughout the 
United States as a day of humiliation 
and mourning ; and I earnestly recom- 
mend all the people to assemble on that 
day in their respective places of divine 
worship, there to render alike their 
tribute of sorrowful submission to the 
will of Almighty God and of reverence 
and love for the memory and character 
of our late Chief Magistrate. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto 
set my hand and caused the seal of 
the United States to be affixed. 



276 



Chester Alan Arthur. 



[May, 



Done at the city of Washington, the 
twenty-second day of Septem- 
ber, in the year of our Lord 
[seal.] i 88 i, and of the independence 
of the United States the one 
hundred and sixth. 

CHESTER A. ARTHUR. 
By the President: 

JAMES G. BLAINE, 

Secretary of State. 

President Arthur soon showed his 
appreciation of the responsibilities of 
his new office. Knowing principles 
rather than persons, he subordinated 
individual preferences and prejudices 
to a well-defined public policy. While 
he was, as he always had been, a 
Republican, he had no sympathy for 
blind devotion to party ; he had " no 
friends to reward, no enemies to pun- 
ish ; " — and he has been governed 
by those principles of liberty and equal- 
ity which he inherited. His messages 
to Congress have been universally 
commended, and even unfriendly critics 
have pronounced them careful and well- 
matured documents. Their tone is 
more frank and direct than is custom- 
ary in such papers, and their recom- 
mendations, extensive and varied as 
they have been, show that he has 
patiently reviewed the field of labor 
so sadly and so unexpectedly opened 
before him, and that he was not 
inclined to shirk the constitutional duty 
of aiding Congress by his suggestions 
and advice. An honest man, who 
believes in his own principles, who 
follows his own convictions, and who 
never hesitates to avow his sentiments, 
he has given his views in accordance 
with his deliberate ideas of right. 

The foreign relations of the United 
States have been conducted by Secre- 
tary Frelinghuysen, under the Presi- 



dent's direction, in a friendly spirit 
and when- practicable with a view to 
mutual commercial advantages. He 
has taken a conservative view of the 
management of the public debt, approv- 
ing all the important suggestions of the 
secretary of the treasury, and recogniz- 
ing the proper protection of American 
industry. He is in favor of the great 
interests of labor, and opposed to such 
tinkering with the tariff as will make 
vain the toil of the industrious farmer, 
paralyze the arm of the sturdy me- 
chanic, strike down the hand of the 
hardy laborer, stop the spindle, hush 
the loom, extinguish the furnace-fires, 
and degrade all independent toilers to 
the level of the poor in other lands. 
The architect of his own fortune, he 
has a strong and abiding sympathy 
for those bread-winners who struggle 
against poverty. 

The reform of the civil service has 
met with President Arthur's earnest 
support, and his messages show that 
every department of the government 
has received his careful administration. 
Following the example of Washington, 
he has personally visited several sections 
of the United States, and has especially 
made himself acquainted with the great 
problem of Indian civilization. 

President Arthur's administration has 
been characterized by an elevated tone 
at home and abroad. All important 
questions have been carefully discussed 
at the council table, at which the Presi- 
dent has displayed unusual powers of 
analysis and comprehension. The con- 
flicting claims of applicants for appoint- 
ments to offices in his gift, have been 
carefully weighed, and no action has 
been taken until all parties interested 
have had a hearing. The President 
has a remarkable insight into men, 
promptly estimating character with an 



iSS 4 .] 



Yesterday. 



accuracy that makes it a difficult matter 
to deceive him,, or to win his favor 
either for visionary schemes, corrupt 
attacks upon the treasury, or incompe- 
tent place-hunters. He has shown that 
he has been guided by a wise experi- 
ence of the past, and a sagacious fore- 
sight of the future, exhibiting sacrifices 
of individual friendship to a sense of 
public duty. 

Possessing moral firmness and a just 
self-reliance, President Arthur did not 
hesitate about vetoing the " Chinese 
Bill " and the " Bill making appropria- 
tions for rivers and harbors " for 
reasons which he laid before Congress 
in his veto messages. The wisdom 
and sagacity which he has displayed in 
his management of national affairs has 
been especially acceptable to the busi- 
ness interests of the country. They 
have tested his administration by busi- 
ness principles, and they feel that, so 
long as he firmly grasps the helm of the 
ship of state, she will pursue a course 
of peace and prosperity. 

In dispensing the hospitalities of the 
White House, President Arthur has ex- 
hibited the resources of a naturally 
generous disposition and a refined 
taste. His remembrance of persons 



who call upon him, and whom he may 
not have seen for years, is remarkable, 
and his hearty, genial temperament 
enables him to make his visitors at home. 
His vigorous vitality of body and mind, 
his manly figure and expressive face, 
add to the dignity of his manner. A 
ready speaker, he at all times rises to 
the level of an emergency, and he 
invariably charms those who hear him 
by his courtesy of expression, which is 
the outward reflection of a large, kind 
heart. 

President Arthur's numerous friends 
contemplate the prominent events of 
his eventful life without regret, and with 
a sincere belief that they will be sustained 
by the verdict of impartial history. 
Utility to the country has been the 
rule of his political life, and he has 
arrived at that high standard of official 
excellence which prevailed in the early 
days of the Republic, when honesty, 
firmness, patriotism, and stability of 
character were the characteristics of 
public men. Under his lead, the 
Republican party, disorganized and 
disheartened after the sad death of 
General Garfield, has gradually become 
strengthened and united on the eve of 
another presidential victory. 



YESTERDAY. 

By Kate L. Brown. 



Adown the aisles of yesterday 

What fairy notes are ringing, 

And strange, sweet odors, rich and rare, 

The western winds are bringing! 



But vanished from our wistful sight, 
Too late for vain regretting, 
The joys, that the remorseful heart 
With sacred gold is setting. 



The deeds we counted poor and mean, 
Now shine with added glory, 
And like a romance, reads the page 
Of life's poor, meagre story. 



Ah! dearest of all earthly hopes 
Within the soul abiding, 
The lost, lost life of yesterday 
The heart is ever hiding. 



278 



The Boundary Lines of Old Groton. — /. 



[May, 



THE BOUNDARY LINES 

By the Hox. Samuel 

The original grant of the township 
of Groton was made by the General 
Court, on May 25, 1655. aR d gave to 
the proprietors a tract of land eight 
miles square ; though during the next 
year this was modified so that its shape 
varied somewhat from the first plan. 
It comprised all of what is now 
Groton and Aver, nearly all of Pepper- 
ell and Shirley, large parts of Dunstable 
and Littleton, smaller parts of Harvard 
and Westford, Massachusetts, and a por- 
tion of Nashua, New Hampshire. The 
grant was taken out of the very wilder- 
ness, relatively far from any other town, 
and standing like a sentinel on the 
frontiers. Lancaster, fourteen miles 
away, was its nearest neighbor in the 
southwesterly direction on the one side ; 
and Andover and Haverhill, twenty 
and twenty-five miles distant, more or 
less, in the northeasterly direction on 
the other. No settlement on the north 
stood between it and the settlements in 
Canada. Chelmsford and Biilerica 
were each incorporated about the same 
time, though a few days later. 

When the grant was made, it was 
expressly stipulated that Mr. Jonathan 
Danforth, of Cambridge, with such others 
as he might desire, should lay it out 
with all convenient speed in order to 
encourage the prompt settlement of 
a minister; and furthermore that the 
selectmen of the town should pay a fair 
amount for his services. During the 
next year a petition, signed by Deane 
Winthrop and seven others, was pre- 
sented to the General Court asking for 
certain changes in the conditions, and 
among them the privilege to employ 



OF OLD GROTON. — I. 

Abbott Green, M.D. 

another "artist" in the place of Mr. 
Danforth, as he was overrun with busi- 
ness. The petition was referred to a 
committee who reported favorably upon 
it, and the request was duly granted. 
Formerly a surveyor was called an 
artist, and in old records the word is 
often found with that meaning. 

Ensign Peter Noyes, of Sudbury, was 
then engaged by the grantees and he 
began the survey; but his death, on 
September 23, 1657, delayed the speedy 
accomplishment of the work. It is 
known that there was some trouble in 
the early settlement of the place, grow- 
ing out of the question of lands, but its 
exact character is not recorded ; per- 
haps it was owing to the delay which 
now occurred. Ensign Noyes was a 
noted surveyor, but not so famous as 
Jonathan Danforth, whose name is 
often mentioned in the General Court 
records, in connection with the laying 
out of lands and towns, and many of 
whose plans are still preserved among 
the Archives in the State House. Dan- 
forth was the man wanted at first for the 
undertaking ; and after Noyes's death he 
took charge of it, and his elder brother, 
Thomas, was associated with him. The 
plat or plan of the land, however, does 
not appear to have been completed 
until April, 1668. The survey was 
made during the preceding year. At a 
meeting of the selectmen of the town, 
held on November 23, 1667, it is 
recorded that a rate should be levied in 
order to pay " the Artest and the men 
that attended him and his diet for him- 
self and his horse, and for two sheets of 
parchment, for him to make two plaits 



The Bmmdary Lines of Old Grot on. — /. 



279 



for the towne, and for Transportation of and the other for the Colony; but 

his pay all which amounts to about neither copy is now to be found. An 

twenty pounds and to pay severall other allusion is made to one of them in 

town debts that appear to us to be due." a petition, presented to the General 




A little further on in the records a Court on February 10, 1 717, by John 

charge of five shillings is made " ffor Shepley and John Ames. It is there 

two sheats of Parchment.' These mentioned that "the said Plat tho 

entries seem to show that two plans something defaced is with the Peti- 

were made, perhaps one for the town tioner ; " and is further stated "That in 



2 SO 



The Boundary Lines of Old Groton. — /. 



[Mi 



the year 1713 M r Samuel Danforth 
Surveyor & Son of the aforesaid Jon- 
athan Danforth, at the desire of the 
said Town of Groton did run the Lines 
& make an Implatment of the said 
Township laid out as before & found it 
agreeable to the former. W 11 last Plat 
the Petitioners do herewith exhibit, And 
pray that this Hon ble Court would allow 
& confirm the same as the Township 
of Groton." 

While the original plan has been lost 
or destroyed, it is fortunate that many 
years ago a copy was made, which is 
still preserved. In June, 1825, the 
Honorable James Prescott was in the 
possession of the original, which Caleb 
Butler, Esq., at that time transcribed 
into one of the town record-books, and 
thereby saved it for historical purposes. 
Even with this clew a special search has 
been made for the missing document, 
but without success. If it is ever found 
it will be by chance, where it is the 
least looked for. There is no reason to 
doubt the accuracy of the outlines or 
the faithfulness of the copy. The 
relative distances between the streams 
emptying into the Nashua River, how- 
ever, are not very exact ; and in the 
engraving for the sake of clearness I 
have added their names, as well as the 
name of Forge Pond, formerly called 
Stony Brook Pond. 

Accompanying the copy is a descrip- 
tion of the survey, which in connection 
with the drawing gives a good idea of 
the general shape of the township. Per- 
haps in the original these two writings 
were on the same sheet. In the tran- 
script Mr. Butler has modernized the 
language and made the punctuation 
conform to present usage. In the 
engraved cut I have followed strictly 
the outlines of the plan, as well as the 
course of the rivers, but I have omitted 



some details, such as the distances and 
directions which are given along the 
margins. These facts appear in the 
description, and perhaps were taken 
from it by the copyist. I have also 
omitted the acreage of the grant, which 
is grossly inaccurate. 

Whereas the Plantation of Groton, con- 
taining by grant the proportion of eight 
miles Square, was begun to be laid out by 
Ensign Noyes, and he dying before he had 
finished his work, it is now finished, whose 
limits and bounds are as followeth, 

It began on the east side of Nashua 
River a little below Nissitisset hills at 
the short turning of the River bounded 
by a pine tree marked with G. and 
so running two miles in a direct line 
to buckmeadow which p r iaius to Bos- 
ton Farms, Billerica land and Edward 
Cowells farm until you come to Massapoag 
Pond, which is full of small islands ; from 
thence it is bounded by the aforesaid 
Pond until you come to Chelmsford line, 
after that it is bounded by Chelmsford and 
Nashoboh lines until you come to the most 
southerly corner of this Plantation, and 
from thence it runs West-North-West five 
miles and a half and sixty four poles, 
which again reacheth to Nashua River, 
then the former west-north-west line is 
continued one mile on the west side of the 
river, and then it runs one third of a point 
easterly of north & by east nine miles and 
a quarter, from thence it runneth four 
miles due east, which closeth the work to 
the river again to the first pine below Nissi- 
tisset hills, where we began : it is bounded 
by the Farms and plantations as aforesaid 
and by the wilderness elsewhere ; all which 
lines are run and very- sufficiently bounded 
by marked trees & pillars of stones : the 
figure or manner of the lying of it is more 
fully demonstrated by this plot taken of 
the same. 

By JONATHAN DANFORTH, 
April 1668. Surveyor. 

The map of Old Dunstable, between 
pages 12 and 13 in Fox's History of 



iSS 4 .] 



The Boundary Lines of Old Groton. — /. 



281 



that town, is very incorrect, so far as 
it relates to the boundaries of Groton. 
The Squannacook River is put down as 
the Nissitissett, and this mistake may 
have tended to confuse the author's 
ideas. The southern boundary of Dun- 
stable was by no means a straight line, 
but was made to conform in part to the 
northern boundary of Groton, which 
was somewhat irregular. Groton was 
incorporated on May 25, 1655, and 
Dunstable on October 15, 1673, anc ^ 
no part of it came within the limits of 
this town. The eastern boundary 
of Groton originally ran northerly 
through Massapoag Pond and con- 
tinued into the present limits of 
Nashua, New Hampshire. 

On the southeast of Groton, and ad- 
joining it, was a small township granted, 
in the spring of 1654, by the General 
Court to the Nashobah Indians, who 
had been converted to Christianity 
under the instruction of the Apostle 
Eliot and others. They were few in 
numbers, comprising perhaps ten fam- 
ilies, or about fifty persons. During 
Philip's War this settlement was entirely 
deserted by the Indians, thus affording 
a good opportunity for the English to 
encroach on the reservation, which was 
not lost. These intruders lived in the 
neighboring towns, and mostly in 
Groton. Some of them took pos- 
session with no show of right, while 
others went through the formality of 
buying the land from the Indians, 
though such sales did not, as was sup- 
posed at the time, bring the territory 
under the jurisdiction of the towns 
where the purchasers severally lived. It 
is evident from the records that these 
encroachments gave rise to controversy. 
The following entry, under date of 
June 20, 1682, is found in the Middle- 

Vol. I. — No. v. — B. 



sex County Court records at East Cam- 
bridge, and shows that a committee 
was appointed at that time to re-estab- 
lish the boundary lines of Nashobah : — 

Cap 1 Thomas Hinchrrian, L l . Joseph 
Wheeler, & L l . Jn° flvnt surveyo r , or any 
two of them are nominated & impowred a 
Comittee to run the ancient bounds of 
Nashobah Plantation, & remark the lines, 
as it was returned to the genall Court by 
said m r flynt at the charge of the Indians, 
giving notice to the select men of Grotton 
of time & place of meeting, w ch is referred 
to m r flint, to appoint, & to make return to 
next Coun Court at Cambridge in order 
to a finall settem* 

Again, under date of October 3, 
1682 ("3. 8. 1682."), it is entered 
that — 

The return of the committee referring to 
the bounds of Nashobey next to Grotton, 
was p r sented to this Court and is on file. 

Approved 

The " return " is as follows : 

We Whose names are underwritten 
being appointed by y e Hon rd County Court 
June: 20 th 1682. To run the Ancient 
bounds of Nashobey, haue accordingly run 
the said bounds, and find that the town of 
Groton by theire Second laying out of 
theire bounds have taken into theire 
bounds as we Judge neer halfe Indian 
Plantation Seuerall of the Select men 
and other inhabitants of Groton being 
then with us Did See theire Erro r therein 
& Do decline that laying out So far as 
they haue Inuaded the right of y e Indians. 

Also we find y* the Norwest Corner of 
Nashobey is run into y e first bounds of 
Groton to y e Quantity of 350 acres accord- 
ing as Groton men did then Show us theire 
Said line, which they Say was made before 
Nashobey was laid out, and which bounds 
they Do Challenge as theire Right. The 
Indians also haue Declared them Selves 
willing to forego that Provided they may 
haue it made up upon theire West Line, 



282 



TJie Boundary Lines of Old Grot on. — /. 



[May, 



And we Judge it may be there added to 

theire Conveniance. 

2: Octob r : 1682. 

Exhibited in Court 3 : 8 : 82 : 

& approved T D : R. 

JOSEPH WHEELER 
JOHN FLINT 

A true Coppy of y e originall on file w th 
y e Records of County Court for Middx. 

Ex d p r Sam 11 : Phipps Cle r 

[Massachusetts Archives, cxii, 331.] 

Among the Groton men who had 
bought land of the Nashobah Indians 
were Peleg Lawrence and Robert Rob- 
bins. Their names appear, with a 
diagram of the land, on a plan of 
Nashobah, made in the year 1686, 
and found among the Massachusetts 
Archives, in the first volume (page 
125) of "Ancient Plans Grants &c.'' 
Lawrence and Robbins undoubtedly 
supposed that the purchase of this land 
brought it within the jurisdiction of 
Groton. Lawrence died in the year 
1692 j and some years later the town 
made an effort to obtain from his heirs 
their title to this tract, as well as from 
Robbins his title. It is recorded at a 
town meeting, held on June 8, 1702, 
that the town 

did uote that they would giue Peleg lar- 
raness Eairs three acers of madow whare 
thay ust to Improue and tenn acers of 
upland neare that madow upon the Con- 
ditions following that the aboue sd Peleg 
larrances heirs do deliuer up that Indian 
titelle which thay now haue to the town 

At the same meeting the town voted 
that 

thay would giue to robart robins Sener 
three acers of madow where he uste to 
Improue : and ten acers of upland near his 
madow upon the Conditions following that 
he aboue sd Robart Robbins doth deliuer : 
up that Indian titels which he now hath : 
to the town. 



It appears from the records that no 
other business was done at this meet- 
ing, except the consideration of matters 
growing out of the Nashobah land. It 
was voted to have an artist lay out the 
meadow at " Nashobah line," as it was 
called, as well as the land which the 
town had granted to Walter and Daniel 
Powers, probably in the same neighbor- 
hood ; and also that Captain Jonas 
Prescott be authorized to engage an 
artist at an expense not exceeding six 
shillings a day. 

Settlers from the adjacent towns were 
now making gradual encroachments on 
the abandoned territory, and among 
them Groton was well represented. 
All the documents of this period re- 
lating to the subject show an increased 
interest in these lands, which were too 
valuable to remain idle for a long time. 
The following petition, undoubtedly, 
makes a correct representation of the 
case : — 

To his Excellency Joseph Dudley Esq r 
Captain Gen 11 & Governour in Chief in 
& over her Majesties Province of the 
Massachusets Bay &c : togeither with the 
honourable Council, & Representatives in 
Great and Gen 11 Court Assembled at Cam- 
bridge Octobe r 14 th . 1702. 

The Petition of the Inhabitants of Stow 
humbly sheweth. 

That Whereas the honourable Court did 
pleas formerly to grant vnto vs the Inhab- 
itants of Stow a certain Tract of Land to 
make a Village or Township of, environed 
w^ Concord, Sudbury, Marlbury, Lan- 
caster, Groton, & Nashoby : And Where- 
as the said Nashoby being a Tract of 
Land of four miles square, the which for a 
long time hath been and still is deserted 
and left by the Indians none being now 
resident there, and those of them who lay 
claim to it being desireous to sell said 
land ; and some English challenging it to 
be theirs by virtue of Purchase ; and be- 
sides the Town of Groton in particular. 



i8S 4 .] 



The Boundary Lines of Old Groton. — /. 



283 



hath of late extended their Town lyne into 
it, takeing avvay a considerable part of it ; 
and Especially of Meadow (as wee are 
Well informed) Wherefore wee above all 
o r Neighbour Towns, stand in the greatest 
need of Enlargement ; having but a pent 
up smale Tract of Land and very little 
Meadow. 

Whence we humbly Pray the great & 
Gen^i Court, that if said Nashoby may be 
sold by the Indians wee may have allow- 
ance to buy, or if it be allready, or may be 
sold to any other Person or Persons, that 
in the whole of it, it be laved as an Addi- 
tion to vs the smale Town of Stow, it lying 
for no other Town but vs for nighness & 
adjacency, togeither with the great need 
wee stand of it, & the no want of either or 
any of the above named Towns. Shall it 
Pleas the great & Gen 11 Court to grant 
this o r Petition, wee shall be much more 
able to defray Publick Charges, both Civil, 
& Ecclesiasticall, to settle o r Minister 
amongst vs in order to o r Injoyment of 
the Gospel in the fullness of it. W'hence 
hopeing & believing that the Petition of 
the Poor, & needy will be granted. Which 
shall forever oblidge yo r Petition 1 ^ to Pray 
&c: 

THO: STEEVENS. Cler: 

In the Towns behalfe 
[Massachusetts Archives, cxiii, 330.] 

This petition was granted on October 
21, 1702, on the part of the House of 
Representatives, but negatived in the 
Council, on October 24. 

During this period the territory of 
Nashobah was the subject of consid- 
erable dispute among the neighboring 
towns, and slowly disappearing by their 
encroachments. Under these circum- 
stances an effort was made to incor- 
porate a township from this tract and 
to establish its boundaries. The fol- 
lowing petition makes a fair statement 
of the case, though the signatures to it 
are not autographs : 

To His Excels: Joseph Dudley Esq: 
Cap 1 : Generall & Gov r : in Chief in and 



over Her Maj*»« : Province of Mass* 5 : 
Bay in New-England, Together with y e 
Honbie: the Council, & Representatives 
in Gen 11 : Court Assembled on the 30 th of 
May, In the Tenth Year of Her Maj tie s : 
Reign Annoq Donv : 1711, — The Humble 
Petition of us the Subscribers Inhabitants 
of Concord, Chelmsford, Lancaster & Stow 
&c within the County of Midd x in the 
Province Afores d . 

Most Humbly Sheweth 

That there is a Considerable Tract of 
Land Lying vacant and unimproved Be- 
tween the Towns of Chelmsford, Lan- 
caster & Stow & Groton, as s d Groton 
was Survey'd & Lay'd out by Mr. Noyce, 
& the Plantation CalPd Concord Village, 
which is Commonly known by the Name 
of Nashoba, in the County of Midd x : 
Afores d . & Sundry Persons having Made 
Entrys thereupon without Orderly Applica- 
tion to the Government, and as we are 
Inform'd, & have reason to believe, diverse 
others are designing so to do. 

We Yo r Humble Petitioners being de- 
sirous to Prevent the Inconveniences that 
may arise from all Irregular Intrusions into 
any vacant Lands, and also In a Regular 
manner to Settle a Township on the Land 
afores d , by which the frontier on that Side 
will be more Clos'd & Strengthened & 
Lands that are at Present in no wise ben- 
eficiall or Profitable to the Publick might 
be rendred Servicable for the Contributing 
to the Publlick Charge, Most Humbly 
Address Ourselves to your Excy : And 
this Honourable Court. 

Praying that your Petitioners may have 
a Grant of Such Lands Scituate as 
Afores d . for the Ends & Purposes afores d . 
And that a Committee may be appointed 
by this Honble : Court to View, Survey 
and Set out to Yo r . Petitioners the s d . 
Lands, that so Yo r . s d . Petitioners may be 
enabled to Settle thereupon with Such 
others as shall joyn them In an orderly 
and regular manner: Also Praying that 
Such Powers and Priviledges may be given 
and confered upon the same as are granted 
to other Towns, And Yo r Petitioners shall 
be Most ready to attend Such Directions, 



2 $4 



TJie New England Town-House. 



[May, 



with respect to Such Part of the s d . Tract 
as has been formerly reserv'd for the 
Indians, but for a Long time has been 
wholly Left, cSc is now altogether unim- 
prov"d by them, And all other things 
which this Hon b ' e : Court in their Wis- 
dom & justice Shall See meet to appoint 
for the Regulation of such Plantation or 
Town. 

And Yo r : Hum^'e : Petitioners as in 
Duty Bound Shall Ever Pray &c. 

Gershom Procter Josiah Whitcomb 

Sam". Procter John Buttrick 

John Procter Will™ : Powers 

Joseph Fletcher Jonathan Hubburd 

John Miles W m Keen 

John Parlin John Heald 

Robert Robins John Bateman 

John Darby John Hey wood 

John Barker Thomas Wheeler 

Saml: Stratton Sanvi : Hartwell, jun r : 

Hezekiah Fletcher Sam 11 : Jones 
John Miriam 



In the House of Representatives 
June 6: 171 1. Read & Comitted. 
7 . . . Read, & 
Ordered that Jo*. Tyng Esqr : Thorns : 
Howe Esq r : & M r : John Sternes be a 
a Comittee to view the Land mentioned in 
the Petition, & Represent the Lines, or 
Bounds of the severall adjacent Towns 
bounding on the s d . Lands and to have 
Speciall Regard to the Land granted to the 
Indians, & to make report of the quantity, 
& circumstances thereof. 
Sent up for Concurrence. 

John Burril Speaker 

In Council 

June 7. 171 1, Read and Concurred. 

Isa: Addington, Secry. 

[Massachusetts Archives, cxiii, 602, 603.] 

The committee, to whom was referred 
this subject, made a report during the 
next autumn ; but no action in regard 
to it appears to have been taken by the 
Genera] Court until two years later. 



THE NEW ENGLAND TOWN-HOUSE. 

By J. B. Sewall. 



A recollection of my boyhood is 
a large unpainted barnlike building 
standing at a point where three roads 
met at about the centre of the town. 
When all the inhabitants of the town 
were of one faith religiously, or at least 
the minority were not strong enough to 
divide from the majority, and one meet- 
ing-house served the purposes of all, this 
was the meeting-house. To this, the 
double line of windows all round, 
broken by the long round-topped 
window midway on the back side, and 
the two-storied vestibule on the front, 
and, more than all, the old pulpit still 
remaining within, with the sounding- 
board suspended above it, bore witness. 
Here assembled every spring, at the 
March meeting, the voters of the town, 
to elect their selectmen and other town 



officers for the ensuing year, to vote 
what moneys should be raised for the 
repair of roads, bridges, maintaining 
the poor, etc., and take any other action 
their well-being as a community de- 
manded ; in the autumn, to cast their 
votes for state representative, national 
representative, governor of the State, 
or President of the United States, one 
or all together, as the case might be. 

Many such town-houses, probably, 
are standing to-day in the New England 
States, — I know there are such in 
Maine, — and they are existing witnesses 
to what was generally the fact : towns, at 
the first, when young and small, built the 
meeting-house for two purposes ; first, 
for use as a house of worship ; second, 
for town meetings ; and when in pro- 
cess of time a new church or churches 



1884,] 



The New England Toivn-House. 



285 



were built for the better accommoda- 
tion of the people, or because different 
denominations had come into existence, 
or because the young people wanted 
a smarter building with a steeple, white 
paint, green blinds, and a bell, the old 
building was sold to the town for purely 
town purposes. 

When the settlements were made, 
the first public building erected was 
generally the meeting-house, and this 
in the case of the earlier settlements 
was very soon. In Plymouth, the first 
building was a house twenty feet square 
for a storehouse and "for common 
occupation," then their separate dwell- 
ings. 

The "common" building was used 
for religious and other meetings until 
the meeting-house with its platform 
on top for cannon, on Burial Hill, was 
built in 1622. " Boston seems to have 
had no special building for public 
worship until, during the year 1632, was 
erected the small thatched-roof, one- 
story building which stood on State 
Street, where Brazer's building now 
stands." * This was in the second 
year, the settlement having been made 
in the autumn of 1630. In Charles- 
town, "The Great House," the first 
building erected that could be called 
a house, was first used as the official 
residence of the governor, and the 
sessions of the Court of Assistants appear 
to have been held in it until the removal 
to Boston, but when the church was 
formed, in 1632, it was used for a 
meeting-house. 

Dorchester had the first meeting- 
house in the Bay, built in 1631, the 
next ye3r after settlement, and by the 
famous order passed " mooneday eighth 
of October, 1633," it appears that it 
was the regular meeting-place of the 

♦Memorial History of Boston, vol. i, p. 119. 



inhabitants of the plantation for general 
purposes. The Lynn church was 
formed in 1632, and the meeting-house 
appears to have been built soon after, 
and was used for town meetings till 
1806. It was the same in towns of 
later settlement. In Brunswick, Maine, 
which became a township in 1 7 1 7, the 
first public building was the meeting- 
house, and this also was the town-house 
for almost one hundred years. Belfast, 
Maine, incorporated in 1773, held its 
first two town meetings in a private 
house, afterwards, for eighteen years, 
" at the Common on the South end of 
No. 26" (house lot),f whether under 
cover or in open air is not known, after 
that, in the meeting - house generally, 
till the town hall was built. In Harps- 
well, Maine, the old meeting-house, 
like that described, when abandoned 
as a house of worship, was sold to the 
town for one hundred dollars and is 
still in use as a town-house. 

The town-house, therefore, though it 
cannot strictly be said to have been 
coeval with the town, was essentially 
so, the meeting-house being generally 
the first public building, and used 
equally for town meetings and public 
worship. 

How early, then, was the town ? When 
the settlement at Plymouth took place, 
in one sense a town existed at once. It 
was a collection of families living in 
neighborhood and united by the bonds 
of mutual obligation common in similar 
English communities. But it was a 
town as yet only in that sense. In fact, 
it was a state. The words of the com- 
pact signed on board the Mayflower 
were, in part : " We, whose names are 
underwritten .... do by these pre- 
sents, solemnly and mutually, in the 
presence of God and one of another, 

t Williamson's History of Belfast. 



286 



The New England Town-House. 



covenant and combine ourselves to- 
gether into a civil body politic, for our 
better ordering and preservation, . . . 
and by virtue hereof to enact, consti- 
tute, and frame such just and equal 
laws, acts, constitutions, and offices, 
from time to time, as shall be most meet 
and convenient for the general good of 
the colony ; unto which we promise all 
due submission and obedience." 

These words were the constitution of 
more than a town government. They 
erected a democratic state — a com- 
monwealth. It was a general govern- 
ment separate from and above the town 
governments which were afterwards in- 
stituted. It enacted general laws by an 
assembly of deputies in which the 
eight plantations in the colony, which 
afterwards became towns, were repre- 
sented. These laws were executed by 
a governor and an assistant, and were 
of equal binding force in all the plan- 
tations after, as well as before, these 
plantations became towns. 

The Massachusetts Colony came over 
as a corporation with a royal charter 
which gave power to the freemen of the 
company to elect a governor, deputy- 
governor, and assistants, and " make 
laws and ordinances, not repugnant to 
the laws of England, for their own 
benefit and the government of persons 
inhabiting their territory." The colo- 
nists divided themselves into plantations, 
part at Naumkeag (Salem), at Mish- 
awum (Charlestown), at Dorchester, Bos- 
ton, Watertown, Roxbury, Mystic, and 
Saugus (Lynn), and while the General 
Court, as the governor, deputy-governor, 
and assistants were called, made general 
"laws and ordinances " for the whole, 
the plantations were at liberty to man- 
age their own particular affairs as they 
pleased. They called meetings and 
took action by themselves, as at Water- 



town, when, in 1632, the people assem- 
bled and expressed their discontent 
with a tax laid by the court, and at 
Dorchester as previously referred to. 
To Dorchester, however, belongs the 
honor of leading the way to that form 
of town government which has pre- 
vailed in New England ever since. It 
came about in this way. The settle- 
ment was begun in June, 1630, and for 
more than three years the people seem 
to have managed their affairs under the 
administration of the Court of Assistants 
by means of meetings. At such a 
meeting, held October S, 1633, it was 
ordered " for the generall good and 
well ordering of the affaires of the 
plantation," that there should be a 
general meeting of the inhabitants at 
the meeting-house every Monday morn- 
ing before the court, which was four 
times a year, or became so the next 
year, " to settle & sett downe such 
orders as may tend to the general 
good as aforesayd, & every man to be 
bound thereby without gainsaying or 
resistance." This very interesting order 
is given entire in the Memorial History 
of Boston.* There were also appointed 
twelve selectmen, " who were to hold 
monthly meetings, & whose orders 
were binding when confirmed by the 
Plantation." 

Here was our New England town 
almost exactly as it is to-day. The 
inhabitants met at stated times and 
voted what seemed necessary for their 
own local order and welfare, and com- 
mitted the execution of their will to 
twelve selectmen, who were to meet 
monthly. Our towns now have an 
annual meeting for the same purpose, 
and elect generally three selectmen, who 
meet at stated times, — sometimes as 
often as once a week. Watertown 

* Vol. i, p. 427. 



iSS 4 .] 



The Nezv England Town-House. 



287 



followed, about the same time, selecting 
three men " for the ordering of public 
affairs." Boston appears to have done 
the same thing in 1634. and Charles- 
town in the following year, the latter 
being the first to give the name Select- 
men to the persons so chosen, a name 
which soon was generally adopted and 
has since remained. 

The reason of this action it is easy 
to conjecture, but it is fully stated in 
the order of the inhabitants of Charles- 
town at the meeting in which the action 
for the government of the town by 
selectmen was taken : " In considera- 
tion of the great trouble and charge 
of the inhabitants of Charlestown by 
reason of the frequent meeting of the 
townsmen in general, and that, by rea- 
son of many men meeting, things were 
not so easily brought into a joint issue ; 
it is therefore agreed, by the said towns- 
men, jointly, that these eleven men . . . 
shall entreat of all such business as 
shall concern the townsmen, the choice 
of officers excepted ; and what they or 
the greater part of them shall conclude 
of, the rest of the town willingly to sub- 
mit unto as their own proper act, and 
these eleven to continue in this employ- 
ment for one year next ensuing the date 
hereof." 

Town government, thus instituted, 
was recognized the next year — 1636 — 
by the General Court, and thereafter 
the towns were corporations lawfully 
existing and endowed with certain fixed 
though limited powers. 

The plantations of the Plymouth 
Colony followed the example. In 1637, 
Duxbury was incorporated, and at the 
General Court of the colony, in 1639, 
deputies were in attendance from seven 
towns. 

" Thus," says Judge Parker,* " there 

* Origin, Organization, etc., of the Towns of New 
England. 



grew up a system of government 
embracing two jurisdictions, adminis- 
tered by the same people ; the Colonial 
government, having jurisdiction over the 
whole colony, administered by the 
great body of the freemen, through 
officers elected and appointed by them ; 
and the town governments, having 
limited local jurisdiction, such as was 
conceded to them by the Colonial 
government, administered by the in- 
habitants, through officers and agents 
chosen by them." 

By this change, — the invention of 
the colonists themselves without copy 
or pattern, — the colonies were trans- 
formed from pure democracies into a 
congeries of democratic republics ; and 
each town-house, or whatever build- 
ing was used for such, became the 
state-house of a little republic. And 
this is what it is in every New England 
town to-day. 

Was not, then, the New England 
town-house a thing of inheritance at 
all? Yes, so far as it was a building 
for the common meeting of the inhab- 
itants of the town, and so far as it was 
a place for free discussion and the 
ordering of purely local affairs. The 
colonists came from their English 
homes already familiar with the town- 
hall and its uses so far. If one will 
turn to any gazetteer or encyclopaedia 
which gives a description of Liverpool, 
England, he will find the town-hall 
described as one of the noble edifices 
of that town. The present structure 
was opened in 1754, but it was the 
successor of others, the first of which 
must have dated back somewhere near 
the time when King John gave the 
town its charter — 1207. Or he may 
turn to the town of Hythe in the 
county of Kent. In its corporation 
records, it is said, is the following entry, 



288 



The New England Town-House. 



bearing date in the year 1399 : 
" Thomas Goodeall came before the 
jurats in the common hall on the 10th 
day of October, and covenanted to give 
for his freedom 20^., and so he was 
received and sworn to bear fealty to 
our Lord the King and his successors, 
and to the commonalty and liberty of 
the port of Hethe, and to render faith- 
ful account of his lots and scots * as 
freeman there are wont." In another 
entry, in the same year, the building is 
mentioned again as the " Common 
House." 

We may go further back than this. 
History tells us that "the boroughs 
(towns) of England, during the period 
of oppression, after the Norman in- 
vasion, led the way in the silent growth 
and elevation of the English people ; 
that, unnoticed and despised by pre- 
late and noble, they had alone preserved 
the full tradition of Teutonic liberty ; 
that, by their traders and shopkeepers, 
the rights of self-government, of free 
speech in free meeting, of equal justice 
by one's equals, were brought safely 
across the ages of Norman tyranny."! 
The rights of self-government and free 
speech in free meeting, then, were 
rights and practices of our Anglo-Saxon 
ancestry, and we are to go back with 
them across the English channel to 
their barbarian German home, and to 
the people . described by Tacitus in his 
Germania, for the origin, as far as we 
can trace it, of this part of our inher- 
itance. These people were famed for 
their spirit of independence and free- 
dom. The mass are described as free- 
men, voting together in the great 
assemblies of the tribe, and choosing 

*The "lot" was the obligation to perform the public 
services which might fall to the inhabitants by due 
rotation. "Scot" means tax. 

t Green's Short History of the English People, chap, 
ii, sec. 6. 



their own leaders or kings from the 
class of nobles, who were nobles not as 
constituting a distinct and privileged 
caste. " It was their greater estates and 
the greater consequence which accom- 
panied these that marked their rank." 
When we first learn of these assemblies, 
they are out-of-doors, under the broad 
canopy of heaven alone, but the time 
came, as the rathhaus of the German 
town to-day attests, when they built the 
common hall or town-house ; and we. 
to-day, in this remote and then un- 
known and unconjectured land of the 
West, are in this regard their heirs as 
well as descendants. % 

In what, then, is the New England 
town-house more than, or different from, 
the English town-house? In this, that 
it is the state-house of a little demo- 
cratic republic which came into exis- 
tence of and by itself of a natural 
necessity, and not merely governs 
itself, making all the laws of local need 
and executing them — levying taxes, 
maintaining schools, and taking charge 
of its own poor, of roads, bridges, and 
all matters pertaining to the health, 
peace, and safety of all within its bounds, 
in a word, all things which it can do 
for itself, — but also in confederation 
with other little democratic republics 
has called into being, and clothed with 
all the power it has for those matters 
of common need which the town cannot 
do, the State. The State of Massachu- 
setts, from the day that the people 
created the General Court the body 
it still is, by electing deputies from the 
towns, — representatives we now call 
them, — to sit instead of the whole body 
of freemen, with the governor and 

J. The present rathhaus of the quaint old city of 
Nuremberg, built in 1619, is a notable building, much 
visited by travelers. Around the wall of the hall 
within runs the legend: " Eins mantis red ist eine halbe 
red, man soil die teyl verhb'ren bed," — "One man's 
talk is a half talk; one should hear both sides." 



i8S 4 .] 



The New England Town-House. 



289 



council, for the performance of all acts 
of legislation for the common good, 
is the outgrowth of and exists only by 
virtue of the towns. The towns created 
it, compose it, send up to it its heart- 
and-life blood. This it is which makes 
the New England town unique, attract- 
ing the attention and interest of intelli- 
gent foreigners who visit our shores. 
Judge Parker says : " I very well 
recollect the curiosity expressed by 
some of the gentlemen in the suite of 
Lafayette, on his visit to this country 
in 1825, respecting these town organi- 
zations and their powers and opera- 
tions." In the same connection he 
adds that "a careful examination of 
the history of the New England towns 
will show that," instead of being mod- 
eled after the town of our Anglo-Saxon 
ancestors, or the free cities of the conti- 
nent of the twelfth century, " they were 
not founded or modeled on precedent " 
at all. Mr. E. A. Freeman, however, 
puts it more truthfully in saying : " The 
circumstances of New England called 
the primitive assembly (that is, the 
Homeric agora, Athenian ekklesia, 
Roman comitia, Swiss landesgemeinde, 
English folk-moot) again into being, 
when in the older England it was well- 
nigh forgotten. What in Switzerland 
was a survival was in New England 
rather a revival. 1 * * 

Our New England town-house, there- 
fore, is a symbol of institutions, partly 
■original with our fathers, partly a price- 
less inheritance from Old England the 
land of our fathers, and nearly in the 
whole, if not quite, a regermination 
and new growth of old race instincts 
and practices on a new soil. 

The New England town is not an 
institution of all the States, but its 

* Introduction to American Institutional History. 
Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and 
Political Science. 



principle has invaded the majority. To 
the West and Northwest it has been 
carried by the New Englander himself, 
and is being carried by him both 
directly and indirectly into the South 
and Southwest, and will show there 
in no great length of time its prevailing 
and vitalizing power. 

It was Jefferson, himself a Virginian, 
reared in the midst of another system, 
aristocratical and central in its character, 
who said : " These wards, called town- 
ships in New England, are the vital 
principle of their governments, and 
have proved themselves the wisest 
invention ever devised by the wit of 
man for the perfect exercise of self- 
government and for its preservation." 

The New England town-house, there- 
fore, is significant of more than its 
predecessor in England or Germany. 
While with them it means freedom in 
the management of local affairs, beyond 
them it means a relation to the State 
and the National government which 
they did not. It means not merely 
a broad basis for the general govern- 
ment in the people, that the people are 
the reason and remote source of govern- 
ing power, but that they are themselves 
the governors. Every man who enters 
a New England town-house and casts 
his vote knows that that expression 
of his will is a force which reaches, 
or may reach, the Legislature of his 
State, the governor in his chair, the 
National Congress, and the President 
in the White House at Washington. 
He feels an interest therefore, and a 
responsibility which the voter in no 
other land in the world feels, and the 
town-house is an education to him in 
the art of self-government which no 
other country affords, and because of 
it the town is an institution teaching 
how to maintain government, local, 



290 



Bunker Hill 



state, and general, and so bases that 
government in self-interest and bene- 
ficial experience, that it is a pledge of 
security and perpetuity as regards 
socialism, communism, and as it would 
seem every other revolutionary influence 
from within. It is in strong contrast 
with the commune of France. France 
is divided for the purposes of local 
government into departments ; depart- 
ments into arrondissements ; and 
arrondissements into communes, the 
commune being the administrative 
unit. The department is governed 
by a prefet and a conseil- general, the 
prefet being appointed by the central 
government and directly under its con- 
trol, and the conseil-gene'ral an elective 
body. The arrondissement is presided 
over by a sous-prelet and an elective 



council. The commune is governed 
by a maire and a conseil-municipal. 
The conseil-municipal is an elec- 
tive body, but its duties " con- 
sist in assisting and to some extent 
controlling the maire, and in the 
management of the communal affairs," 
but the maire is appointed by the cen- 
tral government and is liable to suspen- 
sion by the preTet. 

The relation of the citizen to the 
general government in France is there- 
fore totally different from that of the 
citizen of the United States to his gen- 
eral government, and the town organi- 
zation is a school of free citizenship 
which the commune is not, and so 
far republican institutions in America 
have a guaranty which in France they 
have not. 



BUNKER HILL. 

Bv Henry B. Carrington, U.S.A., LL.D. 

, Author of The Battles of the American Revolution. 

[(a) The occupation of Charlestown Heights on the night of June 16, 1775, was of strategic value, however 
transient, equalizing the relations of the parties opposed, and projecting its force and fire into the entire struggle 
for American Independence. (Pages 290-302.) 

(b) The Siege of Boston, which followed, gave to the freshly organized Continental army that discipline, that 
instruction in military engineering, and that contact with a well-trained enemy which prepared it for immediate 
operations at New York and in New Jersey. (Pages 37-44.) 

(c) The occupation and defence of New York and Brooklyn, so promptly made, was also an immediate strategic 
necessity, fully warranted by the existing conditions, although alike temporary. (Pages 154-161.)] 



An exhaustless theme may be so out- 
lined that fairly stated data will suggest 
the possibilities beyond. 

Waterloo is incidentally related to the 
crowning laurels of Wellington ; but, 
primarily, to the downfall of Napoleon, 
while rarely to the assured growth of 
genuine popular liberty. 

No battle during the American Re- 
bellion of 1861-65 was so really deci- 
sive as was the first battle of Bull's Run. 
As that Federal failure enforced the 
issue which freed four millions of 



people from slavery, and had its 
sequence and culmination, through 
great struggle, in a perpetuated Union, 
so did the battle of Bunker Hill open 
wide the breach between Great Britain 
and the Colonies, and render American 
Independence inevitable. 

The repulse of Howe at Breed's Hill 
practically ejected him from Boston, 
enforced his halt before Brooklyn, 
delayed him at White Plains, explained 
his hesitation at Bound Brook, near 
Somerset Ccurt-House, in 1777, as well 



292 

as his sluggishness after the battle of 
Brandywine, and equally induced his 
inaction at Philadelphia, in 177S. 

Just as a similar resistance by Totle- 
ben at Sevastapol during the Crimean 
War prolonged that struggle for twelve 
months, so did the hastily constructed 
earthworks on Breed's Hill forewarn 
the assailants that every ridge might 
serve as a fortress, and every sand-hill 
become a cover, for a persistent and 
earnest foe. 

Historical research and military 
criticism suggest few cases where so 
much has been realized by the efforts 
of a few men, in a few hours, during 
the shelter of one night, and by the 
light of one day. 

The simple narrative has been the 
subject of much discussion. Its details 
have been shaped and colored, with 
supreme regard for the special claims 
of preferred candidates for distinc- 
tion, until a plain consideration 
of the issue then made, from a 
purely military point of view, as intro- 
ductory to a detail of the battle itself, 
cannot be barren of interest to the 
readers of a Magazine which treats 
largely of the local history of Massa- 
chusetts. 

The city of Boston was girdled by 
rapidly increasing earthworks. These 
were wholly defensive, to resist assault 
from the British garrison, and not, at 
first, as cover for a regular siege ap- 
proach against the Island Post. They 
soon became a direct agency to force 
the garrison to look to the sea alone 
for supplies or retreat. 

Open war against Great Britain be- 
gan with this environment of Boston. 
The partially organized militia respon- 
ded promptly to call. 

The vivifying force of the struggle 
through Concord, Lexington, and West 



[Mav. 

Cambridge (Arlington now), had so 
quickened the rapidly augmenting body 
of patriots, that they demanded offen- 
sive action and grew impatient for re- 
sults. Having dropped fear of British 
troops, as such, they held a strong pur- 
pose to achieve that complete deliver- 
ance which their earnest resistance 
foreshadowed. 

Lexington and Concord were, there- 
fore, the exponents of that daring which 
made the occupation and resistance of 
Breed's Hill possible. The fancied in- 
vincibility of British discipline went 
down before the rifles of farmers ; but 
the quickening sentiment, which gave 
nerve to the arm, steadiness to the 
heart, and force to the blow, was one 
of those historic expressions of human 
will and faith, which, under deep sense 
of wrong incurred and rights imperilled, 
overmasters discipline, and has the 
method of an inspired madness. The 
moral force of the energizing passion 
became overwhelming and supreme. 
No troops in the world, under similar 
conditions, could have resisted the 
movement. 

The opposing forces did not alike 
estimate the issue, or the relations of 
the parties in interest. The troops 
sent forth to collect or destroy arms, 
rightfully in the hands of their country- 
men, and not to engage an enemy, were 
under an involuntary restraint, which 
stripped them of real fitness to meet 
armed men, who were already on fire 
with the conviction that the represen- 
tatives of national force were em- 
ployed to destroy national life. 

The ostensible theory of the Crown 
was to reconcile the Colonies. The 
actual policy, and its physical demon- 
strations, repelled, and did not concil- 
iate. Military acts, easily done by the 
force in hand, were needlessly done. 



Bunker Hill. 



iSS4.] 



Banker Hill. 



293 



Military acts which would be wise 
upon the basis of anticipated resistance 
were not done. 

Threats and blows toward those not 
deemed capable of resistance were 
freely expended. Operations of war, 
as against an organized and skilful 
enemy, were ignored. But the legacies 
of English law and the inheritance of 
English liberty had vested in the Col- 
onies. Their eradication and their 
withdrawal were alike impossible. The 
time had passed for compromise or 
limitation of their enjoyment. The 
filial relation toward England was lost 
when it became that of a slave toward 
master, to be asserted by force. This 
the Americans understood when they 
environed Boston. This the British did 
not understand, until after the battle of 
Bunker Hill. The British worked as 
against a mob of rebels. The Amer- 
icans made common cause, " liberty or 
death," against usurpation and tyranny. 

THE OUTLOOK. 

Reference to map, " Boston and 
vicinity," already used in the January 
number of this Magazine to illustrate 
the siege of Boston, will give a clear 
impression of the local surroundings, at 
the time of the American occupation of 
Charlestown Heights. The value of 
that position was to be tested. The 
Americans had. previously burned the 
lighthouses of the harbor. The islands 
of the bay were already miniature fields 
of conflict ; and every effort of the 
garrison to use boats, and thereby 
secure the needed supplies of beef, 
flour, or fuel, only developed a counter 
system of boat operations, which 
neutralized the former and gradually 
limited the garrison to the range of its 
guns. This close grasp of the land 
approaches to Boston, so persistently 



maintained, stimulated the Americans 
to catch a tighter hold, and force the 
garrison to escape by sea. The cap- 
ture of that garrison would have placed 
unwieldy prisoners in their hands and 
have made outside operations impos- 
sible, as well as any practical disposition 
of the prisoners themselves, in treat- 
ment with Great Britain. Expulsion 
was the purpose of the rallying people. 
' General Gage fortified Boston Neck, 
as early as 1774, and the First Conti- 
nental Congress had promptly assured 
Massachusetts of its sympathy with her 
solemn protest against that act. It 
was also the intention of General Gage 
to fortify Dorchester Heights. Early 
in April, a British council of war, irt 
which Clinton, Burgoyne, and Percy 
took part, unanimously advised the 
immediate occupation of Dorchester, 
as both indispensable to the protection 
of the shipping, and as assurance of 
access to the country for indispensable 
supplies. 

General Howe already appreciated 
the mistake of General Gage, in his 
expedition to Concord, but still cher- 
ished such hope of an accommodation 
of the issue with the Colonies that he 
postponed action until a peaceable 
occupation of Dorchester Heights be- 
came impossible, and the growing, 
earthworks of the besiegers already 
commanded Boston Neck. 

General Gage had also advised, and 
wisely, the occupation of Charlestowa 
Heights, as both necessary and feasible, 
without risk to Boston itself. He went 
so far as to announce that, in case of 
overt acts of hostility to such occupa- 
tion, by the citizens of Charlestown, he 
would bum the town. 

It was clearly sound military policy 
for the British to occupy both Dorches- 
ter and Charlestown Heights, at the- 



294 Bunkt 

first attempt of the Americans to invest 
the city. 

As early as the middle of May, the 
Massachusetts Committee of Safety, as 
well as the council, had resolved " to 
occupy Bunker Hill as soon as artillery 
and powder could be adequately fur- 
nished for the purpose," and a com- 
mittee was appointed to examine and 
report respecting the merits of Dor- 
chester Heights, as a strategic restraint 
upon the garrison of Boston. 

On the fifteenth of June, upon reli- 
able information that the British had 
definitely resolved to seize both Heights, 
and had designated the eighteenth of 
June for the occupation of Charles- 
town, the same Committee of Safety 
voted " to take immediate possession of 
Bunker Bill." 

Mr. Bancroft states that "the decision 
was so sudden that no fit preparation 
could be made." Under the existing 
conditions, it was indeed a desperate 
daring, expressive of grand faith and 
self-devotion, worthy of the cause in 
peril, and only limited in its immediate 
and assured triumph by the simple 
lack of powder. 

Prescott, who was eager to lead the 
enterprise and was entrusted with its 
execution, and Putman, who gave it his 
most ardent support, were most urgent 
that the council should act promptly ; 
while Warren, who long hesitated to 
concur, did at last concur, and gave 
his life as the test of his devotion. 
General Ward realized fully that the 
hesitation of the British to emerge from 
Boston and attack the Americans 
was an index of the security of the 
American defences, and, therefore, 
deprecated the contingency of a general 
engagement, until ample supplies of 
powder could be secured. 

The British garrison, which had been 



' Hill, [Mar, 

reinforced to a nominal strength of ten 
thousand men, had become reduced, 
through inadequate supplies, especially 
of fresh meat, to eight thousand 
effectives, but these men were well 
officered and well disciplined. 

THE POSITION. 

Bunker Hill had an easy slope to the 
isthmus, but was quite steep on either 
side, having, in fact, control of the 
isthmus, as well as commanding a full 
view of Boston and the surrounding 
country'. Morton's Hill, at Moulton's 
Point, where the British landed, was 
but thirty-five feet above sea level, while 
Breed's Pasture (as then known) and 
Bunker Hill were, respectively, seventy- 
five and one hundred and ten feet high. 
The Charles and Mystic Rivers, which 
flanked Charlestown, were navigable, 
and were under the control of the 
British ships-of-war. 

AMERICAN POLICY. 

To so occupy Charlestown, in ad- 
vance, as to prevent a successful Brit- 
ish landing, required the use of the 
nearest available position that would 
make the light artillery of the Amer- 
icans effective. To occupy Bunker 
Hill, alone, would leave to the British 
the cover of Breed's Hill, under which 
to gain effective fire and a good base for 
approach, as well as Charlestown for 
quarters, without prejudice to them- 
selves. 

When, therefore, Breed's Hill was 
fortified as an advanced position, it was 
done with the assurance that reinforce- 
ments would soon occupy the retired 
summit, and the course adopted was 
the best to prevent an effective British 
lodgment. The previous reluctance 
of the garrison to make any effective 
demonstration against the thin lines of 
environment strengthened the belief 



iS3 4 .] 



Bunker Hill. 



295 



of the Americans that a well-selected 
hold upon Charleston Heights would 
securely tighten the grasp upon the city 
itself. 

BRITISH POLICY. 

As a fact, the British contempt for 
the Americans might have urged them 
as rashly against Bunker Hill as it did 
against the redoubt which they gained, 
at last, only through failure of the am- 
munition of its defenders ; but, in view 
of the few hours at disposal of the 
Americans to prepare against a landing 
so soon to be attempted, it is certain 
that the defences were well placed, both 
to cover the town and force an im- 
mediate issue before the British could 
increase their own force. 

It is equally certain that the British 
utterly failed to appreciate the fact that, 
with the control of the Mystic and 
Charles Rivers, they could, within 
twenty-four hours, so isolate Charles- 
town as to secure the same results as 
by storming the American position, and 
without appreciable loss. This was the 
advice of General Clinton, but he was 
overruled. They did, ultimately, there- 
by check reinforcements, but suffered 
so severely in the battle itself that fully 
two thirds of the Americans retired 
safely to the main land. 

The delay of the British to advance 
as soon as the landing was effected was 
bad tactics. One half of the force 
could have followed the Mystic and 
turned the American left wing, long 
before Colonel Stark's command came 
upon the field. The British dined 
as leisurely as if they had only to move 
any time and seize the threatening 
position, and thereby lost their chief 
opportunity. 

One single sign of the recognition of 
any possible risk to themselves was the 
opening of fire from Boston Neck and 



such other positions as faced the Amer- 
ican lines, as if to warn them not to 
attempt the city, or endanger their 
own lives by sending reinforcements to 
Charlestown. 

THE MOVEMENT. 

It is not the purpose of this article 
to elaborate the details of preparation, 
which have been so fully discussed by 
many writers, but to illustrate the value 
of the action in the light of the relations 
and conduct of the opposing forces. 

Colonel William Prescott, of Pep- 
perell, Massachusetts, Colonel James 
Frye, of Andover, and Colonel 
Ebenezer Bridge, of Billerica, whose 
regiments formed most of the original 
detail, were members of the council 
of war which had been organized 
on the twentieth of April, when 
General Ward assumed command of 
the army. Colonel Thomas Knowlton, 
of Putnam's regiment, was to lead a 
detachment from the Connecticut 
troops. Colonel Richard Gridley, 
chief engineer, with a company of 
artillery, was also assigned to the 
moving columns. 

To ensure a force of one thousand 
men, the field order covered nearly 
fourteen hundred, and Mr. Frothing- 
ham shows clearly that the actual force 
as organized, with artificers and drivers 
of carts, was not less than twelve hun- 
dred men. 

Cambridge Common was the place 
of rendezvous, where, at early twilight 
of June 16, the Reverend Samuel Lang- 
don, president of Harvard College, 
invoked the blessing of Almighty God 
upon the solemn undertaking. 

This silent body of earnest men 
crossed Charlestown Neck, and halted 
for a clear definition of the impend- 
ing duty. Major Brooks, of Colonel 



2q6 



Bunker Hill. 



Dodge's regiment, joined here, as well 
as a company of artillery. Captain 
Nutting, with a detachment of Con- 
necticut men, was promptly sent, by 
the quickest route, to patrol Charles- 
town, at the summit of Bunker Hill. 
Captain Maxwell's company, of Pres- 
cott's regiment, was next detailed to 
patrol the shore in silence and keenly 
note any activity on board the British 
men-of-war. 

The six vessels lying in the stream 
were the Somerset, sixty-eight, Captain 
Edward Le Cross ; Cerberus, thirty- 
six, Captain Chads ; Glasgow, thirty- 
four, Captain William Maltby ; Lively, 
twenty, Captain Thomas Bishop ; Fal- 
con, twenty, Captain Linzee, and the 
Symmetry, transport, with eighteen 
guns. 

While one thousand men worked 
upon the redoubt which had been 
located under counsel of Gridley, Pres- 
cott, Knowlton, and other officers, the 
dull thud of the pickaxe and the grat- 
ing of shovels were the only sounds 
that disturbed the pervading silence, 
except as the sentries' " All 's well ! " 
from Copp's Hill and from the war- 
ships, relieved anxiety and stimulated 
work. Prescott and Putnam alike, 
and more than once, visited the beach, 
to be assured that the seeming security 
was real ; and at daybreak the redoubt, 
nearly eight rods square and six feet 
high, was nearly complete. 

Scarcely had objects become distinct, 
when the battery on Copp's Hill and 
the guns of the Lively opened fire, and 
startled the garrison of Boston from 
sleep, to a certainty that the Colonists 
had taken the offensive. 

General Putnam reached headquar- 
ters at a very early hour, and secured 
the detail of a portion of Colonel 
Stark's regiment, to reinforce the first 



detail which had already occupied the 
Hill. 

At nine o'clock, a council of war was 
held at Breed's Hill. Major John 
Brooks was sent to ask for more men 
and more rations. Richard Devens, of 
the Committee of Safety, then in ses- 
sion, was influential in persuading Gen- 
eral Ward to furnish prompt reinforce- 
ments. By eleven o'clock, the whole 
of Stark's and Reed's New Hampshire 
regiments were on their march, and in 
time to meet the first shock of battle. 
Portions of other regiments hastened 
to the aid of those already waiting for 
the fight to begin. 

The details of men were not exactly 
defined, in all cases, when the urgent 
call for reinforcements reached head- 
quarters. Little's regiment of Essex 
men ; Brewer's, of Worcester and Mid- 
dlesex, with their Lieutenant-Colonel 
Buckminster; Nixon's, led by Nixon 
himself ; Moore's, from Wo